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pISSN : 1598-3021 / eISSN : 2671-7921

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2020, Vol.77, No.1

  • 1.

    Homeric Gods as Divine Audience

    Tae-Soo Lee | 2020, 77(1) | pp.15~39 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I shall try to show in what the most numinous feature of Olympian gods in Homeric epics consists, by illuminating the meta-poetic function of Mousa, the goddess of music. Being omniscient like her father Zeus, she can tell stories about deeds of the gods when the opportunity serves. It is particularly noteworthy that one of Mousa’s favorite themes is the heartless indifference of the gods to human sufferings. In some scenes in Iliad, Zeus gives even the impression that he is happy watching how heroes are butchering each other ruthlessly. Drawing our attention to such an attitude of the gods, Homer seems to give us a vital clue as to our understanding of the difference between humans and gods. It is only by sharp contrast with the gods that we humankind become aware of what we are.
  • 2.

    Ares-Like Menelaus: A Study of the Internal Formulae in the Iliad

    Joon Seok Lee | 2020, 77(1) | pp.41~56 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the Iliad, Menelaus is notably frequently connected with the epithets derived from Ares. Indeed, they ornament his name twenty-nine times whereas no one else is the subject of such an epithet more than twice in the Iliad. The Parryists have tried to explain this unexpected combination based on the traditional ‘stock epithets’ which go with a name in the formulaic phrases which are the building blocks of oral poetry. But it is not the only possible explanation. In that there is a discrepancy between his will to fight and the outcome of battle, Menelaus bears an uncanny resemblance to Ares in the Iliad. Both Ares and Menelaus are determined to take their family matters into their own hands, but are harshly rebuked for their recklessness by their own siblings. At last they have no choice but to put up with humiliation. Menelaus is Ares-like in that he shares frustration and humiliation with Ares in the Iliad. Thus, ἀρήΐος/ἀρηΐφιλος is eptheton significans, not ornans.
  • 3.

    Kallimachos and Hêsiodos

    Irmgard Yu-Gundert | 2020, 77(1) | pp.57~77 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Kallimachos is separated from Hesiod by four centuries and by totally different conditions of living and working. Yet Kallimachos loved the old Boeotian poet and was influenced by the latter’s two main epics in producing his own poems. Kallimachos calls Hesiod’s second epic the most “honey-like” of Greek epics. What kind of bond existed between the scholarly Hellenistic poet and the old Boeotian poet? Both poets speak with some kind of contempt about their common compatriots. They see themselves on a higher cultural level. But their reasons for their contempt differ greatly. In the case of Hesiod the reason is the disinterest of the common people in moral and social values, in the case of Kallimachos it is the common people’s lack of understanding with regard to aesthetic values. In my paper I try to show that both sets of values are inextricably linked to each other in the work of a good poet. And that accordingly both types of values are well represented in the poems of Hesiod as well as those of Kallimachos, even if on the surface only one set stands out. Furthermore special attention should be paid to the fact that the structure of Hesiod’s second epic seems to be in accordance with the aesthetic principles of Kallimachos — it is “honey-like” — although this accordance is the outcome of totally different preconditions on the side of both poets.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Relation between the Luke-Acts and the Classics

    Heon Kim | 2020, 77(1) | pp.79~106 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses on the readers of St. Luke who wrote the Gospel according to St. Luke and the Acts of Apostles. St. Luke had not only the Jews but also the Gentiles as his readers. Especially the Gentiles were romans and the populations of Roman provinces and colonies, so they were accustomed to the Greek and Roman classics. When they read St. Luke’s two writings, naturally they understood the story of Jesus and St. Paul recalling classical heros or gods on the base of the classical texts to which they were accustomed. In this respect, it is very probable that St. Luke intentionally used the classical narratives and expressions in order to deliver the story of Jesus and St. Paul to the Gentile readers. In this respect, this paper compares St. Luke’s writings with Homer’s Odyssey, Homeric Hymn 5 and Virgil’s Aeneid.
  • 5.

    A Latin Course via Ovid: Fabula docet

    jin sik kim | 2020, 77(1) | pp.107~123 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper begins by presenting the importance and weight of Latin grammar in the classical studies, in conjunction with a brief sketch of the history of Latin grammar, which began in the 1st century BC under the influence of Greek grammar. The key point here consists of the concepts and terms that have been adopted in our newly published Latin grammar textbook Fabula docet. This paper then examines the Latin textbooks published in South Korea since liberation from Japanese occupation, and the trend of Latin textbooks that have recently become popular in Europe and America. Finally, we introduce and explain the structure and content of our newly published Latin grammar textbook Fabula docet, dealing with issues such teaching methods and extent of basic Latin grammar for students, and selection of Ovid’s stories concerning Greek and Roman myth.
  • 6.

    Construction Wood Selection of Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers/Incipient Agriculturalists: An Examination of Carbonised Wood from Chulmun-Period Sites in Korea

    Brian Li | Kim Minkoo | 2020, 77(1) | pp.127~165 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Although archaeological charcoal fragments retain information on local woodland composition, human decision-which would have filtered and determined the wood taxa brought to the sites-is a primary factor that caused variations in charcoal assemblages. We present anthracological examinations on construction wood of the Chulmun period (8000~1500 BC) in Korea, and examine taxa composition in the retrieved charcoal assemblages. The analyses from five settlements suggest that wood acquisition patterns may vary along a continuum of opportunist-selectivist utilisation and that some archaeological charcoal assemblages are more reflective of human decision than of the locally available wood taxa. Different wood utilisation strategies were undertaken by different prehistoric hunter-gatherer/incipient agriculturalist groups inhabiting the same region with very similar vegetation. The dominance of Quercus and Fraxinus charcoal in different archaeological sites reflects people’s differential preferences of oak wood and ash wood as building materials at different locations.
  • 7.

    Recognition of the Ming Dynasty and Ming People in Lee Sun-shin’s Narrative

    KyungJae Lee | 2020, 77(1) | pp.167~202 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines the perception of the Ming Dynasty and Ming people as shown in Shin Chae-ho’s Lee Sun-shin and Lee Kwang-soo’s Lee Sun-shin about Lee Sun-shin. The work also aims to look at the mechanism of exclusion and solidarity through the national heroism narrative that emerged during the period of nation building. Although the two works are set against the backdrop of the Japanese Invasion of Korea, China and Japan, previous discussions did not pay much attention to the perception of the Ming Dynasty shown in these works. The mechanism of exclusion and solidarity that occurs during the course of the formation of a nation-state is not only between Joseon and Japan, but also strongly manifested between Joseon and China. If Shin Chae-ho wanted to form a community based mainly on hostility toward Japan, it could be said that Lee Kwang-soo wanted to form a community based on his disdain for China rather than Japan. Lee Kwang-soo’s Lee Sun-shin follows Lee In-jik’s novel in terms of his portrait of China and Japan. The novel is a work set during the Sino-Japanese War, also called the First Korean War. Lee In-jik’s excessive (Japan-oriented) modern orientation has transformed Japan into a civilized country and inferiorized China into a barbaric country by using the universal law. After about a generation, Lee Kwang-soo also displayed his distorted political consciousness by staging another international war between Korea, China and Japan called Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592. The difference also stems from the authors’ basic world view, but it appears to be closely related to the situation of the time when two newspaper serials were created. Shin Chae-ho’s Lee Sun-shin was written in protest against the current of the era when imperialistic forces began to invade Joseon, as it appeared in his works. On the other hand, Lee Gwang-su’s Lee Sun-shin was written during the Wanpaoshan Incident, during which antipathy against the Chinese was at the height of his fever and during the Manchurian Incident and Shanghai Incident. The period when Lee Gwang-su’s Lee Sun-shin was written is an exhibition of Joseon, which was a Japanese colony, and this exhibition gave rise to an excessive degree of discrimination and contempt for people.
  • 8.

    Immigrant, Colonizer or Refugee: Colonial Korean Farmers in Manchuria and Their ‘Place in the World’

    Young Shil Yoon | 2020, 77(1) | pp.203~247 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines Korean refugees in Manchuria during the inter-war period and the implication of their existence in relation to the global history of the time. Hannah Arendt paid attention to the oppression and denationalization of racial minorities and stateless peoples in the inter-war European countries and analyzed the phenomenon as the collapse of the nation-state system. During the same period, millions of colonial Koreans in Manchuria were also becoming refugees, dispossessed of their rights of culture, cultivation and residence. Avoiding national narratives of Korea, China and Japan and taking the transnational and immanent perspective of migrants and ethnic minorities, this paper aims to highlight conflicts between the transnational subaltern who desperately sought for their ‘place in the world’ with cross-border migration and the sovereign states which mobilized, regulated or dispossessed the migrant population with biopolitical security mechanisms of its own. Even though Korean refugees’ pursuit for safety led them to temporarily cooperate with the national harmony policy of Manchuquo, their fundamental orientation as migrants was political autonomy, cultural self-representation and peaceful cohabitation with different ethnic nations. Examination of Korean migrants in Manchuria can pave a way for new imagination of diasporic nations (‘dissemi- nations’), which cannot be reduced to any state-nation nor the colonial nationalism of Korea.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Essays Written by Lee Yang-ha

    Kim Mee Young | 2020, 77(1) | pp.249~283 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to explain how to develop the self essays to the meditation essays by Lee Yang-ha. Lee Yang-ha specialized in English literature and so it is possible that his essays were influenced by Walter Pater, P. B. Shelley, W. S. Landor, I. A. Richards, Irving Babbitt, and Marcus Aurelius etc. His essays were marked by big gaps and heterogeneities, which is why they received contrary reviews from many critics. An entire outline of his essays has yet to be figured out. In his essays based on his autobiography, we could know that Lee Yang-ha's Inner mind were full of the lack of affection and the solitary in his adolescent years. On the other hand, he was successful as a scholar of English literature and had high intellectual power and sincerity. His masterpieces, “The admiration of tender green” and “Tree”, focus on his deep solitaries. These were composed under the influence of Walter Pater’s aesthetics, and so his prose differs from the prosaic style but in verse style. The theme of both works focused on ‘solitary’, meaning the ‘Negative Liberty’ of Isaiah Berlin. The subject’s appearance was expressed as ‘enjoying solitary’ but Lee Yang-ha has eagerly longed for freedom from intervention. In accordance with Isaiah Berlin’s Liberty, this ‘Negative Liberty’ can be approached as the absence of interference. Lee Yang-ha had experienced negative perceptions of humans and realities. Therefore, he may have written his meditation essays using the concept of solidity which meant ‘Negative Liberty’ as the morality.
  • 10.

    The Arrival of Mind-Game Narrative and New Tendency in Narrativizing Cultural Memory: Considering Contemporary Korean TV Dramas, Signal (tvN, 2016) and The Light in Your Eyes (JTBC, 2019)

    Kyoung-Lae kang | 2020, 77(1) | pp.285~320 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The recent Korean TV drama Signal stages two contemporary policemen who investigate several unresolved crime cases that actually took place in Korea during the 1990s. In contrast to the actual unresolved murders, Signal succeeds in resolving the crimes, particularly through the male protagonist’s accidental connection with another policeman who lives in the past temporality of the 1990s — a fictional (and even surrealistic) encounter between the present and the past that makes it possible to arrest the criminal and then revise cultural memories of corrupted pasts. This paper examines this new tendency in Korean cultural narrative, especially as embedded in two TV dramas. In particular, I borrow Thomas Elsaesser’s concept of a “mind-game film”, which denotes a narrative that revolves around psychologically unstable figures, such as those who suffer from schizophrenia, amnesia, or dementia, thereby providing a temporally reversed and convoluted narrative. In so doing, I address how this new mode of narrative extends cultural memory discourse and revises contemporary spectators’ perceptions of temporality in Korea.
  • 11.

    The Function of Manchu Nominalizer –ngge Attached to Non-Argument Component

    Do Jeong Up | 2020, 77(1) | pp.321~355 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the function of the Manchu nominalizer -ngge attached to non-argument components. In general, components with -ngge are either arguments or predicates in a sentence. However, there are examples in which the components with -ngge are non-arguments. This usage is productive enough to account for 19% of the use of -ngge of Manwenlaodang, which is the material of this study. Non-argument components with nominalizer -ngge appear in five types. These five types of usage all show what they are talking about and they are located in the initial position of the sentence. These characteristics are consistent with the characteristics of the topic. Thus, the non-argument component with -ngge is likely to function as a topic in the sentence, and -ngge can be considered to function as a distinguishing marker.
  • 12.

    Primo Levi and Hannah Arendt: On the Grey Zone and the Banality of Evil

    Yoo, Hui-sok | 2020, 77(1) | pp.357~396 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to elucidate the present meanings of the critical legacy for which Primo Levi and Hannah Arendt had ceaselessly fought; the gray zone and the banality of evil, the two compelling concepts serve as a kind of guiding posts in locating a common ground of the two thinkers. The rigorous review of these provoking ideas reminds us of the realities of the precarious democracy we daily face while directing our attention to various kinds of bad faith that results from the ruthlessly conforming totalitarian ideology. However, the concepts themselves do not represent the total trajectory of Levi and Arendt as demystifing thinkers; the synthesizing grasp of them could be a foothold towards the in — depth scrutiny of Levi and Arendt, to say nothing of deeper understanding of the Auschwitz. The project of summoning Levi and Arendt as a pair is intended to be a preliminary study. In short, reading their texts can be one of the best scholarly ways of keeping an eye on our democratic crisis amidst the languishment of the critical spirit markedly observed even in universities.
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