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2021, Vol.78, No.2

  • 1.

    Female Patronage of Jain Temples under Colonial Rule in Gujarat

    Hawon Ku | 2021, 78(2) | pp.15~48 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines two Jain women and their patronage of temples during the 19th century, and how such patronage embodied a “non-confrontational resistance and contestatory behavior”. Ujambai, a wealthy Jain woman from Ahmedabad, built the Nandīśvaradvīpa Temple at Śatruñjaya (1840), one of the most sacred pilgrimage sites for Śvetāmbara Mūrtipujak Jains, and Harkunvarbai built the Hathi Singh Temple in Ahmedabad (1848), after the death of her husband. I suggest that in comparison to Ujambai’s temple, which aimed to differentiate her faith from the worldly approach of the Jain merchants while simultaneously challenging the symbolic limits set by traditional patriarchy, Harkunvarbai’s temple appropriated the temple architecture of male patrons to proclaim her status as householder. In addition, I argue that Harkunvarbai’s shift from religious patronage to civic duties also displayed the facility with which she replicated the patterns of contemporary male patronage.
  • 2.

    A Study on Kamaladevi: Challenging Gender Consciousness and Her Ambivalent Relationship with Gandhi

    park kyumpyo | 2021, 78(2) | pp.49~82 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines Kamaladevi’s life and connotations, focusing on her challenges towards gender consciousness, her involvement in women’s movements, and her ambivalent relationship with Gandhi, in spite of his influence. While Kamaladevi was a child widow, she was able to remarry, although her second marriage also ended in divorce. As soon as it was made legal, she ran for office in local council elections. Her personal life embodies her challenges towards traditional patriarchy, based on human agency and gender equality consciousness. She was also a founding member of AIWC and served as secretary-general, vice chairman and chairman, during which period she emphasized economic independence of women as well as the importance of labour. On the other hand, Kamaladevi’s relationship with Gandhi has been ambivalent throughout history, despite her being deeply sympathetic to his ideas and activities since the 1920s. While she was a staunch supporter of his movements, including his opposition towards the INC’s transition to a political party following Independence, she was also critical of his views such as his standpoint towards Partition. After independence, Kamaladevi departed the political arena and devoted the rest of her life to the economic independence of craftsmen and revival of traditional Indian culture. In conclusion, Kamaladevi’s contribution to women movements and politics reflect her spirit of challenge in pursuing human rights beyond women and men’s distinctions.
  • 3.

    Discourse on Women’s Reform in Colonial India: An Autobiography of a Devadasi

    Lee Dongwon | 2021, 78(2) | pp.83~121 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the discourse on women’s reform in colonial India, focusing on a devadasi’s autobiographical writing. As ‘a female servant of god’, a devadasi was dedicated to a temple through symbolic marriage with the gods. Devadasi served her god through dancing and singing at rituals and festivals; however, as the additional duty of sexual service to priests and donors were added, they became powerful symbols of the corrupt Hindu society during the colonial period. Tācikaḷ Mōcavaḷai (1936, “Web of Deceit”) is an autobiographical novel of Muvalur Ramamirtham (1883- 1962), a social reformer and a former devadasi, which promotes the abolition of the devadasi system. With her firsthand experience, Ramamirtham accuses the devadasi as a social evil who deceives young men, as well as Otherized as a target of moral reform in contrast to the ‘reformed’ female characters. Based on the ideology of the Self-Respect Movement (1925), Ramamirtham argues that caste, patriarchy, and Brahminism are the reason for the corruption of the devadasi; this played an important role in the illegalization of the practice in 1947. In addition to being a milestone in the Devadasi Movement, Ramamirtham’s autobiographical novel expanded the field of women’s autobiographical writing in India, addressing the cause of devadasi’ degradation, and advocating self-respect marriage for women’s reform. As such, Tācikaḷ Mōcavaḷai can be said to have led to a rise of public awareness of devadasi as well as the illegalization of the practice in 1947; in addition to being a milestone in the Devadasi Movement, it also expanded the field of women’s autobiographical writing in India.
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    Brahmanical Patriarchy and Caste: Gender Perceptions of a Lower-Caste-Male Reformer in Colonial India

    Lee, Ji Eun | 2021, 78(2) | pp.123~157 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the Indian women’s problems in traditional Hindu society and the vision of the legal status of women in independent India perceived by a lower-caste-male reformer. The review of writings of Ambedkar, the Hindu Code Bill, and his speeches at legislatures inform us of his pioneering insight on the origin of women’s problems in India. He exposed that the caste system, combined with patriarchy, is responsible for the oppression of women as well as the lower castes. Women in traditional Hindu society have suffered subordination to men, lack of education, and religious incapacity based on Hindu shastras. Introduced by Ambedkar, Hindu Code Bill aimed to grant women the new position of an equal individual citizen. In view of the present feminist discourse of Brahmanical patriarchy (i.e., a structure of female oppression and subordination), it is critical to reinterpret and revaluate Ambedkar’s analysis on the Indian caste system and his criticism on Hinduism.
  • 5.

    The Organization and Administration of the Jiphyeonjeon (集賢殿)

    Koo Mhan-ock | 2021, 78(2) | pp.163~203 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    King Sejong regarded the reorganization of Confucian rites, music, and the managerial system as a task of upmost importance. To achieve this, experts who studied the theoretical basis of the related fields and acquired practical abilities to carry out governmental projects were required. To nurture the foundation of academic research and educate intellectuals, King Sejong utilized two institutions: Gyeongyeon (royal lecture) and Jiphyeonjeon (Hall of Worthies). These two, maintaining close relations with one another, played a crucial role in the study of Confucian rituals and systems during the Sejong era. Sejong added a new function to Jiphyeonjeon, which was the upbringing of pupils. Jiphyeonjeon selected young and capable civil officials and had them advise the King by discussing classics and histories. The King founded salary posts in Jiphyeonjeon in 1420 and had those in the posts hold the positions of Gyeongyeongwan (royal lecturer) as well. The total number of Jiphyeonjeon officials differed, from 10, 32, or 20 at times, but the responsibility of being responsible for Gyeongyeon and Seoyeon (lecture for the Crown Prince) and for authoring major state documents were maintained as their own by tradition. Personnel management in Jiphyeonjeon was characterized by the systems of long-term service and promotion by seniority. The officials of Jiphyeonjeon kept the same position for many years to focus on studying their specialties. Sejong stressed that the sole purpose of Jiphyeonjeon was to author major state documents. and therefore required the scholars to concentrate on life-long study. The officials were promoted according to the order of hire, and this system was considered to be the custom of Jiphyeonjeon. They followed the rule of seniority of official employment and age, so they could respect superior Confucian scholars. Through these processes, Jiphyeonjeon and Gyeongyeon became the preeminent scholarly research institutions. In Gyeongyeon, Sejong and the officials recited Confucius texts of Four Books and Five Classics, as well as history books such as Zizhitongjian and Xinglidaquan. They did not stop at mere reading, but reached a level of scholarly studying by adding annotations. Intellectual achievements in Gyeongyeon served as the foundations for the rearrangement of rituals and music, and the reorganization of various institutions. Conclusively, Jiphyeonjeon can be understood as the royal institution where selected officials from the highest civil service examination, nurtured by long-term engagements in Gyeongyeon, were raised as competent intellectuals, and provided administrative counsel for state management upon the requests of the royal court.
  • 6.

    The Southern Study of the Qing Period and Scholar-Official Painters at the Qianlong Court

    Chang, Chinsung | 2021, 78(2) | pp.205~235 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The emperor Kangxi (r. 1662-1722) created the Southern Study or Imperial Study (Nanshufang) so that he could have near him, on call at any time of the day or night, Chinese scholar-officials who could teach him calligraphy, help him draft edicts, or compile numerous books published by the court. The officials at the Southern Study also conversed with the emperor on the Confucian classics and histories. They were artistic and cultural advisers for the emperor, composing poems and writing prose for or with him and appreciating and evaluating antiques, paintings, and calligraphy together. They even worked as political advisers for the emperor. After the Grand Council (Junjichu) was established around 1729, the political role of the Southern Study came to be radically diminished. During the Qianlong period (1736-1795), the role of the Southern Study was limited to the areas of art and culture. Among the members of the Southern Study, the scholar-official painters at the Qianlong court played a significant role in the development of art and culture. They created numerous paintings for Qianlong, catalogued the bronzes, jades, mirrors, ceramics, paintings, and calligraphy in the Qing imperial collection, and appreciated and authenticated works of art with the emperor. They were at the center of the artistic and cultural efflorescence of the Qianlong era.
  • 7.

    The Advent of Studios and Intellectuals in the Renaissance

    AHN Jaewon | 2021, 78(2) | pp.237~270 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    As a case study for appreciating and evaluating the academic activities of Jiphyeonjeon (集賢殿) in the Joseon Dynasty, this paper traced the role and contributions of books, scholars, academic circles, and publishers in the transition periods from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance, and from the Renaissance to the Modern era. For books, the paper investigated the transmission history of Lucretius’ De rerum naturs. As for scholars, the paper introduced Argyropoulos, an emigrée scholar from Byzantium who taught ancient Greek philosophy and translated Aristotle’s works into Latin. These are supplemented by a report on Aldus Manutius and his publishing company, which published editiones principes for Western classical texts.
  • 8.

    On the Use of Satellite Imagery for Researching Historical Sites in North Korea: A Comparison of Google Earth and Arirang Satellite Imagery

    Kim, Hyunwoo | Yi, Seonbok | 2021, 78(2) | pp.273~313 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Despite the importance of North Korea’s cultural resources in researching the history and culture of the Korean peninsula, direct observation of North Korea’s cultural resources is impossible and the information that can be gathered is limited and often times unreliable. In addition, because so little is known about how cultural resources are managed in North Korea, conducting research on North Korea’s cultural resources from South Korea is extremely difficult. This research aims to both highlight and evaluate the potential of using satellite imagery as an avenue for researching North Korean cultural resources. As well as being easily acquired in South Korea, satellite imagery is a primary source of information unadulterated by North Korean perspectives, and therefore, may provide a highly valuable tool. However, in the area of cultural resources research, there is a lack of experience and knowledge regarding which satellite imagery should be used and what levels of analysis are possible. In this study, we select historical sites that are both observable through satellite imagery and most likely to provide meaningful information in order to attempt a comparison between Arirang satellites, South Korea’s well-known domestic satellite imagery provider, and Google Earth, which is both free to use and easily accessed online. Through observations of Joseon Dynasty royal tombs and Lelang Fortress and surrounding tombs, we found that the satellite imagery was useful in observing the condition and management of sites that are not found in historical sources produced in North Korea. Through a comparison of Google Earth and Arirang satellite images of major sites located in the Pyeongyang and Gaeseong areas, we found that even using Google Earth’s free services, we were able to obtain high-resolution satellite images at the 0.5 m level. In the case of Arirang satellite, it was hard to say that it provided clearer images than Google Earth. This result may be due to similar resolution of Google Earth and Arirang satellite images, and the difference in whether or not calibrated. Therefore, it is believed that commercial satellite imagery should be analyzed through professional analysis tools with calibration.
  • 9.

    Imperial Gaze and Colonial Romanticism: The Place called Ryokan ‘Cheonjinnu’ (天眞樓) in Takahama Kyoshi’s Joseon (朝鮮)

    Song Minho | 2021, 78(2) | pp.315~351 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    After the trip to Manchuria and Joseon in 1909, Natsume Soseki (夏目 漱石) had no choice but to take out the ‘Joseon’ part from his travelog for fear of making political conditions worse in the imperial climate of the times. Takahama Kyoshi, who was close to Soseki in the literary world of Japan, also traveled to Joseon twice in 1911, and wrote the novel Joseon. After Japan's defeat and Joseon’s liberation, however, this novel of Kyoshi was excluded from his literary history according to another's will, because it was considered to be too political and too close to the imperial situation. This study attempts to provide explanations on the political orientation that writers of the imperial era had no choice but to face, focusing on these ‘two deleted accounts of Joseon’. Soseki and Kyoshi’s travels to Joseon took place two years apart, and they were connected through the place, ‘Cheonjinnu’ (天眞樓) and the person, ‘Jung UnBok’ (鄭雲復). The Ryokan called ‘Cheonjinnu’ in the novel also displayed colonial romanticism through the conspiracy of the ‘Wando Scandal’, which had been fabricated by political vagabonds. The person at the center of this real ‘Wando Scandal’ was Ryohei Uchida, who had planned the political connections and sought political profits between Iljin Society (一進會) and the the Residency-General (統監府) prior to the Japanese Colonial Period; he was most likely the model for Gojo (剛三), a vagabond in the novel, Joseon. This paper confirms that the romantic approach to the activities of political vagabonds, from the brutal assassination of Queen Myeongseong (乙未事變) to the Wando Scandal (莞島事件), is the background for the novel Joseon of Takahama Kyoshi. Even if Kyoshi himself emphasized his literary position and the technique of literary sketch (寫 生), distancing himself from imperial politics, the atmosphere of imperial politics had ready been forced to be contained in his eyes to make a sketch. This may show the common limitations that all literature of the Imperial Era could not be free from.
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    Migration, Gender and Narrative: A Comparative Analysis of Ode to My Father and Endstation der Sehnsüchte

    Choi, Yun-Young | 2021, 78(2) | pp.399~433 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the relationship between migration and gender through the cases of Korean miners and nurses in Germany. These two genderd groups can be said to be appropriate examples to examine the so-called ‘sexual (female) face of globalization’. The relationship was first analyzed theoretically and empirically, and then the issue of representation in the film was dealt with in detail. The keywords of the analysis are migration, gender, ‘world family’, patriarchy, and autographic narrative and in particular, the problem of narrative and perspective. In conclusion, if Ode to My Father is a centripetal representation of migration centered on nationalism, patriarchal system, ‘normal family’, and return narrative, Endstation der Sehensüchte is a transnational world family, female migration, and re-migration, and shows a centrifugal landscape.
  • 12.

    ‘Self-Care’ and ‘Narrative Identity’ in the Writing Life History: Focusing on the Writing the Elderly’s Life History Program at the Gyeongsangbuk-do Nursing Home

    Kim Su Jeong | 2021, 78(2) | pp.435~458 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, the significance of writing a life history was investigated through the Writing the Elderly’s Life History program conducted at Gyeongsangbuk-do Nursing Home. For the study, interviews were conducted for about 20 hours; three graduate students majoring in humanities counseling were the interviewers while three elderly people were the interviewees. The writing was conducted through continuous consultation while organizing the interview contents. The writing of the life histories conducted in this study included both the life of the narrative subject and the narrator’s perspective of the narrative subject in the writing. The overall frame of the writing was set as memory-present-view; the life of the narrative subject was to be written in the memory section; the perspective of surrounding people including the narrator looking at the narrative subject was to be written in the view section; and the present status of the narrator and the narrative subject was to be covered in the present section. Various factors affecting the writing process from finding a connecting link between the narrator’s life and the narrative subject to completing the piece of writing were observed and recorded while the writing results and interview materials were analyzed. In this study, the significance of writing a life history was examined through factors of the subjects’ ‘narrative identity’ and ‘self-care’. First, the narrators could be observed overcoming their own problems through dealing with the story of the narrative subject. This resulted in the subjects’ finding their narrative identity and the narrative subject’s identity through the process of converting the narrative subject from ‘I’ to ‘the elderly subject’. In addition, it was possible to confirm a meaningful process in which the narrative subject, who had been losing language and memory, recovered their identity through the story of narrator. Next, through their relationship with the narrative subject, the narrator was able to tend to their own self-care and healing, focusing on her/himself. Through the narrative subject, the narrator could confirm the significant experience of getting to know themselves and the relationship they had established by encountering their own, previously avoided or ignored self-image. The discussion on writing a life history presented in this study can be expected to be used to prepare writing programs for the elderly and lifelong education programs for writing in the future.
  • 13.

    Reunification without Reconciliation?: Social Conflicts and Integration in Vietnam after 1975

    GROSSHEIM MARTIN | 2021, 78(2) | pp.459~488 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper discusses the failed policy of reconciliation carried out by the leadership in Hanoi after the collapse of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as “South Vietnam”) on April 30, 1975. It argues that in spite of all promises to the contrary after the end of the war the victorious North systematically dicriminated Southern Vietnamese who had worked for the former Saigonese government or the United States in Vietnam. Furthermore, I will analyse in which way the leadership in Hanoi tried to write the Republic of Vietnam out of history by destroying “sites of memory” (lieux de mémoire). In the following I discuss how this policy together with the building of socialism in the southern part of the country led to serious social conflicts and finally to a massive exodus of approximately one million Vietnamese. In the second part of the paper, I will show that since the beginning of the reform policy in Vietnam (đổi mới) in the 1980s the failed integration of many defeated South Vietnamese after the end of the war has increasingly been adressed in “memory debates” among Vietnamese abroad and at home. The fate of the former South Vietnamese war cemetery in Biên Hòa will serve as an example.
  • 14.

    Understanding the Dice Game in Ancient India: ‘Akṣa-dyūta’ in the Vedic Period and “The Gambler’s Song” (Akṣa-sūkta) in the Ṛgveda

    KANG, Sung Yong | 2021, 78(2) | pp.489~522 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    ‘Akṣa-dyūta’, often misleadingly translated as ‘the ancient Indian dice game’, has a significant meaning in the religious and social contexts of ancient India. The actual performance of the game requires clarification in respect to the oldest and prototypical form of this game. For this purpose, this paper sets three tasks as the parts of preparatory clarification. Firstly, the Korean translation of “Akṣa-sūkta” in Ṛgveda (10.34.1-14) will be provided, accompanied by some annotations. Secondly, the existing research results on this topic will be critically and briefly reviewed. Thirdly, the original meaning of the term ‘iriṇa’, denoting the place for the ‘akṣa-dyūta’, will be clarified. The significance and concrete meaning of the ‘akṣa-dyūta’ in various social and religious contexts in the Indian classics will be demonstratively mentioned in the end.
  • 15.

    Mode and Mood in Poussin’s Paintings: On the Significance of His Musical Analogy

    Chung Woojin | 2021, 78(2) | pp.523~558 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay begins with a letter by Nicholas Poussin. On November 24, 1647, Poussin wrote his reply from Rome to his patron and friend Paul Fréart de Chantelou in Paris. Poussin’s letter in question has been very often quoted for providing an understanding of the relationships between music and visual art, especially in early modernity. Its centrality, however, needs not to be overemphasized when his usage of ancient musical modes is construed not literally but in metaphorical terms as a musical analogy. Yet the letter in question is of much significance in that it foreshadows some of the fault lines among musical, painterly, and poetic expression. The present essay aims to unfold some illuminative explanations capable of demonstrating to what extent and why Poussin’s letter on mode has been considered important. To achieve its aim, the author undertakes a close reading of both the text and context of the letter in question, and meticulously examines not only Gioseffo Zarlino’s text as its inter-text but also his two self-portraits of 1649 and 1650 as a sort of hypertext in sense of the word in semiotics, that may be regarded as an example of practical application of his theory of mode.
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