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2021, Vol.78, No.3

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    “Form” as Norm?: A Postcolonial Reading of D. H. Lawrence’s “Introduction to These Paintings” and Some Other Late Writings

    Ryu, Doo-Sun | 2021, 78(3) | pp.15~45 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    D. H. Lawrence’s critique of formalism, presented by Clive Bell in Art (1914) or Roger Fry in Cézanne: A Study of His Development (1927), is so remarkable that Lawrence can be said to prefigure postcolonial studies by several decades. In this study, Lawrence’s “Introduction to These Paintings” (1929) is read as a parody of the then-dominant aesthetic theories that proffered “significant form” as a kind of Eurocentric norm. In order to contextualize this piece, I reference Sketches of Etruscan Places (1927) as well as Lady Chatterley’s Lover (1928). My discussion expands upon postcolonial studies such as Homi Bhabha’s notion of “cultural difference” and Gayatri Spivak’s concern with subalterns. However, rather than applying postcolonial theories to Lawrence, I would like to conduct a dialogue between them and Lawrence. Thus positioning Lawrence as a fulcrum between modernism and postcolonialism, I hope to redress Lawrence’s current reception— that, although he differs considerably from contemporaneous modernists, his postcolonial attitudes have not been fully discussed—by revealing that the then-dominant formalism is no less than an advocate of significant form as a Eurocentric norm. I also hope to “supplement” postcolonial studies by exploring the ways in which Lawrence discloses what is lacking in this otherwise-useful vantage point, that is, considerations of the alternatives he felt indispensable.
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    “It is not wholly as I imagined it would be”: Discussing on the Problem of Female Character’s Representation and Appropriation of Male Space in J. M. Coetzee’s Foe

    Oh Ye Ji | 2021, 78(3) | pp.47~83 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Agreeing with Gayatri Spivak’s critique on the novel, this paper argues that the female character in Foe, Susan Barton, tries to appropriate men’s spaces. As the author of her own writing and herself as a character, Susan seeks to rewrite her social identity and narratively reenacts the rooms of male characters. She repeatedly represents the room that belongs to Foe, a ghostwriter who writes her book, Female Castaway. Susan’s desire for male space is documented in Chapters 1 and 2 by borrowing the forms of British novels, such as travel narratives and epistolary novels, respectively. By making her private experiences into her authoritative works, Susan can appropriate Foe’s room as a writer and explore a new identity within England society. However, Susan’s appropriation has an aspect of complicity in the imperialist project in the act of adapting her personal experiences into literature. As Edward Said argues, in the narrative, including novel forms, the actual occupation of the territory, the issue of his ownership, and even future plans are determined. In this context, the novel recounts the reality that Susan’s writing and her efforts to take ownership of space need a male reader to approve her experience and a man to lend his name to have social meaning and impact. The novel finds the possibility of transcending the limitations of Susan as a writer/narrator who is complicit in imperialism through the anonymous narrator in Chapter 4. Through the final scene of two visits to Friday’s home, the novel finds a space to listen to the unspoken experiences that remain on the body by describing or gesturing towards the other through the language of silence and sense rather than the written/voice language.
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    John Gay’s Polly: Oscillating Multiple Identities of Gender, Race, and Empire

    Chung, Kyung Seo | 2021, 78(3) | pp.85~120 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to investigate John Gay’s experimental way of Homi K. Bhabha’s mimicry addressing multiple identities in Polly (1729). Whereas the highwayman Captain Macheath enjoys London’s low life in The Beggar’s Opera (1728), in its sequel Polly, now Macheath’s spouse, Polly Peachum emerges as the true heroine claiming her love and virtue in the West Indies. Gay represents identities enmeshed with piracy, slavery and colonization while considering the possibilities for remaking identities in a colonial setting. Conspicuously by ways of disguise —costume, mask, and role-reversal— almost every character in the play raises issues of gender, nation, and racial transgressions that is, in Gayatri Spivak’s notion, overdetermined within the New World. In Polly, Gay’s staged characters seem to deny their given identities upon gender, nation, race, and empire while strategically crossing and shifting the boundaries from one to another stereotypical images and roles; Polly, a virtuous white woman, wears trousers to turn into a courageous young pirate man; Macheath, a white indentured servant, paints in a black face to be the black leader of the pirate crew under the name of Morano; native Indians embrace the ideals of virtue, honor, and decorum to play the noble and civil colonized more resemblant to Europeans. Thus, from such masquerades, the play expresses that without entirely depending on gender, race, nationality to place the character, the identities can be mobile and instable always in the process of being made from difference and sameness; and the incongruity of identity resulting from the staged and the true nature inherent in the characters. However, by the offstage death of Macheath and the expected marriage of Polly and Indian Prince at the end of the play, Polly reveals that even though Gay uses mimicries to provide a new opportunity to rethink the construction of identities, he is not able to advance further a new fundamental transformation of identity.
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    Speaking of a Somali Subaltern Woman’s History in an Imperial Roman Piazza: Igiaba Scego’s Adua

    박인하 | 2021, 78(3) | pp.121~162 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes Adua by Igiaba Scego, a female Somali-Italian writer, from the perspective of Gayatri Spivak’s examination of subaltern women’s voice. This paper devotes particular attention to the eponymous protagonist Adua’s monologue. First, the paper examines Scego and Spivak’s concept of subaltern women’s voice. Next, the study argues that the Somali woman Adua can be considered as a subaltern woman according to Spivak’s terms and that Adua’s monologue describes how she has been silenced by both patriarchy and neocolonialism. In addition, this paper explores the setting of Adua’s monologue in a contemporary piazza in Rome. Placing Adua’s monologue in a piazza with a colonial legacy reveals the indifference of contemporary Italy to its history of colonialism. In doing so, this paper focuses on the subalternity of Adua, which has not been discussed in prior research. This paper further asserts that Adua, as a diasporic woman conscious of her past identity as a subaltern woman, creates a possibility for public discourse on the unheeded history.
  • 5.

    Who is the Real Pythagoras?: Raffaello Sanzio’s The School of Athens

    백정희 | 2021, 78(3) | pp.165~208 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In The School of Athens, Pythagoras has been generally acknowledged as the balding and chubby figure who is writing something in a book in the foreground. Giovanni Pietro Bellori (1613-1696) was the first to identify this figure as Pythagoras and analyzed the small tablet near the figure. The tablet contains symbols representing number ratio and musical harmony. This tablet is a symbol that may be associated with Pythagoras, and Bellori's argument has faced no objection so far. However as mentioned in the ancient literature, Pythagoras (c. 582-c. 497 BC) was called “the long-haired Samian”, a vegetarian, and a mystic. His personal characteristics became well-known through the revival of classical literature during the Renaissance. In the early 16th century, when Raffaello Sanzio (1483-1520) worked the frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura, the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana housed a collection of literature manuscripts, such as literature by Diogenes Laertius and Iamblichus. Julius II had humanists who could read the classics through various ties, and Raffaello, based on the advice of the humanists, was able to refer to these sources to estimate Pythagoras’ tendencies and physical characteristics. Based on this knowledge, the character and symbolism of the characters of The School of Athens were expressed. These findings suggest that the figure pointed out by Bellori as Pythagoras in The School of Athens is not Pythagoras but another ancient scholar. The real Pythagoras is near the tablet with an appearance close to the depiction in ancient literature. This study thus set out to analyze Pythagoras' tendencies and appearance based on ancient literature and publications of the Renaissance, and to figure out where the real Pythagoras was in The School of Athens. At this time, the newly identified Pythagoras adds importance in two respects. First, the ancient philosopher Pythagoras was presented as a prophet and ideal figure reflecting the spirit of the Renaissance. Second, Pythagoras, embodied in the exposition of ancient texts, proves that Renaissance art was not limited to the representation of antiquity through remains, but also shared the meaning of the Renaissance as a literary revival of the humanities.
  • 6.

    The Epistolary Madness: Guilleragues, the Lettres portugaises

    Younguk Kim | 2021, 78(3) | pp.209~243 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is, by analyzing Guilleragues’ Lettres portugaises under the theme of epistolary madness, to decide their structure and their place in the history of literature. First, the research history shows that the madness has been a main issue of the interpretation, and that its understanding is a matter of determining the mode of narration between monologue and dialogue. Leo Spitzer’s study is the starting point, because it observes the transition from dialogue to monologue and the meaning of this transition which is a restoration of reason. However, our analysis demonstrates that the Lettres are composed of a succession of madness, and that each madness expresses a specific epistolary logic. Therefore, the Lettres must be regarded as an important moment in the history of the genre of epistolary novels, in that they investigate the modern subjectivity in connection with the characteristics of the letter as medium.
  • 7.

    The Street and the Library: Palbong and Hoiwol’s Journey Before and After Liberation

    Son Youkyung | 2021, 78(3) | pp.245~282 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to restructure the activities of ‘Palbong’ Kim Gi-jin and ‘Hoiwol’ Park Yeong-hui after liberation, and to investigate the significance of the different cultural practices sought by the two individuals on the street and in the library in terms of the history of criticism and the history of intelligence. The literature history written by Palbong and Hoiwol, who were both companions and rivals to each other, used to be handled by the standard approach in which their writings were placed at the center of the post-liberation discussion. Breaking free from the conventional approach, this article highlights the aspects of Palbong that were unknown to Hoiwol and those of Hoiwol that were unknown to Palbong in order to derive the prototypical characteristics of the ‘literature-publishing-magazine power’ and the ‘academic criticism free from the literary community’ that were later found in the literary and intellectual circles in Korea. Firstly, Palbong’s unique ‘tycoon complex,’ which stood out from the Period of the Japanese Colonial Rule, was reviewed, focusing on his episodes related to his business management of Aejisa, a publishing company, to show how the complex was distorted after the independence of Korea and the Korean War. Palbong’s agony between art and business was consistently observed from the Period of the Japanese Colonial Rule to the liberation period. The aspiration to stand out as a cultural businessman by using all available human and material resources is not only Palbong’s personal desire but also a feature of the modern mainstream literary circle of Korea. On the other hand, the ‘ivory tower complex’ of Hoiwol, who steadily emphasized the academic criticism free from the literary coterie made him be immersed in intensive writing works before and after liberation, even to the point of publishing a book devoted to literature theory, entitled Theory and Practice of Literature in 1947. Theory and Practice of Literature was a theoretical book that expanded and systemized the essential contents of “New Development and Trend of Recent Literature Theory” (1934), which is known as his declaration of conversion. Being indicted for the publication of the book, Hoiwol was drastically intimidated and withdrew himself farther from the literary, academic and publishing communities. Hoiwol’s consistent academic pursuit of aesthetic exploration of literature may not justify his pro-Japanese activities. However, if his deep-rooted ivory tower complex is left to sink into the black hole of interpretation based on the conversion and the pro-Japanese activities, his heritage of aesthetic theory may be permanently taken away from the literary history of Korea.
  • 8.

    Journey to meet Korean Women: Reading Morisaki Kazue’s Travelogues

    HOSEOK JEONG | 2021, 78(3) | pp.283~321 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores the representation of Korean women in the images that appear in Morisaki Kazue’s travelogues. Morisaki, a second-generation Japanese settler in colonial Korea, had visited Korea after the war. The features of her travel essays are as follows: first, the narratives have a non-linear structure that “loosely” intertwines recollections, impressions, and contemplations. Second, while the images of Korean women were interpreted as the scars of war, the potential of labor, and the tradition of local communication; such provisional interpretations were varied by connecting different images. Third, when repetitions with differences create hypertextuality between works, the “constellation” of images that is presented on the travelogues does not converge to a definite meaning. Fourth, as allegory promotes active readings against any teleology or symbols, Morisaki’s initial dialectical project (which is aimed to sublate the “original sin” as a colonizer) makes an endless journey with readers.
  • 9.

    Economic Discourse of Korean Liberalism in the 1950s: Focusing on the Democratic Party

    Yun Sang Hyun | 2021, 78(3) | pp.323~355 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the case of Korea, which successfully fulfilled the two tasks of industrialization and democratization in East Asia, authoritarianism, militarism, democracy, and modernization theory have been analyzed as the ideological background. This article analyzes the role of liberalism in embracing both these tasks. It attempts to examine the intellectual position of two groups of the Democratic Party by comparing the economic discourse the New group, Sinpa, with the Old group, Gupa, in the 1950s, which is the formation period of modernization and industrialization. While the former envisioned the composition of the central economic planning organization and reorganization of the economic structure centered on active industrialization representing the position of emerging capital, the latter, representing the position of indigenous capital, limited the role of the government to fiscal and financial policies and showed a more dependent position on the free market. The proposal of such a central economic planning organization in government continued to evolve and develop through 1950s to 1970s.
  • 10.

    Government and Companies in the Transition Period of the Export-specialized Industry in the Shipbuilding Industry in the Early 1970s: Analysis of the Progress of the Construction Plan of Okpo Shipyard in Korea Shipbuilding and Engineering Corporation

    Bae Suk Man | 2021, 78(3) | pp.357~385 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article specifically analyzed the process of starting the construction of the Okpo Shipyard of Korea Shipbuilding and Engineering Corporation. The construction of the Okpo Shipyard in the early 1970s was an opportunity for the Korean shipbuilding industry to transform into an export-specialized industry, and it has an important meaning along with the construction of Hyundai E&C Ulsan Shipyard. The attitude of the government at the time of August 1972, when Korea Shipbuilding and Engineering Corporation formalized the world's largest 1 million-ton Okpo Shipyard construction plan and requested the approval of the plan and related support, was negative. It was after the declaration of heavy and chemical industrialization in January 1973 that the government changed its attitude and decided to approve the plan and actively support it. The government took the position that it could not approve and provide support until the provider of the $100 million Okpo Shipyard Construction Loan was confirmed. However, approval was suddenly granted after the policy shift to heavy and chemical industrialization. At this point, it was still the same situation where the loan provider had not been confirmed. The progress of the Okpo Shipyard construction plan shows that the transformation of the Korean shipbuilding industry into export-specialized industrialization was a result of the survival and growth strategy of the company rather than the government's policy fostering. It was not the government policy that stimulated Korea Shipbuilding and Engineering Corporation, but the construction of the Hyundai Ulsan Shipyard. The role of government policy in the shipbuilding industry at the time of transition to an export-specialized industry in the early 1970s was not to “lead” the transition, but to “regulate” and “assist” and follow the strategic promotion of private companies.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Utility of Humanities Program Conducted in Farming Areas

    Kim, Seong-lee | 2021, 78(3) | pp.387~417 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study looks at how humanities programs can bring about changes to local people in farming areas where it is not easy to meet the humanities. If the urban-centered humanities craze is approached as a social structural problem, humanities, the study of life, will create new discrimination, and humanities will no longer exist in certain areas, but only in one or more area. The study begins with this recognition of problems, but was conducted only in one region, and only for local people who participated in humanities programs, not the entire community. Firstly, changes in the perception of local residents, focusing on humanities courses for farming area residents was examined. Local people who participated in the humanities course found the utility of humanities in recognizing the ambiguous space of the region as their own place, feeling proud of the region’s history with the knowledge and information they acquired from the humanities course. Secondly, this study looked at the process of conducting humanities programs through poetry reading to elderly people who are relatively marginalized in farming areas. As a result, it was found that there was a limit to the utility of the humanities program in the elderly generation in the COVID-19 infectious disease situation. This study was conducted in only one farming area, but it is meaningful in that it presented a humanistic horizon as a practice on how humanities should move and the approach that the humanities should adopt in areas where humanities are alienated. In addition, how to overcome the limitations of humanities that have emerged in the face of civilization changes, such as COVID-19, should also be considered.
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