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2021, Vol.78, No.4

  • 1.

    Artistic Creativity and Rationality: the Conditions of Artistic Creativity

    Suyeong Lim | 2021, 78(4) | pp.15~59 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Creativity is the main subject of inquiry in interdisciplinary research. It is discussed in various disciplines including psychology and anthropology. In this context, it is not surprising that scholars attempting a philosophical exploration of creativity have emerged. This article focuses on artistic creativity rather than creativity in general and intends to explore the necessary conditions of artistic creativity. Ambitious attempts to reveal the necessary conditions of creativity that can be applied to all fields can face skepticism that it is difficult to grasp creativity. On the other hand, elucidating how the concept of creativity works in particular practices, like art, is a relatively achievable goal and worth trying. The necessary conditions of artistic creativity suggested in this article can be divided into the conditions related to the features of the work and the conditions related to the features of the agents who created the work. The discussion on the features of the work consists of analyzing the meaning of novelty as originality, a value-implied novelty. An original work is different from existing works in terms of its display of a unique style, and this style is artistically valuable. The discussion on the features of the agent is composed of the analyzation of relevant agency that is exercised in the creation of works of this style. In addition, this article examines the relationship between two seemingly irrelevant concepts, artistic creativity and rationality.
  • 2.

    Creativity and Value: from Product to Virtue

    Lee, Haewan | 2021, 78(4) | pp.61~92 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Creativity is often defined as ability to produce novel and valuable outcomes. It is also claimed that the product, not the process, should be the focus when analyzing this concept. One flaw that has been identified in these positions is that the concept of creativity cannot be properly analyzed without including conditions concerning the agent. However, it is my contention that we also need to rethink the value condition for creativity. Surely our intuition supports that creativity is related with value, but despite the general acknowledgment, what we should be considering as the conceptual element of creativity may not be the value of what it produces. I argue for showing that the consequentialist view concerning the value of creativity generates counter-intuitive results. As an alternative, I show my support for a kind of virtue theoretic understanding on creativity. I think this is a right perspective to accommodate both the agency requirement and our intuitive beliefs of how the nature of value in creativity should be understood.
  • 3.

    Artificial Intelligence and Literary Creativity

    Yoon, Juhan | 2021, 78(4) | pp.93~125 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to propose a way to properly deal with the question of 'Can artificial intelligence have creativity?' Firstly, to answer this question, the concept of creativity is clarified. I define creativity as a mental ability to perform a systematic causal function to produce novel products or ideas, and argue that if we recognize functionalism as a philosophical assumption worth considering, we can start discussing artificial intelligence and creativity making this assumption a steppingstone. Next, as an example of art-creating artificial intelligence, I scrutinize where exactly GPT-3, one of the most advanced natural language processing artificial intelligence programs, stands. GPT-3 produces writings that are (partly) almost indistinguishable from humans’ due to vast amounts of learning and parameters. However, GPT-3 still has not reached the level of creativity to create literary ‘works’. Then, I examine what ability artificial intelligence needs in order to reach the level of creativity to create literary works. I argue that in order to have literary creativity, the ability to (re)construct and represent fictional work worlds, i.e., fictive imagining, is required, and elucidate the mechanism of fictive imagining through the ‘Possible World Box’ model.
  • 4.

    Analysis of the Argument Structure of Tao Te Ching: Focusing on Williams & Colomb’s Model

    Lee JongSang | Lee Dong A | 2021, 78(4) | pp.129~164 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Lao-tzu’s core philosophy has been known as the rule of the king since the first generation of scholars. Later, by several scholars recognized that Tao Te Ching was a text for rulers; the readers of Tao Te Ching were the rulers, and the Tao Te Ching was said to have been written to persuade the ruler. If the purpose of writing Tao Te Ching is to persuade the ruler, it can be inferred that it would have been based on a grounded claim, that is, an argument. Therefore, Lao-tzu’s writing is not simply a sequence, but it can be proposed that all chapters have a certain argumentation system. In this article, Tao Te Ching was viewed as writing for persuasion, that is, argument accompanied by evidence, and the way in which Tao Te Ching was constructed was examined through the analysis of the structure of argument. The structure of the argument used at this time adopted the Williams & Colomb model. Among 81 chapters of Tao Te Ching, there are 9 chapters that contain all four elements, such as evidence-reason-claim-warrant, and when considering the order of arrangement of elements, there are three types. There are 49 chapters composed of three components, such as reason-claimwarrant, and there are 8 types when considering the order of arrangement of components. There are 16 chapters composed of evidence-reason-claim, and there are 5 when considering the order of arrangement of components. In addition, there are two chapters representing two reasons and arguments for one warrant, and one chapter representing two reasons and arguments for each reason. There is one chapter with one claim for three evidences and three reasons, and seven for the other five types. In examining the argument structures considered to be the most widely used in Tao Te Ching, five chapters for each type were examined, and through the analysis of the argument structure, it was possible to more clearly interpret the problem compared to the previous interpretation. In addition, the interpretation of Tao Te Ching by argumentation and analysis results using existing analysis methods such as argumentation method and rhetoric method were compared for Chapters 13, in which both were commonly present. As a result, the analysis frame of the argument structure adopted in this article is more effective for understanding Tao Te Ching, compared to other analytical frames.
  • 5.

    Filial Piety and Filial Behavior: A Hermeneutic Review

    Park Kyoon-Seop | 2021, 78(4) | pp.165~207 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    According to the recognition of filial piety in the Confucian scriptures, the beginning of filial piety is to perfect the body inherited from the parents, and the end of filial piety is to honor the parents through ipsinyangmyung. It can be said that the thought on the essence of filial piety since Confucius lies in the realization of sincerity according to the action of the true mind. In the process of filial piety and filial behavior, it is necessary to pay attention to the combination of ancient Indian thought and Confucian thought since the era of Wei and Jin Dynasties. Hermeneutical fluctuations began to arise that the filial piety of the body preservation type and the filial piety of the body damage type/sacrificial type were incompatible. In the case of the Chosun Dynasty, filial piety of the body damage type/sacrificial type became popular, and the state pro- moted it, and there were more and more people here and there using their parents to deceive people and steal their honor. In today’s Korean society, it can be said that those who are blind to success are those who have de- viated from the original path of filial piety. If we do not show proper awareness and response to the beginning and end of filial piety, it cannot be said that we are walking the path of true filial piety.
  • 6.

    Historical Review of Rrelationship of Anti-Intellectualism and Korean Women’s Literature

    Lee, Kyungha | 2021, 78(4) | pp.209~235 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper presents a historical review of anti-intellectualism present in women’s literature. Here, the concept of ‘anti-intellectualism’, which has many meanings, was understood as being anti-intellectual, and ‘women’s literature’ was defined as woman writer’s literature or feminist writing, according to the context. The main point is that the attitude toward women’s literature could be influenced by anti-intellectualism, even if they were of the intellectuals of the time. For example, in the Joseon Dynasty, there was the term ‘jibungi’, and even from the modern era, women’s writers have not been treated properly in literary history. On the other hand, the excessiveness of early feminism caused the classical female writer to fall into excessive ‘appreciation’. In the present, feminism, branded as ‘Megalia’, is excessive, and it is cursed everywhere. It was the general public’s gaze. This paper examined the fact that due to this situation, even those of a progressive attitude kept away from ‘radical’ feminism.
  • 7.

    The Subversiveness and Conceptualization of ‘Gaebyeok’ in the Modern Transition Period: Focusing on Donghak and Cheondogyo

    HurSoo | 2021, 78(4) | pp.237~272 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    I have systematically organized the usage of ‘gaebyeok’ used in Donghak and Chondogyo in the early 19th and early 20th centuries. The traditional meaning of ‘gaebyeok’ in East Asia was ‘opening the world’. In the middle of the 19th century, Choi Je-woo, a founder of Donghak, proposed ‘Dashi (New) Gaebyeok’, which has the meaning of ‘the world is turned upside down’, an innovation of the traditional meaning. However, this usage was not widely used due to its subversiveness. The discussion on the succession of ‘Dashi Gaebyeok’ appeared centered on the Chondo denomination in the 1910s. ‘Hucheon (Later Day’s) Gaebyeok’ succeeded ‘Dashi Gaebyeok’, but its meaning was expanded to include the Hsiang-shu-hsueh (象數學)-thinking of ‘Seoncheon-Hucheon (Former-Later)’. But the discussion of this period was limited to the religious denomination level. On the other hand, in the 1920s, ‘Gaebyeok’ was widely known in society, given various meanings, and discussed in the theory of gradual development. This trend could be called ‘conceptualization’, but such ‘conceptualization’ was limited in scope. The limited conceptualization of ‘Gaebyeok’ can be seen as a rejection of modern signification. This was the case of emphasizing the subversiveness of “Geomgyeol” or relativizing the theory of social evolution and the unilinear development theory. Of course, ‘Gaebyeok’ did not become a competitor to ‘history’ or ‘revolution’. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that Chondogyo figures insisted on using ‘Gaebyeok’. At first glance, this attitude may appear to be an intermittent case in the trend of progressive time perception. However, this is a starting point for revealing the fact that the ‘Hucheon Gaebyeok’ has spread and continued to many Koreans, including new religions.
  • 8.

    Can Mono Become Artistic?: Mono-ha Seen Through Jean-Marie Schaeffer’s Theory of Aesthetic Experience

    Ji-Min Son | 2021, 78(4) | pp.273~313 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article has as its double objective a clarification of art-philosophical problems as dealt with by the theory of Mono, introduced by the late 1960’s Japanese movement Mono-ha, and an examination of the validity of its theory. Lying at the kernel of the above set of problems is the inquiry into the possibility of continuation of aesthetic experience through the means of unworked things. Here, aesthetic experience is referred to by the artists as “ecstasy”, “disparity”, “encounter” and “thrill”. As this article will try to show, all of Mono-ha’s endeavor is noticeably focused on arguing for this continuation and putting it into practice. For this argument to be justified, it is required first that aesthetic experience is distinguished— as opposed to isolated—from the totality of experience that includes it, and that we discuss whether the realization of the above theory based on aesthetic experience can be artistic, despite the irreducibility of the experienced into a work of art. Despite being central to their theory and relevant practice, Mono-ha’s reliance on the notion of aesthetic experience has hitherto been examined as being part of the former rather than culminating in the labor of the latter. This article will attempt to carry out the above tasks by introducing the cognitive psychological research of Jean-Marie Schaeffer into the contexts of the artists’ own words.
  • 9.

    A Study on Woo Gwanghun’s Short Story “Self-Restraint and Propriety Restoration”: Back to Humanitarianism

    Jin, Hong Yue | Lee, Won-yang | 2021, 78(4) | pp.315~338 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    From his debut novel “Lonely Tomb”, written in 1979 at the age of 25, to the first collection of short stories “The Death of Mary” in 1989, Woo Gwanghun’s early works demonstrate a certain tendency. It is the opposite structure of “purity” / “impurity” or “nature” / “socialization(political)”. Since the reform and opening-up of China and the establishment of diplomatic relations between South Korea and China, Woo Gwanghun’s works have shown significant changes in both themes and literary techniques, and there is no strong “purity” / “impurity” opposition structure. After such creative work activities, in 2015, he released Self-restraint and Propriety Restoration. This novel, like hazy homesickness, featured the tendencies of his earlier works and dug into it more specifically and delicately Behind the apparent narrative of Self-restraint and Propriety Restoration, an increase in the oppression given to Geuk Seongi or the increasing anger of Geuk Seongi exists. Many occasional expressed emotions of Geuk Seongi represent all manifestations of the core that cannot be hidden. And the narrative of this expression gradually gathers anger, eventually exposing the heart of anger. In the scene throwing the portrait of Chairman Mao, Geuk Seongi is angry at the realities surrounding thoughts and concepts. More than that, in a callous society where the memory of frail people got eradicated, the novel still hopes to keep and advocate ‘memory-respect humanitarianism’. Self-restraint and Propriety Restoration does not concern instantly noticeable loss, but radical deprivation causes deprivation. It demands respect for human beings at the fundamental level. Therefore, compared with his prior works, humanitarianism is more deeply manifested in Self-restraint and Propriety Restoration. Through the description of affectionate things, the colloquial expressions, and the recalling frame, the novel Self-restraint and Propriety Restoration advocates that ‘purity’ is placed in ‘the hometown of human nature’. To the interlocutors, ‘hometown’ is the ‘inherent hometown of human beings’ and the place where the nostalgia of purity evokes. By indicating the specific residence of ‘purity’, the novel has revealed a deeper layer of ‘purity’ than before as well as exposed ‘restoration-to-purity humanitarianism’.
  • 10.

    How Could <Miss Trot> and <Mr. Trot> Become Koreans’ Most Favorite TV Programs?

    Hye-yoon Chung | 2021, 78(4) | pp.339~374 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this essay, I provide an account of how <Miss Trot> and <Mr. Trot> could become Koreans’ most favorite TV programs. I argue that it was possible through the deep feeling of connectedness and the sense of we-ness shared by Korean viewers of those programs which were generated by diachronic narrative intimacy and synchronic intimacy formed among Korean viewers. I argue that the power of trot as a musical genre and the online platform provided by those trot programs brought about such diachronic and synchronic intimacy. In this essay, I appeal to the concepts of ‘shared emotion’, ‘evocative object’, ‘narrative self’, ‘cultural artifact’, and ‘we-space’. I argue that trot as a musical genre has the power to form a collective narrative as a collective evocative object and that Korean viewers can have diachronic narrative intimacy and share cultural identity as Koreans by virtue of such power. Also, I argue that Korean viewers acquire the synchronic intimacy in the we-spaces created on the online platform which <Miss Trot> and <Mr. Trot> provide. Ultimately, I argue that Korean viewers could have the deep feeling of connectedness and the sense of we-ness sharing certain overarching emotion and that on this ground <Miss Trot> and <Mr. Trot> could become Koreans’ most favorite TV programs.
  • 11.

    ‘XP가 왜’와 ‘왜 XP가’ 구문에 대한 소고

    Kwon, Seon-young | 2021, 78(4) | pp.375~403 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to analyze ‘fragmental utterance’ such as “XP가 왜?” and “왜 XP가?”, and reviews the discussions on the question adverbs ‘왜’ and the subject marker ‘-이/가’. By comparing them through the fragmental utterance, it is possible to present doubts about whether ‘왜’ is a sentence adverb. It is also confirmed that the noun phrase with ‘-이/가’ can become the focus, regardless of word order. Multiple fragmentary sentences such as “XP가 왜?” and “왜 XP가?” are created by 'multiple ellipsis' from different sentences, not by 'move-and-delete' from the same sentence. It is significant that the fragmental utterance is useful for grammatical analysis.
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