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pISSN : 1598-3021 / eISSN : 2671-7921

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2022, Vol.79, No.1

  • 1.

    Surface, Point, Line and Network

    Kim, Jong-Il | 2022, 79(1) | pp.9~47 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In recent archaeological research, a close relation between material and human beings has been newly theorised and alternative hypotheses on the formation of ethnic groups and human migration has been suggested with dramatic developments of analytic technology in the natural sciences, such as archaeogenetics and bioinformatics, which has replaced megatheories which led hitherto archaeological theory and paradigm shifts in it. Social Network Theory, adopted first in social science, was introduced to archaeological research and enabled the finding of important archaeological phenomena that had been ignored or unrecognised thus far. Nevertheless network analysis was not simply developed and introduced from the outside; there already existed some similar ideas and discussions with network analysis within archaeology. The ways of understanding objects through their contextual relation in Phenomenology and Analytic Philosophy are also closely related with network analysis. Therefore, network analysis was developed in other disciplines but was considered and ‘domesticated’ within archaeological thought and context, rather than just simply being adopted into archaeology. This fact suggests that the interpretation of results drawn from network analysis on actual data is not enough as long as it is limited to a simple description of visible patterns. Rather it can be clearly shown that the results should be significantly and sensitively interpreted when analysis is carried out within an archaeological context.
  • 2.

    Network Visualization and the Utilization of Archaeological Data The Example of Nangnang (Lelang) Tombs

    Ilhong Ko | 2022, 79(1) | pp.49~84 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The amount of archaeological data on Nangnang (Lelang) Tombs published since the 1990s has come to exceed the amount of data previously accumulated as a result of large-scale rescue excavations undertaken in Pyeongyang. Therefore, there is a need to develop a method of utilizing that data, which is of low resolution. This paper adopts a network approach, which can be useful in dealing with large amounts of low resolution data, to undertake an analysis of the data retrieved from finds lists found in North Korean publications. As the objective of this study was to illuminate the usefulness of network vitalization, tombs yielding Chinese Han mirrors were selected for analysis, as they were deemed suitable for the purpose at hand, as well as being a key topic of research in Nangnang studies. The results of analysis undertaken on the Nangnang tombs revealed that the clustering of tombs did not coincide with pre-established temporal phases, indicating that a rough study of mortuary practices at the tombs could be carried out according to tomb type, without putting too much weight on temporal elements, which could not be ascertained for many of the tombs published from the 1990s. In addition, it was illustrated how the lower resolution nodes could be more useful that higher resolution nodes, according to the research question, indicating that low resolution data could indeed be useful.
  • 3.

    The Applicable Potential of Park, Junyoung* Using Network Analysis Methods for Historical and Archaeological Research Focusing on Ancient Beads Excavated from the Yeongsan River Basin and Gaya Region

    Park, Junyoung | 2022, 79(1) | pp.85~115 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Network analysis, which was formerly developed in the discipline of Sociology, represents an attempt to explain the social behavior of people in terms of the characteristics of the network of relationships they have formed. This method of analysis uses nodes and edges to visualize data and has thus been widely used. This article examines the applicable potential of using network analysis to study a large quantity of ancient beads which are valuable historical and archaeological materials. As a result of applying network analysis on ancient beads, the distribution, circulation and consumption patterns could be visualized. Prior to this, such interpretations were only conceptually recognized. Furthermore, by expressing the distribution patterns of ancient beads as a network, one example being the excavated beads from the Yeongsan River Basin, it was possible to unravel more of the complexities of their ancient culture, as well as opening up other potential interpretations. Network analysis is not only applicable to a specific type of data nor is the method a fixed one. It can be applied to any type or set of data and the details of the method can be considered and adjusted according to the characteristics of the data. The aim is for network analysis to be more widely and actively conducted and applied for studies in Korean History and Archaeology and also to deepen the discourse.
  • 4.

    Writing and Publication of Hwanghwasuchang Manuscript Poems

    Duksoo Kim | 2022, 79(1) | pp.119~154 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper categorized the manuscript poems written for Hwanhwasuchang according to period of writing. There were found to be many errors in the poetry sections of the envoys because a dumok who did not have a profound knowledge of literature had ghostwritten them and both sides aimed at perfection in proofreading the manuscripts. Many transcriptionists were active at the event of Hwanghwasuchang because Chinese poems were simultaneously written and arranged. Gong Yong Qing wrote a letter to Jungjong of Joseon and ask him to assign a collator to Jeong Saryong. And he wrote several letters to Jeong Saryong and asked him to collate them thoroughly even after crossing the border. Jeong Saryong finished work on the main streets just in 7 to 8 days by editing and proofreading the manuscripts of Hwanhwasuchang on the way to Hanyang. As Jeong Saryong reported and offered the original copy completed to Jungjong of Joseon, He gave and ordered gyoseogwan to publish it. Jeong Saryong then revised the manuscripts based on handwriting text, sent the first published book of Hwanghwajip to China, and waited until the envoys read and proofread it. Hwanghwajip was published several times due to errors in the publication. And the envoys who already returned to their own country directly participated in proofreading Hwanghwajip.
  • 5.

    A Study on a Local Korean Confucian Scholar’s Process of Migration to Deokheungbo (德兴堡), Fengtian, and the Driving Force Behind His Return in the 1910’s Focusing on the Case of Seocheon Jo Jeonggyu

    Han, GilRo | 2022, 79(1) | pp.155~180 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Haman (咸安) scholar Seocheon Jo Jeonggyu (趙貞奎) planned to move away from the colonial reality, and in 1913 he crossed the Amnok River to Beijing to check up on the actual situation of the region. He discovered the disastrous lives of Korean immigrants living in Seogando, China. Accordingly, on his way back, he met Lee Seung-hee (李承熙), who was in Andong (安東) at the time, and made a detailed plan. After returning to his hometown, he hurried to prepare for immigration by selling his property, and in August 1914, he arrived in Fengtian (奉天), China, and began to build a base for the Korean community and the Independence Movement. His participation was of great help to Lee Seung-hee, who was leading it, and eventually he played an important role in the immigration to Bongcheon. They expected a stable life by purchasing the land of Deokheungbo (德兴堡), which was 2/3 the size of Yeouido in Seoul. However, various disasters continued and unfortunately the community building at Deokhungbo ended. Later, he tried to immigrate again to the Qufu (曲阜) of Shandong Province, Confucius’ hometown, but he also failed; in 1916, Lee Seung-hee, his close friend and senior, died. In 1917, the Confucius Branch in Korea was also established. In 1918, when he returned to his hometown due to illness, his immigrant life also ended. As a result, his trip to China can be judged as a series of failures and frustrations. However, his actions also meant meaningful Confucian resistance in the modern era, which included social responsibility and brotherly affection of the intellectual. Therefore, Deokheungbo is a meaningful historical site that retains the sadness of modern Confucian scholars and Korean immigrants. In addition, his return contains the symbolism of the transition of the center of the Confucius movement from China to Korea.
  • 6.

    The Antinomy and the Transition of Freedom faced by Modern People In Relation to the Modernity of Han Yong-un’s Poem

    Igkyun Kim | 2022, 79(1) | pp.181~209 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Han Yong-un was the first modern young man to be born in 1879, right after ports were opened by the Treaty of Ganghwa Island (1876). When Silence of Lover was published in the 1920s, Han Yong-un was a representative of the older generation. If Silence of Lover is regarded as love poetry, it can be said that the poem shows difference from the love poems of youth at the time. This Difference can be said to show the pluralism of the layers of modernity. This paper aims to elucidate Han Yong-un’s modern project, deviating from the standard approach of cultural history research that sees Silence of Lover love poetry as the backlash of the older generation. For this purpose, the point where Han Yong-un’s poems “Causality” and “Freedom Chastity” meet Kant’s concept of antinomy and freedom were reviewed. As a result, it was discovered that the modern intellect of East Asia tried to properly recognize and overcome modernity through Buddhism as a medium.
  • 7.

    Using Social Network Analysis to the Poetry Magazines of Literary Coterie and Poets of the Late 1930s

    Lee Yumi | Kim Ba-ro | 2022, 79(1) | pp.212~245 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article conducted social network analysis based on data built around the poetry magazines of literary coterie of the late 1930s. Assuming that many individuals are included in poetry magazines of literary coterie, the goal of this paper was to examine the relationship between poetry and poets and newly examine the existing literary history. An examination of research methods for performing social network analysis is followed by an examination of the groups formed between the poetry magazines of literary coterie as established through network analysis. It can be seen that the poetry magazines of literary coterie can be divided into three groups, focusing on the overlap of places, editors, poets. At the same time, the power of the relationships could be examined through the weight between each poetry magazine of literary coterie. The networks between poets were also analyzed through centrality. Most influential poets, according to degree centrality and closeness centrality, were found to have led the publication and editing of poetry. By confirming the poets connecting the groups of poetry magazines of literary coteries through betweenness centrality, it was found that there were poets who operated poems in addition to the presentation of works. Through this process, the new possibilities of literary history were reviewed by paying attention to invisible poets in literary history.
  • 8.

    Discovery of ‘So-nyeon (少年)’ and Narrative of ‘Becoming a Nation’ on Display

    Kim Hee Kyung | 2022, 79(1) | pp.247~280 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to examine works of Yeom Sang-seop during the liberation period more broadly, and the analytical object of this paper is Yeom Sangseop’s Chaeseogjang-ui Sonyeon (A Boy of the Quarry) that was recently discovered. This work differs from other works by Yeom Sang-seop in that it takes the form of children’s literature. However, this should be considered along with the socio-cultural aspect of forced conversion through the formation of anti-communism and the formation of the National Guidance Allian in South Korean society after the establishment of the separate government. Yeom Sang-seop opposed the establishment of independence government, supported South and North negotiation, and did not give up the possibility of the unified nation-state. However the South Korean government was eventually established on August 15, 1948 and using anticommunism as a means, Rhee Syng Man regime solidifies its system by defining “non-right” political ideologies and ideas of South Korean society as anti-national. Rhee Syng Man regime intends to forcibly embrace and convert “seditious groups” (the moderate and the left-wing) of South Korean society, through enacting the National Security Law (1948), strengthening anticommunism ideology, and forming the National Guidance Alliance (1949). In the process, numerous intellectuals joined the National Guidance Alliance, and Yeom Sang-seop couldn’t avoid joining either. Considering this situation, Yeom Sang-seop chose the form of an allegory in children’s literature instead of choosing to write novels through novel grammar same as before. This can be judged as a way to continue to write novels under the surveillance of anti-communist government. The narrative of ‘becoming a Nation’ of war refugees, which is being uttered on the surface of Chaeseogjang-ui Sonyeon and the theme of ‘integration of community based on cooperation and solidarity’ accompanying it can be effectively “displayed” through the form of children’s literature.
  • 9.

    (Re)constructing the Korean War Period Yom Sang-seop’s Hongyeom-Saseon

    YU, SEOHYUN | 2022, 79(1) | pp.281~316 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Yom Sang-seop’s linked novellas Hongyeom (Red Flame) and Saseon (Dead Line), have long been excluded from research as poor works mired in the popular and everyday. However, it is worth re-illuminating the following aspects of these works. First, in relation to the Korean War, Hongyeom-Saseon focuses not on the visible enemy (North Korea and the Communist Camp), but on invisible bearers of responsibility (The United States and South Korean Government). These works remind us that late June, 1950 was not only the eve of the Korean War but also a period in which a United States anxious about the 1950 Sino-Soviet Treaty deepened the Cold War while preparing the Treaty of Peace with Japan. At the same time, the novellas reveal how the South Korean government, relying too heavily on the US and UN, compounded the confusion in the early days of the war by acting irresponsibly. Second, Hongyeom-Saseon offers insight into the contemporary mind of Yom Sangseop during the liberation period as a centrist and supporter of the 1948 North-South Conference and peaceful unification. Yom presents several specific events occurring in 1948 and 1950 which are connected by the idea of unification via left-right coalition. This context also explains the centering of the novellas’ discussion of the May 30, 1950 elections on the rise of “independent (=centrist)” candidates and peaceful-unification candidate Cho Bong-am. Lastly, Hongyeom-Saseon’s romance narrative not only reveals the limits of Yom Sang-seop’s imagination as a male intellectual in the 1950s, but also offers contemporary readers the possibility of discovering a new politics within it. Yom conveys his concerns about the Korean Peninsula during the cold war by overlapping ‘those responsible for breaking the peace on the peninsula’ with ‘those responsible for breaking the peace of the family.’ In the process, middle-aged women characters who break away from the family become the central object of criticism in the two novellas, yet because these characters become the focal point of the narrative, oppositional decoding is made possible. Turning our attention from the love triangle of SeonokHonam-Chwiweon to the relationship between Seonok and Chwiweon themselves, it is possible to see in Hongyeom-Saseon’s romance narrative not simply the presence/absence of the patriarch, but also a process of women’s identity formation via imitation and recognition between two women.
  • 10.

    Women and Politics in Yeom Sang-seop’s Novels of the 1950s Focusing on Yeom Sangseop’s By Inheritance

    Yoon, Kuk-hee | 2022, 79(1) | pp.317~350 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper regards Yeom Sang-seop’s By Inheritance as a female narrative in which a female figure with power actively moves to achieve her purpose, and attempts to explore its political meaning. By Inheritance captures the postwar period from a gender perspective, which is represented as ‘mother-matriarch’s psychology’, an inverted shape of ‘son-patriarch’s psychology’ in Yeom Sangseop’s short stories in the late 1950s. Yeom Sang-seop focuses on the issue of joining nonpartisan representative and the political and financial ‘inheritance’ of the three families. The generation of ‘father-patriarches’ who lose power and the ‘mother-matriarch’, which symbolizes the legal identity of women as individuals, reflect the context of the 1958 election revision, fraudulent elections, and family law enactment. He calls for the next generation the perception of ‘daughters’ who deviated from romantic love and family norms, not ‘son or son-in-law.’
  • 11.

    Is it Impossible to Mourn the Martyr? With a Focus on Kim Chiha’s Aerin

    Seo Yoon Choi | 2022, 79(1) | pp.351~396 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to analyze Aerin 1 ·2 (1986), published by Kim Chiha after his transition to the theory of life, as a case that reflects the ‘impossibility of mourning for the martyr.’ In contemporary Korean political history, a ‘martyr’ refers to a person who becomes a historical hero by sacrificing her or his life to accuse the authoritarian regime. Important to note here, studies focusing on the aporia embedded in the ‘politics of martyrs’ have been recently published. Aligning with these previous studies, this article performed a symptomatic reading of Aerin based on the proble matic awareness that Kim Chiha’s transition to theory of life in the 1980s was related to the aforementioned aporia. Aerin is the text that represents the transition to the theory of life. It is well known that Kim Chiha declared life as the ‘source’ of everything. The movement toward the origin represented in Aerin is driven by the ‘impulse toward novel life.’ The impulse toward novel life drives the poetic subject of Aerin to become a novel subject by returning to the origin, and such process of becoming a new subject is portrayed in Aerin as an encounter between Aerin and the poetic subject. Therefore, with a critical distance from previous studies that discussed Aerin as the text in which the poetic subject finds the absolute truth, this article analyzes the impossibility of meeting Aerin with the poetic subject. Therefore, this article presents that Aerin is the text paradoxically requires to deconstruct the literary history of 1980’s in Korea by mirroring the symptoms of the era.
  • 12.

    The Origin and Development of Breastfeeding Promotion in Korea : From Consumer Movement to the Medium of Medicalization and Commodification

    Park Seungmann | 2022, 79(1) | pp.397~427 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Infant feeding is roughly divided into breastfeeding and formula feeding depending on what is fed, and there exists a binary opposition between breast milk and powdered formula. It is the perception that the former is natural and nutritious, and the latter is artificial and relatively nutrientpoor. However, in Korea, this perception appeared as early as the 1980s and as late as the 2000s, and before that, many people trusted powdered formulas more. Regardless of the truth value of the binary opposition, it is necessary to examine the historical process in which the perception surrounding breast milk and powdered formula has been constructed. This article focuses on breastfeeding promotion in Korea from the 1980s to the 2000s, which gave impetus to this change, and traces the historical process developed in Korea. The key arguments are as follows. First, breastfeeding promotion in Korea originated from international and nongovernmental organizations’ movement in the 1970s and 1980s, and the Western medical professionals’ support for breastfeeding in the 1990s. And then, it was mediated to Korea by consumer organizations and medical professionals in Korea. Second, the focus of breastfeeding promotion shifted from consumer protection to emphasis on the necessity of medical management, as in the West, and later the movement became a medium for the commodification of breastfeeding by postpartum care centers.
  • 13.

    Beyond Model Minority Challenges and Paths Forward for the Immigrant Minority Narrative as Seen Through Min Jin Lee’s Pachinko

    Na Boryeong | 2022, 79(1) | pp.429~461 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article examined how Min Jin Lee’s Pachinko, as a narrative on the immigrant minority, sheds light on Koreans living in Japan, a minority group in Japanese society and one that has not been dealt with in Asian-American literature. The achievements of the minority in the novel are highlighted from the perspective of intersectional feminism and transnationalism. Immigration is portrayed as an active move by subaltern women, who are characterized by layers of minority identity. An important discussion was how the minorities’ family relations as ‘bad Gemeinschaft’ were delivered in the form of a family chronicle. Despite such achievements, the minority group in the ‘bad Gemeinschaft’ created by Pachinko are exemplary, and far from ‘bad.’ It is ironic to say “History has failed us, but no matter” considering their huge success as immigrant minority. In fact, the model minority stereotype, which the author attempted to break free from in her previous novel Free Food for Millionaires, is reinforced. Given the surge in anti-Asian sentiments following the outbreak of COVID-19, representing Asians in a genuine, accurate manner is a more critical agenda than the worldwide success of Pachinko.
  • 14.

    Study of Measures for Concretizing the ‘Character-Goal’ Path Setting for a Creative Writing Method Focused on the Composition/Utilization of the Initial Value of Characters, the Turn of Events and the Reversal of the Narrative

    Arum Song | PARK MIRAN | 2022, 79(1) | pp.463~496 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is a follow-up of a preceding study that proposed the ‘path-goal’ that could be utilized in creative writing and the methods for differentiating the story and switching the genre accordingly, which would propose a method for concretizing the setting in the ‘path-goal.’ To do so, this study proposed a method for reconstructing the character’s personality to utilize it in choosing incidents and conflicts, elements and method for converting a simple story and a method for constructing the reversal of the narrative through misunderstanding and concealment according to the goal and the amount of information. First, this study redefined the character’s personality as a coordinate value in the coordinates with the recognition of the world and the speed of response to it as the axis. Then, this study explained that the character’s personality or change could be constructed according to the initial value of the coordinate and that incidents and conflicts could be constructed according to the symmetry of the left and right and the top and bottom of the coordinate values, and the diagonal or vice versa. In addition, this study provided a method for constructing a three-dimensional narrative by proposing the internal and external situational elements by which a story could welcome a turning point. Lastly, this study drew out a measure for constructing the reversal of the narrative. This study categorized the reversal into three, found each of them related to the differences in the amount of information in the writer, the character, and the audience and the character’s misunderstanding and concealment of the goal and proposed a method for constructing a reversal narrative, focusing on that. Ultimately, this study has significance in that it came up with methods for connecting and categorizing elements in the narrative to propose a creative writing method.
  • 15.

    How Valid Are the Implicational Relationships between Plosives?

    Lee Jin-Ho | 2022, 79(1) | pp.497~524 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It is widely known that the implicational relationship, which plays an important role in universal grammar, is not absolute. However, the extent to which it is valid has been rarely studied on the basis of large-scale language data. In this paper, I analyzed the plosive inventories of 4,356 languages in Lee (2020) and examined the validity of some implicational relationships. First, although voiced plosives have a high rate of implying the presence of voiceless plosives, they show considerable variation depending on the language family or types of plosives. Second, complex plosives accompanying various secondary articulations imply the existence of plain plosives at a high rate. In addition, complex voiced plosives imply not only the corresponding plain plosives but also a four-way contrasts. Third, regarding the place of articulation, some implicational relationships are established depending on the voicedness of plosives. Finally, it is examined whether it is valid even if the implicational relationships are changed into the form of contraposition. On the surface, the contrapositions of some implicational relationships are valid at a very high rate. However, since its validity is absolutely determined only by the frequency of individual plosives, it has little to do with the contraposition. Therefore, it is difficult to assign linguistic significance to the contraposition of implicational relationship.
  • 16.

    Representing Iran Memoirs by Iranian Writers in the US

    Jeong, Sangjun | 2022, 79(1) | pp.525~563 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the aftermath of 9/11, there was a huge surge in memoirs written by members of the Iranian diaspora in the US that take negative perspectives on Iranian society and culture, which one may interpret as a feature of Orientalism. This paper centers on Azar Nafisi’s Reading Lolita in Tehran (2003) to examine particularities and themes of Iranian memoirs and their problematics. In her critique of the Islamic Republic Nafisi situates Iran in the opposite of the West, using a range of binaries between good and evil, democracy and totalitarianism, and civilization and barbarism. She tends to ignore particular conditions of individual Iranians due to her class-based perspective and her lack of compassion and self-reflexivity. The paper claims that Nafisi’s narrative provides a cultural rationale for the US government to intervene in Iran to save Iranian women from the oppression of the totalitarian regime. It also points out the irony wherein the methods and frames that she uses to criticize the Islamic Republic are applied to her own memoir by her critics.
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