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pISSN : 1598-3021 / eISSN : 2671-7921

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2022, Vol.79, No.2

  • 1.

    Formal Semantics Approach to the Category of Modality in Korean

    Jun, Youngchul | 2022, 79(2) | pp.7~38 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Most of studies on Korean modality have been done with the descriptive point of view, heavily based on the so-called Lyons’ (1977, p. 452) definition, “the speaker’s attitude on a proposition”. This paper aims to reveal the inadequacy of such a perspective and definition. It also aims to propose an alternative definition of modality as the category which is used to speak about the situations which need not be a part of actuality. The definition reflects our intuition that modal expressions manifest things about the worlds which are not actuality but related to it in a particular sense. This paper shows that the concept of possible worlds is very useful in understanding the characteristics of modality. Furthermore, it demonstrates that formal semantics approach should be appropriate to account for modality because the approach contains possible worlds semantics. The currrent paper emphasizes the role of periphrastic constructions in the category of modality in Korean. The periphrastic constructions offer various modal expressions, indicating a well-organized system of modality. It is found that the contrast of possibility and necessity exists through all the three subcategories of modality: epistemic, deontic, and dynamic modalities. Thus, as formal semantics has efficient methods to treat possible worlds as well as the contrast of possibility and necessity, it apparently provides an explicit explanation of the modal system of Korean periphrastic constructions.
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    A Study on Dynamic Modality Based on Possible Worlds Semantics

    Paik, Innyoung | 2022, 79(2) | pp.39~83 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is about a semantic analysis of dynamic modal categories, based on the theoretical framework of possible worlds semantics. Possible worlds semantics recognizes the meaning of modal expressions by dividing them into two parts, lexical meanings and contextual meanings. Dynamic modals share the same characteristics with other modal categories in that “they refer to the possibility or necessity that the content described in a sentence is true”. But they are distinguished from other modals in that the basis for such judgment depends on “the intrinsic uniqueness of a specific entity or situation”. Based on these defining characteristics, it was possible to present an appropriate explanation for the division of meaning and function of Korean dynamic modal expressions and their multiple interpretation in sentences. The former was explained with respect to the modal force of modal expressions and the latter with regard to the restriction of the context, which is called conversational backgrounds.
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    A Possible Worlds Semantic Approach to Nominal Endings as Mood

    Hwang, Hyeondong | 2022, 79(2) | pp.85~121 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper demorstrates that nominal endings –um and –ki in complement clauses can be explained as mood markers from the point of view of possible worlds semantics. Recently, it has been said that nominal endings are treated as grammatical elements representing the reality status, so that –um is regarded as a realis marker and –ki as an irrealis marker. Most of these arguments are based on the definition of the modality as the speaker’s attitude toward the proposition. However, it seems difficult to explain some sentences with nominal endings properly by this definition. As an approach that can resolve this issue, this paper tried to adopt a possible worlds semantics perspective. According to the possible worlds semantics, modality is defined as speaking based on or talking about situations that do not have to be real and mood can be understood as a grammaticalization of these modal meanings. Mood in complement clauses can be divided into indicative and subjunctive, each of which has an assertive and non-assertive effect. An assertion has the effect of reducing the possible worlds given as a context to fit the utterance by adding new proposition. Based on this, the indicative and the subjunctive are explained as follows. Indicative is motivated in a complement clause if the combination of the head and complement clauses is such that the embedded clause expresses a proposition to the truth of which an agent is committed. Accordingly, the proposition of the corresponding clause has the effect of reducing the subsentential contexts. Subjunctive is motivated in a complement clause if the speaker considers the possibility that there may exist a possible world in which the proposition of the complement clause is false. There is no assertive effect. Based on this approach, if the selection of –um and –ki corresponds to the indicative and subjunctive respectively, it can explain examples that were difficult to explain when viewed as a category of the reality status.
  • 4.

    ‘New Religion’ and Anti-intellectualism as a Counter to Modernity Centering on New Human Philosophy

    Yi, Hye-gyung | 2022, 79(2) | pp.125~154 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines Yi Don-hwa’s New Human Philosophy, which is praised for modernizing the theory of Chendogyo, through the prism of anti-intellectualism. Yi Don-hwa’s claim resonates with modern antiintellectualism in that it aims at modern egalitarian ideas, conveys political claims through the voice of religion, and develops monistic metaphysics while diminishing scientific knowledge. He redefines the character of civilization and newly defines the path of evolution to that point. In the process of that evolution, a bright future for colonial Korea is designed, material and scientific perceptions are set below spiritual and intuition, and spiritual discipline is presented as the driving force for evolution. His new interpretation puts the responsibility for civilization on the moral abilities of the people, but the morality was free from reality and did not evaluate the material efforts of reality.
  • 5.

    Media Strategy of Joseon Mundan and the Creation of Literary Circles’ Power

    JEONG SANG BAE | 2022, 79(2) | pp.155~190 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Joseon Mundan, published under the guise of Joseon’s only ‘iterary magazine’, is the most important medium for examining the topography of Korean modern literature in the 1920s. Lee Kwang-soo tried to develop an independent territory of literature through Joseon Mundan, and tried to overcome the closedness of literary coterie magazine by opening the pages of magazines to all literary circles. He also materialized his ‘Munsa’ (文士) discourse through various projects, and laid the foundation for the writer recommendation system through literary contest. Bang In-geun was in charge of the actual operation and editing of the magazine, and has made a great contribution to the concrete realization of Lee Kwang-soo’s plan. In particular, Joseon Mundan attempted various media strategies and plans that were difficult to find in existing magazines. For example, through various ‘Munsa’ (文士)-related projects, the existence of the literary creative subject that exists beyond the literary work was emphasized to the fore, and it was intended to give it meaning as a presiding existence that leads the people. In addition, it was intended to strengthen the identity of the writer as a creative subject of literature by directly listening to the voice of the writer related to literary creation or by looking at the writer’s character through the eyes of others. Such an attempt was an effective strategy to entice readers aspiring to literature, and it was also a way to grant authority and aura as literary writers to certain writers. Meanwhile, the literary contest of Joseon Mundan was a key media strategy to strengthen its identity as a newly attempted ‘literary magazine’. The literary contest of Joseon Mundan were judged by Lee Kwang-soo, Joo Yo-han, and Jeon Young-taek, who represent the literary circles, and instead of a prize money, I tried to entice readers through approval and recommendation as a new writer. However, the literary contest of Joseon Mundan, which advocated for the construction of Joseon literary circles through the appointment of excellent new writers, was also a way to secure a stable readership and to strengthen the literary power of existing writers. Through this, Joseon Mundan became a literary magazine representing the 1920s, and the writers who were active in Joseon Mundan could be remembered as the ‘Munsa’ (文士) of the time.
  • 6.

    Hambuk Dialect in Kim Kirim’s Short Stories Focusing on “Along a Railroad”

    정성훈 | 2022, 79(2) | pp.191~219 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to investigate why Kim Kirim mostly used standard language in his poetry, by analyzing the way dialects appear in his short stories and its meaning. Kim used the dialects of Hakseong in short stories which set in Hambuk, his hometown. These dialects were not used simply to get the reality or emphasize the aesthetic sense. The hierarchy between the dialects in “Along a Railroad” is related to awareness of the position of his hometown in the modernization. Also, Hambuk dialect is positioned as a thing of the past, so he thought that values of ‘hardness’ and ‘health’, which Hamgyeong-do had, would be ousted under the offensive of capital. As a result, he excluded dialects from his modernism poetry singing modern civilization. Whether to use dialects as a literary language is not only made at the aesthetic level, but also is related to the perception of modern civilization.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Distribution of Manchu Verb Stems and Endings through Quantitative Methods

    Do Jeong Up , Jung, Sunghoon | 2022, 79(2) | pp.221~259 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the characteristics and tendencies of verb stems and converb endings -me, -fi, and -ci that combine with them. This study closely analyzes the aspect of the verb stem that is combined with the converb ending -me, -fi, and -ci shown in Samyeok Chonghae (a Manchu-Korean book) by using a quantitative method. Of the total 19 ending types, there are 8 converb endings. Among them, the frequency of converb endings -me, -fi, and -ci combined with the verb stem accounts for 98% of the total. Verb stems combined with -fi have high mobility, transitivity, or cognition. In particular, achievement verbs/accomplishment verbs in Manchu show a high association rate with -fi. This shows that -fi is strongly related to successiveness. In the case of -me, this ending has a strong tendency to combine with state verbs, verbs with lower mobility or lower transitivity, and emotion verbs. Therefore, it can be seen that the central function of -me is to indicate simultaneousness. When the combined verb is a cognitive verb, -ci often indicates the meaning of cognition. In other cases, -ci indicates a condition.
  • 8.

    Zhong Li-he’s Experience of ‘Homeland’ and Perception of ‘Taiwaneseness’

    SHIN MIN YOUNG | 2022, 79(2) | pp.261~295 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Taiwan’s liberation in 1945 meant its return to the Republic of China. Taiwanese people are in a situation where they have to learn a new national language of their ‘homeland’. During this period, very few writers who were able to publish their works in Chinese were able to continue their literary activities. In this paper, attention was paid to the second work of Zhong Li-he’s Chinese novel-Hometown Story series, “Forest Fire”. Zhong Li-he had the experience of moving from Taiwan to Bongcheon in Manchukuo, Beiping in China/Mainland, and then back to post-war Taiwan. For this reason, he distanced himself from the longing he had for ‘the motherland’ as well as the anger he had in Taiwanese society. “Forest Fire” most vividly captures the author’s sober gaze, who is not overly attached to the Taiwanese community. In the text, the rituals of Zhang Dao-ling are detailed in a unique blend of various and heterogeneous elements. The artist’s excellence does not lie in the elaborate depiction of Taiwan’s unique religious ceremonies like a genre painting. When Zhong Li-he returned to his ‘hometown’, the content of ‘Taiwanesness’ he discovered was the energy and capacity itself to absorb and dissolve various elements regardless of origin.
  • 9.

    The Creative Ambiguity of Vision and the Formation of a Specific Perspective of Space From the Duality of Greek Vision to the Ambivalence of Renaissance Perspectivism

    BOGYEONG KIM | 2022, 79(2) | pp.297~325 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines the cultural variability of vision and a specific perspective of space formed in each period, focusing on the creative ambiguity of vision. Classical Greek epistemology, which originated from the Hellenic visual bias, produced a visual structure that presupposed the separation of subject and object, and a dichotomy between perception and thought, but the nobility of this Greek vision often had the opposite meaning and revealed ambiguity. The ambiguity of vision resulting from the duality of vision and the duality of light and the concept of ‘theoria’ continued to provide a fertile ground for the diversity of Western visual culture. This ambiguity of vision forms cultural variability, from the duality of the (anti-) visual tendency and visual seduction of the Middle Ages to the ambivalence that appeared in the arbitrariness of artificial perspective in the Renaissance. In addition, the perspective of space formed in each period was also achieved through creative re-acceptance of problems that had been previously undertaken based on this ambiguity of vision. The medieval perspective of space, which changed the ancient loose optical unity into a substantive unity that flows with light, was a precondition for the Renaissance perspective of space that achieved the mathematical spatialization of psychophysiological space. This study examines the dynamic flow of cultural variability of vision resulting from the original creative ambiguity of vision.
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  • 11.

    A Study on Eak-tai Ahn (VI) The Concert on the 10th of October, 1941 and Its Criticism

    Bogook KIM | 2022, 79(2) | pp.361~390 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study concerns the materials related from December 1940, when Ahn Eak-tai left the Ötvösch boarding school, to October 10, 1941, when there was a concert in Bigedo, Budapest. Contrary to what has been known thus far, this study claims that Ahn Eak-tai’s first encounter with Koichi Ehara was when he visited Romania in November 1940 for a performance, based on the performance program recorded at the time. Therefore, Ehara said in her writing that Ahn Eak-tai stayed in Europe and sought him to continue his studies, which was in December 1940, when Ahn Eak-tai had no choice but to leave the Báró Eötvös József-Collegium. The reason this point is important is because the point at which Ahn Eak-tai stayed in Ehara’s mansion and the point where his career as a conductor rose splendidly overlap. On October 10, 1941, he first stood on the conducting stage, which was different from the previous conducting stage and was more formal in form and content. Starting with this concert, Ahn Eaktai’s musical career reached its peak for about two years, focusing on activities in Germany. In this research, we took a closer look at this October 10th concert through data from Hungarian sources. And the harsh criticism that was published in some newspapers and music journals at the time was ultimately attributed to his inability to conduct in Hungary.
  • 12.

    Sharing and Representation of Knowledge in Digital Humanities Reviewing Overseas Digital Humanities Research Cases

    KIM JI SUN , Ryu Intae | 2022, 79(2) | pp.391~427 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In recent years, interest in digital humanities has grown steadily in Korea, but understanding of the context of constructing・using humanities data that is universally dealt with in the digital humanities field, as well as its academic significance, remains limited. The reasons for this are that it is difficult to organize at a glance the field collectively referred to as ‘digital humanities’ due to the variety of research formats in exist within. In addition, there are not many cases of digital humanities research in Korea and there are very few professional researchers in the field, as a result of which the channels that can convey the reality of digital humanities research are limited. Considering these points, this article attempts to organize the data processing process and result format of digital humanities projects by reviewing 24 representative cases focusing on sharing and representation of knowledge among overseas digital humanities research examples, as well as to clarify the academic significance contained therein. It is a common feature to create and open various data formats used in web environments, such as CSV and JSON, as well as machine-readable data represented by XML and RDF, while utilizing various formats of JavaScript libraries and Web Framework such as D3.js, Leaflet.js, JQuery and Angular.js. If each digital humanities research case discussed in this article is reviewed individually later, it can be used as a useful clue not only to examine the reality of digital humanities research, but also to specifically plan and carry out digital humanities research projects. At a time when we need to think seriously about where humanities research combined with the digital environment should go in detail, as well as how to accommodate the humanistic awareness and the understanding of digital technology that arises in the process, I hope this article will contribute in some small way.
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