‘Akṣa-dyūta’, often misleadingly translated as ‘the ancient Indian dice game’, has a significant meaning in the religious and social contexts of ancient India. The actual performance of the game requires clarification in respect to the oldest and prototypical form of this game. For this purpose, this paper sets three tasks as the parts of preparatory clarification. Firstly, the Korean translation of “Akṣa-sūkta” in Ṛgveda (10.34.1-14) will be provided, accompanied by some annotations. Secondly, the existing research results on this topic will be critically and briefly reviewed. Thirdly, the original meaning of the term ‘iriṇa’, denoting the place for the ‘akṣa-dyūta’, will be clarified. The significance and concrete meaning of the ‘akṣa-dyūta’ in various social and religious contexts in the Indian classics will be demonstratively mentioned in the end.