This case study illustrates the changes of five Korean English as a Second Language (ESL) students' language learning motivation in Toronto. For each participant, semi-structured interviews were conducted once a month for six months. The data demonstrate that 1) in the initial phase, their ESL motivation is represented by extrinsic motivation, which is related to their future job opportunities, and they try to actively participate in the target language community: 2) in the middle phase, they feel a growing sense of intrinsic motivation, but at the same time experience challenges in maintaining intrinsic motivation due to their ESL school or homestay changes: and 3) in the last phase, intrinsic motivation atrophies, and they focus on ESL learning either on their own or with the help of native speaking English tutors. The data show that the nature of ESL motivation of the students in the study is influenced by their unique sociocultural surroundings. The findings imply that without continuous effort to participate in the target language community, study abroad in an ESL society does not guarantee expected ESL proficiency.
This study presents an in-depth analysis of talk between immigrant shopkeepers and customers in terms of how participants' frequent frame shifts were constructed and how they contributed to friendly interactions between the two groups. The concepts of Goffman's (1974, 1981) 'situational frame' and 'frame shift' were applied to describe the process in which the participants frequently changed their stances and alignments toward their interactions in the stores. The data collected in two Korean-owned retail stores were transcribed for turn-by-turn analysis. An in-depth analysis of talk in this study shows ample evidence that the participants dynamically and actively participated in changing the situational frames, which contributed greatly to building solidarity and rapport between the participants.
The purpose of this research is to examine features of addressee honorifics by observing sentence endings used by the Jeongam village that consists of major speech group speakers from Chungcheongbuk-do and minor speech group speakers from Hamgyeongbuk-do. Addressee honorifics in the Jeongam dialect are distinct with respect to social status or social conditions such as social positional relationships between speaker and listener, the listener's native region, the occupation of the listener, intimacy between speaker and listener, and so on. The speakers of the Jeongam dialect recognize different levels of addressee honorifics such as 'Yeye, Yaya, Eungeung' and like the Hamgyeongbuk-do dialect it is possible to divide them into sub-levels. It is also observed that imperative and request sentence endings, which are used in the Jeongam dialect are a mixture of the Chungbuk dialect and the Hamgyeongbuk-do dialect. This is understood as an overlapping phenomena of the two dialects due to the fact that Hamgyeongbuk-do dialect speakers outnumber Jeongam speakers where Chungbuk dialect speakers live. This indicates that features of the Chungbuk dialect and the Hamgyeongbuk-do dialect coexist in the Jeongam dialect through borrowing.
This paper explores the language policy of Singapore and characteristics of Singapore English with reference to the sound system, pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. The multi-ethnic nation Singapore has four official languages: Malay, Chinese, Tamil, and English. The former three represent the three major ethnic groups in Singapore, whereas English serves as lingua franca among the ethnic groups. Singapore English has four major varieties of acrolect, upper mesolect, lower mesolect, and basilect. The pronunciation of Singapore English is different from Received Pronunciation, and the grammar deviates from standard English. Singapore English also has various lexical items which are borrowed from background languages. Exploring language policy in Singapore and distinctive features of Singapore English, this paper attempts to contribute to a better understanding of the dynamic nature of English as an international language, and to examine its utilization in effective cross-cultural communication in a global society.
The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility of interface research between English discourse studies and speaking assessment. Assessment expertise has already been interfaced with discourse-based studies to develop and validate oral proficiency tests of English. One of the important developments in language assessment over recent years is the introduction of qualitative discourse research methodologies to design, describe, and validate direct or semi-direct tests of speaking. This paper explored assessment research in the areas of the following discourse studies: interactional sociolinguistics, ethnography of communication, variation analysis, conversation analysis, critical discourse analysis. This review of discourse-related assessment literature showed that discourse studies have much potential for the validation tasks of current oral proficiency tests. Possible areas of discourse studies related to the new era of process-oriented language assessment were discussed.
This study attempts to analyze the honorific system in Middle Age Korean through a sociolinguistic approach. Although this area has been researched from many viewpoints so that mentioning the status or necessity of the honorary hierarchy in Korean is unnecessary, it is not an exaggeration to state that there has not been any previous research to explain it from a sociolinguistic perspective. The reason is that it is difficult to explain the speaking environment and the relationship to listeners clearly because the language data in the fifteenth century exist in the form of literature. Considering the aspects of use or characteristics of the honor hierarchy, in most cases a sociolinguistic perspective is necessary and should be applied to Middle Age Korean. This study defines the honorific system in Middle Age Korean as an 'absolute honor hierarchy' as opposed to a 'relative honor hierarchy' and aims to show the reason why there was a 'language step change' at that time. Furthermore, the importance of the 'solidarity' relationship in the real situation of society where the principle of 'power' dominated was explored.
This paper presents a sociolinguistic description and analysis of baby talk as practiced by Korean caregivers, focusing on a special lexical set that has been traditionally associated with caregiver-child interaction. The first part of the paper describes the repertoire of baby words, which includes a total of 55 lexical items, and examines their primary meaning and general modes of usage. The second part of the paper analyzes the structural characteristics of Korean baby talk in terms of its semantic, morphological, and phonological features. The analysis is geared to the task of identifying a range of characteristics of Korean baby talk within the framework of tentatively posited cross-cultural universals. The third part of the paper describes some significant usage aspects of Korean baby talk, particularly in the context of child development and the language socialization process. Here a reference is made to the folk model of child development and language acquisition, which is explicated from the emic point of view in Korea, and some aspects of the secondary use of baby talk in Korea are briefly described.
This article explores how the conflicting ideological positions of two leading Korean newspapers, Chosun Ilbo and Hankyoreh Shinmun, are linguistically represented in the editorials dealing with the recent controversy concerning the abolition of the ‘National Security Laws’. Within the framework of Critical Discourse Analysis, this article examines topics and key values at the macro-level, as well as transitivity, reference to and predications about actors, and rhetorical strategies at the micro-level. This study reveals that there are important qualitative and quantitative differences at each level between the two newspapers, and argues that, in keeping with the ‘ideological square’ of positive self-presentation and negative other-presentation suggested by van Dijk (2000), these differences can be seen as reflecting and reconstructing the two newspapers' institutional identities as mass media representing conservatism and liberalism, respectively.
The present research explores differences and similarities in the expressions of considerate attitudes between Korean and Japanese speakers. More specifically, this study attempts to explain differences in producing topics and responses in first encounters between the two in terms of politeness. The findings of the research can be summarized as follows: (i) Japanese speakers' overuse of polite expressions are vague and off point. This can be explained in terms of a face-saving act in the sense that Japanese speakers do not attempt to impose their ideas and opinions upon interlocutors, and (ii) Korean speakers use clear and definite expressions, compared to Japanese speakers. It appears that Koreans when expressing positive attitudes to the other party attempt to make their ideas and opinions clear and explicit as a way of establishing a strong relationship. This research shows that pragmatic use of languages reflected in the expressions of considerate attitudes is different between Korean and Japanese, in spite of the grammatical similarities between the two languages. This suggests that a comparative study of language use in terms of pragmatics and sociolinguistics is a prerequisite to a better understanding of the cultures and societies of Korea and Japan.
Based on in-depth interviews and observations, this ethnographic case study investigated how four Korean graduate students constructed their identity as they participated in class discussions and in other social spaces in a predominantly white mainstream American environment. Positioning theory is used to probe into the formation of the Korean students' perception of self in their social relation to their American counterparts (Harre & Langenhove 1999; Tan & Moghaddam 1995, 1999). The data reveals that the Korean students learned to utilize accessible resources of culture and knowledge as a means to participate in the classroom. In their social relation to Americans, they adopted an oppositional or separated identity, positioning themselves as different from the majority of Americans. This identity was shaped by their positioning in and outside the classrooms, background cultural knowledge, and English proficiency. The students socialized mainly with Korean colleagues and other Asian students. This study suggests a few implications for Korean students and American instructors in the United States.