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2009, Vol.17, No.1

  • 1.

    Reality and Prospects of Indigenous Languages as Medium of Instruction: The Case of Swahili in Tanzania

    Chul-Joon Yang | 2009, 17(1) | pp.1~31 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Tanzania has been rightly known as one of the most successful instances of having pursued an active endoglossic language policy as well as of promoting an indigenous African language, namely Swahili, as the medium of instruction. Since the early years of independence Swahili has been adopted as the medium of instruction for primary education. Currently, students at secondary and tertiary levels have to use English as the medium of instruction. The sudden transition from Swahili to English has been blamed as one of the root causes of the current crisis of educational standards. Many scholars both from Tanzania and abroad have consistently pointed out that the problem of the medium of instruction results in educational failure, but the Tanzanian government has continued to be half-hearted in this matter based on an exaggerated belief that English plays a pivotal role in the age of globalization. English in today's Tanzania is almost synonymous with upward social mobility, and even English-medium primary schools have been mushrooming in recent years. The conflict between individuals and official language policy is inevitable, because the former prefers English as a medium of instruction at all levels and the latter tries to maintain Swahili at least at primary levels. For a language-in-education policy to be viable, multi-faceted approaches need to be introduced and applied to reflect changing social realities in Tanzanian society. The language-in-education policy also needs to be considered in the context of social inequalities and the distribution of limited resources among members of the society.
  • 2.

    Comparative Analyses of the Sociolinguistic Features of Dell Hymes, William Labov, and John Gumperz from Meta-theoretical Perspectives

    Yunsang Jang | 2009, 17(1) | pp.33~60 | number of Cited : 3
    The purpose of this paper is to look into theoretical features of the three leading sociolinguists, Dell Hymes, William Labov, and John Gumperz. On the basis of meta-theoretical terms, which help one to see the differences and similarities of given theoretical viewpoints, this study attempts to delineate main characteristics of the sociolinguistic approaches of the scholars. They are discussed by getting answers to questions such as how they see language or language use, how they perceive sociolinguistics as a discipline in relation to linguistics, to what extent they differ regarding their sociolinguistic approaches and where they can be positioned in the tradition of the philosophy of science as well as that of language study. Dell Hymes' approach, along with his view on the ethnography of speaking, is characterized as featuring sociolinguistic relativism. His major concern is to understand and describe socioculturally-bound ways of speaking or communication. In contrast, William Labov's approach, along with his study of sound change at social and regional level, is characterized as featuring sociolinguistic realism. This means that he is concerned with scientific description of language shifts as they happen as a whole in the context of actual language use. In addition, John Gumperz's approach is characterized as sociolinguistic interactionism. Unlike the previous two scholars, his sociolinguistic approach is uniquely microscopic in that his main focus is placed on communicative interactions at the level of individual encounter, like interviews or face-to-face conversation.
  • 3.

    A Study of Campus Terms in Korea, Australia and in Japan: With a Focus on the Word Formation and Communicational functions

    윤사연 | 2009, 17(1) | pp.61~80 | number of Cited : 3
    With the development in the means of communications such as internet and broadcasting, we are witnessing a fast growth of neologism in every sector of our lives. Although neologism has often been a subject of criticism, we need to look at it from a different perspective for the following reasons. First, neologism is righteously a part of our language. Second, there are many newly created words that economically and efficiently convey variety of meanings reflecting a current culture. Third, it not only enriches our communication, through increased vocabulary and the expansion in the use of pre-existing words. This article aims to focus specifically on the neologism in campuses of Korean, Australian and Japanese Universities. 'Campus terms’ in this study are defined as the terms related to a university which play a role of slangs among the students. The related terms dealt in this study are the name of schools, class subjects, students, professors, grades and graduation. Although anyone can make or use the ‘Campus Terms’ both inside and outside of the university, the subjects of this study was limited to university students only. The similarities and differences in the campus vocabularies across the three countries have been compared and analysed. It is hoped that this research could provide some lights in the various ways of neologisms of Korean, English and Japanese.
  • 4.

    A Study of Different Aspects in Associating Antonyms between Koreans and Foreigners

    Park, Jung-eun | 2009, 17(1) | pp.81~108 | number of Cited : 5
    The purpose of this study is two folds: one is to present different perspectives between Koreans and foreigners in connecting a specific word in terms of associating antonyms; the other is to suggest some effective adoptions of these findings in teaching Korean vocabularies to foreign learners of Korean. It is often the case that people tend to think of a specific word together with its related antonym. The relationship between a word and its antonym is closely associated with the vocabulary network in the human brain. Therefore using this association in teaching Korean helps learners to remember the vocabularies easier. However the semantic field of each word is inevitably different depending on the cultural background of the learners. This research reveals that Koreans and foreigners often think of a different antonym of the same word. Although the association process seems to be similar between Koreans and foreigners, there seems to be a discrepancy in the extent of abstraction of antonyms. In other words, the difference arises not in the type of antonyms, but in the extent of the abstraction of each word. Based on this, Korean teachers have to be especially cautious in teaching antonyms by dealing with gradable antonyms and directional antonyms in a different manner. It should be also noted that teaching Korean vocabularies can be accomplished more effectively by recognizing and respecting different cultural backgrounds of the learners.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Community-terms in Internet Network: Focused on the Terms of Bicycle Community

    Kim, Jungwoo | 2009, 17(1) | pp.109~133 | number of Cited : 3
    The aim of this study is to examine the characteristics of community-terms on bicycle in internet network . Recently bicycle riding is one of the leading trends in Korea. The Korean Government is actively pursuing the policy for bicycle riding, and the people who are interested in bicycle riding are on the increase. New trend makes new words. This study is valuable in that it shows how social change produces effects on the change of words. For this study, 118 words posted on the community bulletin were collected and the characteristics of word formation were looked at from two perspectives. One was an analysis of the overall aspects of morphemic and semantic changes, and the other was concrete aspects of morphemic and orthographic changes. Next, the three psychological characteristics represented in the community-terms were explained: 1) relation strengthening through the contraction of buzzwords, 2) meaning reinforcement through allegorical figurations, and 3) emotional expressions through the variation of implication. In conclusion, community-terms seem to have the power to strengthen the unity of community members.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Use of Foreign Words in Korean Movie Titles

    박은하 | 2009, 17(1) | pp.135~157 | number of Cited : 10
    The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which foreign words are used in Korean movie titles. For this purpose, this study analyzed the titles of Korean movies released in or after 2000 and obtained the frequency with which foreign words are used in Korean movie titles. First, this study classified Korean movie titles on the basis of the words used as follows: native, Chinese, mixed, and foreign. As a result, mixed movie titles are the most frequent, followed by Chinese movie titles, native movie titles and foreign movie titles. Especially for the foreign movie titles, this study also classified them according to their morphological structures, the number of their syllables/words, year of release, and their genres. When the movie titles were sorted by morphological structures, movie titles with word-type were the most frequent, followed by the titles with phrase-type and those with sentence-type. And when the movie titles were sorted based on the number of syllables/words, the average syllable number was 4.75 and the average word number was 1.9. Finally, this study observed the patterns in the use of foreign words in Korean movie titles and further examined the types of misusage in terms of their Korean Romanization.
  • 7.

    Some Suggestions in More Effective Communication Education in the Military Organization

    박재현 | 2009, 17(1) | pp.159~183 | number of Cited : 8
    The purpose of this study is to examine the problems of miscommunication in military organizations and to suggest some ways in educating military personnel for better communication. In doing this, the presence of the barrier and obstacles in the military communication was closely examined and diagnosed in various ways: how the communicative obstacles affect the flow of information in the military and how each dimension of obstacles is associated with various identities of military personnel such as rank, gender, and age. The results reveal three factors in communication problems: first, the barriers of information flow in communication process; second, the conflict due to the complex identities of military members; third, the changes in attitude of the communication participants. Along with these findings, suggestions for some directions of effective communication education in military organization are also discussed. The communication education policy must consider the aspects of military job specifications and priority of middle-grade offices, It should be noted that continuing education is also important to deliver correctness, appropriateness, and effectiveness of communication.
  • 8.

    Types and Functions of Candidate Answers in English Conversation

    Haeyeon Kim | 2009, 17(1) | pp.185~209 | number of Cited : 2
    Conversation is basically a process of exchanging information, establishing common ground among interactants. In conversation, speakers often produce candidate answers in response to a prior question as a way of cooperating with each other. This study investigates types and functions of candidate answers from an interactional perspective, exploring sequential structures which involve the use of candidate answers. First, it classifies types of candidate answers in interaction in terms of same-turn and next-turn candidate answers. Second, based on the classification of candidate answers, it examines sequential aspects in the negotiation process for securing correct information. Third, this research examines interactional functions of candidate answers. Examination shows that functions of candidate answers can be summarized into the following terms: (i) securing correct information, (ii) seeking confirmation, (iii) inviting correction, (iv) indicating a limited state of knowledge, and (v) displaying collaborative attitudes. Finally, this research shows an interactive nature of conversation which is reflected in doing questioning and offering a candidate answer in the negotiation process between interactants for seeking information about the referents being talked about.
  • 9.

    A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Ttaengkyu ‘thank you’ and Ssori ‘sorry’ Used in Korean

    LEE, JEE-YOUNG | 2009, 17(1) | pp.211~236 | number of Cited : 4
    This study aims to examine the use of English borrowed politeness markers ttaengkyu ‘thank you’ and ssori ‘sorry’ in Koreans' everyday conversation. A close examination of a sociolinguistic survey reveals that the English borrowings ttaengkyu and ssori and their Korean counterparts are used differently in connection with the relation between speakers and settings. They do not appear to have much difference in meaning. However, ttaengkyu and ssori occur in informal settings and are used to juniors or inferiors, while their Korean counterparts are used to seniors or superiors in formal settings. As motivations for using ttaengkyu and ssori, modernization and English education in Korea are considered.
  • 10.

    Gossip Talk and Participation during L2 On-line Chat

    김정연 | 2009, 17(1) | pp.237~262 | number of Cited : 1
    This study aims to examine the interplay between on-line talk irrelevant to a task, i.e., gossip talk, and participant alignment during task processing. Specifically, this study examines qualitatively how the gossip talk contributes to L2 interactants' configuration of participant alignment during on-line problem-solving activities. The data consist of the scripts of more than sixty hours of L2 on-line chatting of college level English learners. The qualitative, empirical analysis has shown that the participants' knowledge of extra-task world is disclosed during the gossip talk either between problems to solve or at the beginning of the chat. The task-embedded gossip occurring between problems to solve has generated fewer turns than the chat-opening gossip. The task-embedded gossip was also limited in its effects on reconfiguration of participatory structure and functioned only to reconfirm the predefined participant framework. Chat-opening gossip, by contrast, made significant contributions to emergent participant alignment, which was reflected during the task processing in the subsequent turns. The findings indicate that the unfocused action, i.e., the gossip talk, contributes to the focused action, i.e, task processing, in terms of construction of participant alignment.