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2012, Vol.20, No.2

  • 1.

    A Comparative Sociolinguistic Study of Protestant and Buddhist Prayer Texts with a Focus on Sentence Type, Speech Act, and Hearer Honorifics.

    Hyeon-Seok Kang | 2012, 20(2) | pp.1~31 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    This paper analyzes 180 prayer texts of Protestantism and Buddhism (90 per each), and investigates differences in sentence types, speech acts, and hearer honorifics. More various sentence types were observed in Buddhist prayers than in Protestant prayers. In addition. more declaratives were used in the former, while more imperatives were found in the latter. In Buddhist prayers, speech acts of stating and promising were performed more often, whereas in Protestant prayers petitioning and thanking speech acts were found in a higher proportion. An attempt was made to explain these differences on the basis of different doctrinal and philosophical background of the two religions. Two kinds of analysis of hearer honorifics were conducted in this study: The first was based on the speech levels of different sentence ending styles; the second, a comprehensive analysis, was performed incorporating all the relevant factors in hearer honorification: sentence ending styles, politeness markers ‘-op-’ & ‘-si-’, and the auxiliary verb ‘juda’. The latter analysis proved to be more accurate and could reveal inter-religion differences that the former was not able to disclose. Different patterns of hearer honorifics used in the two religions’ prayer texts were attributed to two distinctly transmitted linguistic subcultures. Two additional phenomena of synchronic and diachronic variation observed in the prayers are also introduced and examined: 1) speech accommodation phenomena (Giles & Ogay 2007) found in the prayers of teachers teaching children in churches and Buddhist temples, 2) ongoing language change in prayer language.
  • 2.

    A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Fetus Naming and Its Diffusion.

    Kang, Hui-suk | 2012, 20(2) | pp.33~61 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study attempted a socilinguistic analysis on the fetus naming and its diffusion as a new custom. The subjects of the study were 248 first-graders of elementary schools, 175 young children from nurseries and 423 parents who are living in Gwangju and Damyang in Jeonnam. The results are summarized as follows:First of all, the types of fetus naming and naming principles were analysed and it was discovered that most of fetus names were Korean, not Chinese, such as bokdeongi, teunteuni or ttolttori while real names were usually Chinese. Real names were made by parents or name experts in consideration of Saju or meanings of names after babies were born. However, fetus names were given by their parents in the early or middle periods of pregnancy. As a result of examining how many children had fetus names in each class, it was discovered that 43.5% of the first graders had fetus names and 76.9% of young children in nurseries had them. It shows that the custom of fetus naming is expanding very fast and such expansion was found both in urban and rural areas. When motives to give fetus names were analysed, it was discovered that parents intended to talk to their babies calling their names every day, thinking the fetus are lives with personality. They believed that when names are called frequently, the meanings of the names can be achieved. 66.5% responded that fetus names are necessary. Also, parents felt babies exist through fetus names. The names were means of conversation and worked to enhance friendliness and rapport between parents and their babies. The names gave helps to prenatal care as well as delivered what parents expect to the babies, enhanced rapport between parents and babies, removed anxiety of pregnancy and added happiness to their life.
  • 3.

    An Analysis of Inaccuracies in the Contents of High School English Textbooks

    Kyung Suk Kim | 2012, 20(2) | pp.63~92 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This study investigates if there exist inaccuracies in the contents, particularly reading passages, of high school English textbooks. 18 textbooks(three from each of six publishers) were selected. The results show that there are 27 inaccuracies in the reading passages whose contents were examined in-depth if there was any factually inaccurate information. The inaccuracies can be grouped into three categories. The first category has to do with inaccuracies which might have been resulted from mistakes by referring to an unreliable source or in the process of editing. There are nine inaccuracies which have to do with date, age, or name. The second category of inaccuracies includes three sub-categories: 1) too assertive information with not providing conditions for the information to be valid; 2) information twisted by the author for his/her own hidden purpose; 3) out-of-date information. There are a total of 12 inaccuracies in the second category. The third category of inaccuracies has to do with not providing crucial information necessary to fully understand the reading passages. The six inaccuracies of the category can lead the readers to misinterpret the contents of the passages. In the conclusion section, the questions of where the inaccuracies come from, how they can be prevented before they occur, and how they can be handled after they are printed in the textbooks are discussed.
  • 4.

    Analysis of English Newspapers’ Coverage of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan, Korea, and the U.S.

    Myung-Hee Kim | 2012, 20(2) | pp.93~114 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The present paper aims to explore the different perspectives found in the English newspapers' coverage of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan, Korea and the U.S., by using a corpus-based critical discourse analysis, The data is drawn from newspaper articles published in the Japan Times, the Korea Times, and the New York Times from March 11, 2011 to April 30, 2011. It is assumed that the different perspectives or ideological stances taken by each newspaper will affect the articles both quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitatively, it is hypothesized that the keywords list and the thematic distribution of the articles in each national newspaper will be influenced by the perspectives of the society or culture a given newspaper is part of. A qualitative analysis of the headlines and the articles will also show the newspapers' different perspectives of the same event. This paper uses the framework of the ‘ideological square (van Dijk 1998)’ to explore this issue: the positive representation of one's own group and the negative representation of that of others.
  • 5.

    Intimacy and Gender in Expressing Gratitude in L2

    Kim Jeongyeon | 2012, 20(2) | pp.115~147 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study examines how Korean learners of English perform the speech act of ‘gratitude’ according to the variables of intimacy and gender. In a contrastive analytic framework, their behaviors are cross-examined against Korean native and English native speakers in terms of their choice of strategies and uses of politeness markers. The data have been obtained from 43 Americans and 91 Koreans assigned to three groups: English native speakers, Korean learners of English, and Korean native speakers. A discourse completion test and a subsequent interview revealed Korean learners of English showed a similar pattern as Korean native speakers in the uses of politeness markers to emphasize their thanking by intimacy levels. However, the way in which they deal with gender in English was divergent not only from American but also from Korean. They depended on the strategy of compliment while performing the speech act of gratitude, and were inclined to use negative politeness strategies, similar to the Korean language group. Korean EFL textbooks and classrooms, therefore, need to include not only more diverse contexts in which ‘gratitude’ is necessary, but also the ways in which the English speech act is performed in a culturally appropriate manner.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Aspect of Diversification of the Myeongtae's Lexical Items from the Viewpoint of Performer.

    Jisuk Kim | 2012, 20(2) | pp.149~184 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    This study is to inquire into the aspect of diversification of the Myeongtae's lexical items by way of the vocabularies and expressions related to Myeongtae which varied according to the cognitive aspect of performer. And also, this study is to lay the foundation for the construction of the lexical semantic network of Myeongtae based on the findings of this inquiry. The superordinates referring to Myeongtae were 'Myeongtae, Maengtae' in both the fishing villages and the Deokjang. However, the subordinates of Myeongtae varied according to the performer's cognitive viewpoints. The fishermen expressed Myeongtae into ‘Jibangtae, Daetae, Saegogi, Naksitae, Moktae’ according to distance, size, condition, fishing tools, characteristics. Unlike the fishermen, the workers in Deokjang expressed Myeongtae into another subordinates. In Deokjang, ‘Daetae, Jungtae, Sotae’ were used according to the size as in the fishing villages. However, ‘-tong, -tongbaegi’ were used more universally in Deokjang. Additionally, ‘Jjintae, Norangtae, Naktae’ were used according to condition, color, characteristics, which means another aspect of diversification appeared. Surely, this aspect of diversification is very relevant with the Deokjang workers' environmental factors. It is certain that several classification mechanisms were performed for the name of one object. By way of the performer's cognitive way, the classification mechanism of the vocabulary was able to be drawn. The ‘distance, fishing tools’ for the fishermen and the ‘-tong, -tongbaegi’ for the Deokjang workers were functioned as the first mechanism, and then various lexical items were diversified according to the condition and the characteristics. In this study which carried out a practical vocabulary research, it is found out that linguistic and cultural aspects, the performer's cognition influence on even the lexical items. Also this study examines out the classification mechanism of the Myeongtae's lexical items. This study has a significance in that it is helpful for recognizing everyday vocabularies about Myeongtae which have lived with our people and history for a long time, and also for recording everyday vocabularies of fishing villages which is in danger of extinction.
  • 7.

    Geographic Information System(GIS) and sociolinguistic factors- study on the information of Korean language education.

    Ha-Soo Kim | JU HYANGA | Nahyung, KONG and 1other persons | 2012, 20(2) | pp.185~211 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In sociolinguistic research, it has been found that linguistic phenomena are influenced more by extralinguistic factors than intralinguistic ones. In particular, issues such as language policy, language contact, langage extinction and language variation are strongly affected by geographical characteristics of the region where a language is being used and taught. In order to analyze linguistic phenomena and geographical characteristics synthetically, we introduce linguistic typological methods using Geographic Information System (GIS), an automated system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spacial data. Using GIS, we present some maps of the geographical distribution of foreigners living in Korea and the educational institutions of Korean language for foreigners in order to discuss the regional conditions for Korean language education in these areas. We also examine married immigrant women's accessibility to multi-cultural support centers with GIS.
  • 8.

    The Principle and Practice to Transcribe the Name of Foreign Place in Korean

    Hansaem Kim | 2012, 20(2) | pp.213~237 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper discusses the basic principle of representing loan words and the real spelling in the dictionary. The current Loan word Orthography of Korean have two mainstays: the one, a loan word belongs to Korean, and the other, a loan word is written in original pronunciation. Though the regulation for representing loan word is existing, there are various way for representing the name of foreign place in actual. The most important thing is not theoretical argument but user's convenience. The name of places based on traditional Korean sound for Chinese character in the culture sphere of Chinese Characters - centered familiar place and important inaspect of history and people - are used in common and recognized as normative notation. According to the frequency of courpus and internet, the ratio of Chinese names of place written with conventional way based on Chinese character is much more than that of Japanese names. As for names of country, there are three kinds of synonym - official full names, generic names, and names by transliteration. The official names were fixed by the National Institute of the Korean Language in cooperation with Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
  • 9.

    Do they teach the prospective teachers properly?: Suggestions based on an analysis of the courses on culture at the English education departments of Korean colleges.

    Kyungsook Paik | 2012, 20(2) | pp.239~268 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    This study analyses the contents of the courses on culture at the English education departments of Korean colleges to evaluate if the prospective teachers are learning properly what it takes for teaching culture. Referring to the relevant theories and the results of a pilot questionnaire on the practice and difficulties in culture education at Korean secondary schools, this study diagnoses the courses on culture(/culture teaching) by examining the contents of the appropriate syllabuses. The analysis shows that most departments offer a culture-related course or two, but mostly about culture on a macro-level. It also reveals that contents about the multicultural nature of the English speaking communities are not properly included and that the relevant teaching approaches/methods are rarely dealt with. The contents targeting the prospective teachers’ understanding of the ‘intercultural communicative competence’ were rarely found, which inevitably discloses the college educators’ lack of adequate concept of ‘culture education’ in this globalized era. This study finally suggests that the ethnographic perspective and knowledge along with the notion of ‘intercultural communicative competence’ serve as the key concepts in constructing a suitable model of cultur
  • 10.

    Repeating the Interviewer: Repetition Strategies by Chinese EFL Learners in NS-NNS Interview

    Kyung-Hee Suh | 2012, 20(2) | pp.269~289 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This paper examines the sequential contexts where repetition is observed in NS-NNS interview interactions involving Chinese learners of English. Special reference is made to how repetition practiced by NS and NNS is differently distributed in ways consistent with their identities situated in the institutional setting of interview. The examination of data reveals that Chinese EFL learners frequently use repetition as a discourse strategy. They repeat the topically salient phrases or key words from the prior utterances of native speakers at the utterance initial position in adjacency pairs. Such an allo-repetition (repetition of others) is to index topicality, which helps signal cognitive, textual, and affective participation or involvement in contextualized discourse. Such a repetition also functions to buy time for the speaker to finish planning his/her next move without relinquishing the floor. Here, repetition is deployed as a means of creating joint cognition and as a strategy with which partially competent speakers can find room in interaction, while a competent speaker can provide scaffolded help collaboratively. We can see that repetition is a social activity, part of our everyday behavior and not just a marker of a "disfluency" or "sloppy speaker" (Schegloff 1987). Repetition clearly has the power as a communication and negotiation tool
  • 11.

    University Students' Perceptions about NESPs and NNESPs in EMCs

    Yang, Taesun | 2012, 20(2) | pp.291~312 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean university students' perceptions about NESPs (Native English Speaking Professor) and NNESPs (Non-native English Speaking Professor) in EMCs (English Medium Course) to suggest better ways to implement EMCs in university settings. 100 university students who had an experience in taking EMCs with both NESPs and NNESPs answered the questionnaire and 30 students out of them were also interviewed to consolidate the data. Students expressed that they could benefit from NESPs in the area of language. On the other hand, they thought that they could have more chances to broaden content knowledge with the help of NNESPs. Based on the results of the study, the following suggestions were made for NESPs and NNESPs to implement EMCs in a successful way: NESPs should deepen their knowledge of content areas. NNESPs should use a monitoring service at the university to get comments on their teaching, participate in one-on-one tutoring sessions to practice English with NESPs, participate in meetings to get effective teaching tips from experts, and the university should regularly conduct needs surveys and do ongoing analyses of students' and professors' needs to provide more customized EMCs.
  • 12.

    “YOUR MAMA” Routine among Preadolescent Korean Boys in America

    Yun, Seongwon | 2012, 20(2) | pp.313~341 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study explores the use of the “your mama” routine by four preadolescent Korean boys in order to understand how this discursive practice contributes to their construction of social identities. The boys’ interactions in a Korean community in America had been videotaped for two years and transcribed to analyze what it means for them to code-switch between English and Korean during the play. The findings indicate that code-switching signals the processes of meaning construction and indexes multiple socio-cultural meanings, functions, stances, and identities. First, by breaking the primary code preference, Korean and switching to English, the Korean boys are appropriating and subverting a tough African American voice and they extend their Korean masculinity; however, they maintain a strong Korean identity through their preferred code choice, Korean, which is shared and powerful in the Korean community. Second, in the micro-level, the code-switching between English and Korean creates multilayered indexical social meanings: a) footing to create different stances, b) contextualization cues to construct different contexts by breaking a frame, and c) metapragmatics (discussion about language in use). To conclude, the social meanings of code-switching can be (re)constructed depending on the relationships between local contexts and multiple intentional meanings of different people.
  • 13.

    A comparative analysis of the rhetorical sensitivity of Korean and Chinese university students in their twenties.

    Yi Yu-mi | Park, Jaehyeon | 2012, 20(2) | pp.343~365 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    purpose of this study is to examine cultural differences by comparatively analyzing the rhetorical sensitivity of Korean and Chinese university students in their twenties. Rhetorical sensitivity is a concept proposed by Hart & Burks(1972) that examines the personal traits of an individual when communicating with others. In this study, Eadie & Powell (1991)’s RHETSEN 2 is used to conduct a survey on Koreans and Chinese in their twenties. The result revealed that there is a significant difference between the two countries when it comes to rhetorical reflectors. Compared to Korea, China’s rhetorical reflectors ratio was higher; the ratio of Chinese women’s rhetorical reflectors was especially the highest. Additionally, according to the analysis of rhetorical reflectors survey response, Chinese university students have a stronger tendency to avoid arguments compared to Korean university students. Consequently, although both Korea and China belong to a collectivist culture, individualistic traits tend to appear more distinctly among the younger generation of Korea.
  • 14.

    A Study of English Neologisms with Some Comparing Notes on Korean Neologisms

    Jinseong Lee | 2012, 20(2) | pp.367~400 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study examines how English is reflecting the changing society on neologisms, and how the language and the society is interwoven in neologisms of English. It also investigates English neologisms from the perspective of morphological formation and semantic change. In doing this Korean neologisms are partly dealt with comparatively to bring out the contrastive characters of the two languages. From the sociolinguistic point of view, the data were classified into three categories: society, life style, and people. These were further subdivided into several areas: general affairs, economics, IT new jobs, new technology under the category of society; language, daily lives, leisure, health, food, and apparel under the life style; men and women, men, women, youngsters and the olds under the people. It was found that the categorial classifications of neologisms reveals how social change is reflected on neologisms of each language, and also discloses the way the two languages enrich their expressive power. From the perspective of morphological formation and semantic change, the English data were classified into compounds, new words, verbal phrases, and independent expressions. The compounds were subdivided into simple compounds and compounds within compounds to diagnose the degree of recursive character in English. In the category of new words, the followings were investigated: affixations, blendings, abbreviations, acronyms, euphemisms, semantic shifts, foreign languages, functional shifts, coinages and clippings. The distribution of neologisms in regard to their parts of speech was also examined. In comparing notes of the two languages, the followings are provided: first, sociocultural character reflected on neologisms; second, the frequencies and characterizations of neologisms from morphological perspectives; third, the distribution of parts of speech.
  • 15.

    A Study on Politeness Strategy in Advertising Texts

    JEON JUNG MI | 2012, 20(2) | pp.401~423 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    This study aims to examine the aspect of realization for politeness strategy in advertising text. As the request in advertising text is the act of demanding something, it is the hard speech act in the position of listener. Accordingly utterer is needed to prepare proper way for not losing each other's face after full consideration of listener's position. This study has been carried out based on the strategy and stratagem suggested by Brown & Levinson(1987). Negative politeness strategy is preferred mainly in public service advertisement. Also, it is strategy that positive politeness strategy is preferred in commercial advertisement. This stratagem reflects utterer's strong intention which tries not to make listener reject by reducing listener's burden. Politeness are used by important strategy in advertising text as well as conversation. Strategic difference in the advertising text appears upon its own purpose which is public benefit or a specific profit which is pursued by private companies. But, politeness strategy used in advertising text is conversation strategy that is attained between utterer and listener.
  • 16.

    A Study on The Emergence of Terms for Female Body, and Changes in Perspectives - with focus on female words such as pregnancy, delivery, and womb.

    Cho, Nam-min | 2012, 20(2) | pp.425~446 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This research studies emergence and changes of female words, especially about pregnancy, delivery, and womb, through analysis of medical books and female literature in Chosun dynasty and modern enlightenment era. It studies how females recognized their bodies and gender differently from Chosun dynasty’s patriarchal system to rapidly changing modern enlightenment period. Birth (and delivery) is one of the indispensable steps of human life, and the whole process of pregnancy and delivery is closely related to pregnant mother. Through pregnancy and delivery, infants and mothers attain new social status, and, at the same time, experience significant changes in family relationship. As a consequence, while related literatures such as medical books published in Chosun dynasty were focused on being pregnant and delivering infant, those published in modern era paid more attention to pregnant mothers’ body and health. It was thanks to the import of western medicine and enhanced scientific understanding of pregnancy and delivery. More frequent mention about female health and body were found in modern female and family literature, and it was found that perspective on and understanding about pregnancy, delivery, and infant care were changed. It was the results of changes in social and cultural understanding of females given that perception on bodies are developed and defined in social and cultural ways.
  • 17.

    Development of Capitalism and Change of Language Teaching Methods

    TAE-RIN CHO | 2012, 20(2) | pp.447~464 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the change of language teaching methods in the development process of capitalism. First of all, this paper starts with a brief review of the relation between development of capitalism and commodification of language. And then, the diachronic change of language teaching methods (Grammar-Translation method, Direct method, Audio-lingual method, etc.) is investigated with its political economic meanings. Thirdly, analysing the origin and the characteristic of the communicative language teaching method, this paper looks into the significance and the problem of this method which emerges recently in the development process of capitalism. Finally, examining the change of Korean language teaching methods in the development process of Korean capitalism, this paper probes specially the measures to overcome the limit of the communicative language teaching method in the Korean language education field.
  • 18.

    Remarks on the Areal Linguistics from the Sociolinguistic Viewpoint

    Heo Jae-young | 2012, 20(2) | pp.465~479 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This report aims to survey and describe remarks on areal linguistics from the sociolinguistic viewpoint. It has an important bearing on the relations of language to society. Many dialectologists paid attention to these traditional areal languages. But sociolinguilism was only established in the 1960's. This science was introduced to Korea in the 1980's and the Sociolinguistic Society of Korea(SSK) was established in 1993. So I focused on the graduate theses, dissertations and books after 1990's. The results are as follow:First, the trend of sociolinguistic areal language studies was interested in special area communities( for example administrative districts) rather than divisions of dialect in Korea. In particular, some scholars were concerned with YEONBYEON(China's Far East) community after established diplomatic relations in 1992. Second, these studies focused on the factors of language change and attitudes to language. Third, some books and reports treated the phenomena of language use, and dialect in literature works and in national daily-life language.