The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea 22(3). This study examines gender differences, focusing on the functions of English tag questions using three social variables: age, education, and private/public situations. This research is a corpus-based study which used 753 tag questions extracted from the British component of International Corpus of English (ICE-GB). This paper is the sequel to Kim Hye-Sook(2010), which examined gender differences in the frequency of tag usage. In this present study attention was turned to functions of tag questions to examine whether the gender differences in the tag usage were related to different tag functions. The four functions considered in the study were informational, facilitating, softening and challenging(cf., Holmes 1995; Tottie & Hoffmann 2006). The 753 tags were categorized into those four functions by a native speaker of British English. The tags used by the British men and women in the ICE-GB corpus had no significant gender differences in the functions of tag questions. The tags were used consistently in the order of informational, facilitating, challenging, and softening by both men and women regardless of age, education and private/public situations.
This study investigates some pragmatic effects of Korean college students’ e-mail letters about their grades sent to English speaking professors. The pragmatic effects of 51 naturally occurring e-mail messages were evaluated by 4 native professors of English from the U.S. and New Zealand. The results show that Korean students at their intermediate proficiency level in English were found to be not very successful in writing e-mails inquiring about their grades. Their inappropriate pragmatic behaviors include structural informality of the letters, illegitimate goal of the letters, rude or not specific enough requests, some irrelevant or inefficient supportive moves and casual languages and symbols. Based on the students’ pragmatic failures in their messages, some relevant pragmatic norms of the native English professors were identified first, which were then compared to some Australian students’ linguistic behaviors in the same speech event to elicit the common core of the pragmatic rules of native speakers of English. Some additional interviews with the native evaluators were also carried out to clarify their baseline norms regarding some controversial aspects of the messages and to acquire some ethnographic information about their relationship with the students as well as other off-line interactions and practices in their academic community. This study finally discusses some implications of the results from the perspectives of applied linguistics and intercultural rhetoric.
This study analyzes how a journalist can design his question to strike a balance between two competing journalistic norms-neutrality and adversarialness-within the framework of conversation analysis. An analysis of the three news interview segments in JTBC News 9 reveals that the interviewer, Seok-hee Sohn, resorts to the extensive use of prefaced questions. These prefaced questions depict the third person-attributed statements in a way that distances Sohn from his more overtly opinionated remarks. The use of quotation from others serves a dual function: it enables the interviewer to express adversarial criticism of his guests, while maintaining a formally neutralistic posture. Yet this strategy is also employed to give the interviewee the chance to justify him/herself. Particular attention should be given to the observation that Sohn deliberately refrains from asking questions after revealing sensitive details about the interviewee. The interviewer sometimes implicitly voices his own adversarial stance even in a seemingly neutralistic question, thereby showing how the interviewer can function as a ‘devil's advocate’ in a news interview. The question design examined in this study suggests that innovation in question design and rhetoric in news interviews can reflect changes in social and political attitudes, norms, and behavior.
The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of research findings on world Englishes in the context of Korean, Chinese, and Japanese societies, based on an analysis of 89 research articles published in two international journals, World Englishes and English Today, between 2005 and 2014. After a careful review of them, the articles were classified into four important topic areas: the local variety, including language users’ attitudes toward it and its linguistic characteristics (36%); other varieties of world Englishes, with subcategories of perception, education, and intelligibility of those varieties (17%); English use in the given social context, further categorized into descriptive analysis and critical analysis of English use (25%); English teaching and learning, including general EFL teaching/learning topics and English- medium instruction (18%); and others (4%). This paper presents important findings surrounding each topic area and further discusses their sociolinguistic implications and suggests future research direction.
The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea 22(3). The purpose of this study is to examine the way to minimize the confusions regarding spacing address and reference forms such as ‘씨’, ‘님’, ‘양’, ‘군’ and ‘가’ among Korean language speakers. This paper explains that the reason for this confusion starts from the fact that Korean language speakers usually interpret the principals for spacing arbitrarily.
As another reason for the confusion for spacing address and reference forms, this study examines perceptional changes among Korean language speakers. ‘님’, for example, was attached only to kinship terms at first. It’s usage, however, has been expanded by combining with common nouns or terms for relationships and positions and by being attached to family names or given names such. Through this procedure, the native speakers of Korean language seem like not only perceive the term as an honorific term but also consider it as a term which constructs its own meaning.
In this study, they are classified as bound nouns based on intuition of native speakers, independence rate, existence of practice before those words. Through this procedure, this paper tries to arrange the words as a united grammatical unit, and hence to minimize the confusion.
The present study examines the use of the speech act of complaint in Korean by Chinese office workers in Korea, with particular focus on their use of high-level strategies. By looking at the differences in speech act between Korean-speaking Chinese office workers and native Korean office workers from a cross-cultural pragmatics perspective, the study aims to shed light on intercultural differences and explore their implications for Korean language education. High-level strategies in the speech act of complaint are broadly classified into direct, indirect, mixed, and silent strategies. By means of a discourse completion test (DCT), 50 Chinese office workers and 50 Korean office workers were surveyed with respect to their use of the complaint speech act. The results indicated that Chinese office workers tend to use more indirect strategies than their Korean counterparts and that Korean office workers use the silent strategy more often than Chinese workers. Significant results were also obtained by comparing the use of high-level strategies by the two subject groups according to variables such as social status, familiarity, age, gender, and employment period.
The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea 22(3). This study is a follow-up study of Lee's(2001) “A study of malpractice of orthography among Korean college students-with a special emphasis on the influence of chatting language”. Within the similar research framework, Some malpractice of orthography in current college students' essays were compared with those of Lee's. The aim of this study, therefore, is to find out how, in what aspects and extents, the influence of chatting language on formal written language has manifested different characteristics after a span of 13 years. Regardless of the drastically increased use of chatting language these days, most of its characterizing features were found to be significantly declined in current students' essays, compared with Lee's(2001). Expressions or vocabularies mainly suitable for spoken colloquial language, however, were observed to be adopted much more frequently and freely in formal written essays. This study additionally investigated the Korean orthography rules on separating words, which were not dealt in Lee's. Violations relating to separating words were found to be seriously grave, which can be considered as a direct negative influence of general writing practice of chatting language, where the rules are routinely ignored chiefly for the economy of space and time.
This study aimed at exploring languages of a medical community from the sociolinguistic perspective. Based on collecting the data of languages in the medical community, the data demonstrated their language use. This study examined ways of word formation and discovered characteristics of languages in the medical community. This study conducted an interview with a medical personnel(intern) working in a hospital affiliated with university. The meanings of categorized expressions were explained and then word formations of the expressions were analyzed. As a result, there were four kinds of abbreviations in the way of word formations that are initialism, acronyms, clipping, and blending. And there were four types of complex words. Abnormal expressions, which are different from daily expressions, were also found in ways of constructing phrases and differences in usage of meaning. Implications of the characteristics unfolding through the meanings that are confined to the medical society and diverse types of word forming were discussed. This study found that three characteristics are economics from effective work performance, professionalism from need of knowledge in medical expertise, and exclusiveness from sharing a sense of belonging to exclude other groups.
The present study addresses the deviant uses of English currently widespread in Korean TV commercials. In order to demonstrate how the use of English in TV commercials deviates from the norm shared by native English speakers, Korean TV commercials that are considered to contain errors were collected and classified into phonological, grammatical, and pragmatic deviations. In addition, an in-depth survey was conducted among two different language groups―Korean domestic viewers and native English speakers―in order to compare their perceptions of the seriousness of the deviations. Eighty-six Koreans and ten native English speakers participated in the survey, rating individual English copy in terms of its acceptability, intelligibility, and impact. The native speakers were also interviewed for supplementary information about their reaction to the ads. The analysis of the data revealed that native speakers were much more sensitive to the grammatical and pragmatic errors in the copy. Creative constructions lacking linguistic acceptability were found to hamper understanding and failed to impress either domestic viewers or native English speakers, suggesting that reckless use of English in TV commercials should be reconsidered.
The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea 22(3). pp. XX-XX. The WOORIMAL DORO CHATGI (Recovery of the Korean Language) was published by the Education Department in 1948. This book was as a result of a campaign to purify the Korean language.
At this time, the campaign to purify meant the elimination of Japanese remnants. Many Korean scholars were interested in language problems. Jang Ji-young wrote an essay “Let's purify our nation’s language” in the HANGEUL [the journal of the HANGEUL HAKHOI(the Korean Alphabet Society)]. The WOORIMAL DORO CHATGI was based on Jang’s essay. I analysed this book’s materials from two perspectives. One is the section of terms, and the other is the purification methods.
The selection of terms were totally Japanese remnants. But the Japanese Chinese character's terms were similar to Korean terms. Hence many terms of purification were not used, but the Korean pronunciation style’s terms were used. I think that these types of terms were unnecessary for purification.
There were four methods of purification. The first was the recovered mother language. The second was a search for our old sayings, the third was the use of old chinese words, and the fourth was the creation of new words. These methods were absolutely necessary for the purification of the language. But I think these term types contained some problems. Some purification terms differ from original terms, some were not used, and parts of the purification terms had negative meanings.
I think that these materials contained several kinds of limitations, but this campaign had great historical significance for the Korean purification.