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2010, Vol.2, No.1

  • 1.

    The Apearance and Its Development of Vietnamese Blue and White Porcelain

    In Gyu KIM | 2010, 2(1) | pp.1~16 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Vietnamese Blue and White Porcelain is famous for its unique form and colour of cobalt. It is said to be producted from the late of 14th Century to now. Vietnamese Blue and White Porcelain of 14th Century has a Mum design similar to that of Blue and White Porcelain of 14th Century in China. The Vietnamese Blue and White Porcelain of 15th, 16th Century was trade Ceramics which were shiped overseas. A base, having a dated inscription coresponding to 1450 and kept in the Topkapi Saray Museum is the best example of Vietnamese trade ceramics. The Vietnamese Blue and White Porcelain of 15th, 16th Century was a substiute for Chinese trade ceramics in these times when China had a police of the closure of China borderers to sea trade to protect China and was exported to the western Asia and the Southeast Asia. In recent, Fustat relics of Egypt was excavated the Vietnamese Blue and White Porcelain. It means that Vietnamese Ceramics of 15th, 16th Century was substiute for Chinese trade ceramics. In additon, Thai Blue celadon of 15th Century was exported to the western Asia as like Vietnamese Blue and White Porcelain. But when a police of the closure of China borderers to sea trade in China was stoped in the late of 16th Century and Chinese Ceramics were reborn in the same time, the Vietnamese Blue and White Porcelain was declined as trade items.
  • 2.

    Iconography on the Reliefs of the Life Story of Budha in Chandi Borobudur

    Geunja Yoo | 2010, 2(1) | pp.17~53 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The Chandi Borobudur was likely constructed around 80 AD, during the period of the Sailendra dynasty in central Java, Indonesia. The Chandi Borobudur have 1460 narative panels of reliefs which are distributed from the hiden foot to the fourth galery. The 160 panels show various scenes of actions producing the coresponding results acording to the Karmavibhanga(分別善 惡報應經) text. Blameworthy activites with their purgatorial punishments and praiseworthy activites with their subsequent rewards are both shown. The 120 panels depict the biography of Buddha acording to the Lalitavistara (方廣大莊嚴經) text. The 620 panels depict stories from Jatakas (本生譚) and Avadanas (譬喩經). The stories of 560 panels are based on Mahayayana (入法界品, 48 panels) and Bhadrucari (普賢行願讚, 72 panels) of Gandavyuha (華嚴經) text. In this study, among the 120 narative reliefs which tel the life story of Budha acording to the Lalitavistara text in Chandi Borobudur, the images of Birth of Sidhārtha(誕生), The Great Departure (出家), Ataintment of Enlightenment (成道) and The First Sermon (初轉法輪) have ben compared with the images of biography of Budha showing in Ancient India, Gandhara and South India, and China. From a historical perspective of cultural exchange, Borobudur is very important site because it is located on the south route of transmision of Buddhism from India to South Asia, China, Korea and Japan. Study on the reliefs sculptured on the wal of Chandi Borobudur provide us information to understand the proces of spreading and changes in styles of Buddhist arts.
  • 3.

    Some Views for the Budhist Culture of Southeast Asia at Midle Ages through the Chinese Description (Ⅰ): Focused on the documents of Faxian and Ichong

    Joo soo wan | 2010, 2(1) | pp.55~94 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Even Faxian(法顯)'s Gaosengfaxianchuan (高僧法顯傳) and Iching(義淨)'s Nanhaijguineifachuan (南海寄歸內法傳) are regarded as very important and useful documents to study the southeast asian budhist culture, it is very dificult to grasp the contemporary state of those area because their descriptions are very brief and implicit. Therefore this esay aimed an in-depth reading their documents as original texts of modern understanding of those area, and tried to make a new views to aproach the southeast asian buddhist culture by some more historicaly and concretely. At the early 5th century when Faxian(法顯) arived, Buddhism was flourished in Sri Lanka. Because already a long time pased since the Saṇgha was schismatized into conservative and progresive at around the dominical year, he mentioned nothing about the conflict or disharmony of two orders. And the faith of Buddha toth relic, which had ben uprisen at 50 years ago from Faxian's visitng, was concretely established as a representative religion of Sri Lanka. Acording to his record, the carying ritual of this Budha toth was performed very magnifcently as similar with recent Korean Youngsan ceremony(靈山齋). In the mean time, it loks there were many sculptures of Budha image made of precious stone of special product from Sri Lanka. The faith of Buddha-pāda(the Buddha's fot-prints) was also generalized at that time. The most famous monk of his contemporary Sir Lanka was Buddhaghosa, the author of Visuddhi-maga, but it is not sure that Faxian had met him. It can be suspected that the funeral in which Faxian participated could be belonged to him, or the Visuddhi-magga was writng at the peak during Faxian's staying. On the way to return to China, Faxian embarked an indigenous ship around Indonesia. It means there were no chinese trade ship which he can use. So the trade betwen china and southeast asia was advanced by south asian ships, and the chinese ships were not yet joined at that time so activity. And at least until that time, it loks there were no any remarkable buddhist movement in the southeast asian countries by where he stopped. In contrast, the southeast asian world which be sen by Iching had already experienced a lot of changes. He was impresed by the high quality buddhist culture of those area, and insisted to acept it to china. Further, he analyzed the sects of budhism which were prevalent around the southeast asia in his contemporary time, and tried to make a god relationship with each native monks for learning from them. It loks the center of those exchanges may be Śrīvijaya of Indonesia. He also mentioned the situation of the late 7th century's Funan(扶南) in Cambodia. At that time, the budhist Saṇgha was opresed by newly rising Khmer(眞臘). On the other hand, he described the points of samenes and diference in detail betwen Indian and southeast asian buddhist culture in the field of ritual as like the practical use of garments, buddha images, and daily recited scriptures. There must be a lot of another aspects which this esay couldn't gather up or catch from these documents. Nevertheles, I hope this esay can help the researchers of this field and wil wait for any advices and comments from them.
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