This paper is attempted to clarify the controversial event King Thibaw ascending the throne. Moreover it was presented with the purpose of how important "Trust Building" is in politic. After ascending the throne, King Thibaw faced external threat as well as internal weakness. The Hluttaw ministers and counselors did not support effectively and King Thibaw lost trust his ministers and counselors. Therefore mass killing of royal prince took place after the ascending the throne and it made discredit to King Thibaw.
Senior minister like Kinwun Mingyi and Hsinphyumashin secretly contact with Prince Nyaung Yan whom was staying under the protection of British. On the other hand Prince Myingun took refuge under protection of the French and was trying to seize the power with the supporters from lower Myanmar as well as taking the financial help from Hsinphyu Mashin. They were external strength for the British and French. In this way King Thibaw's administration became deteriorated and finally the British anxious about Franco‐Myanmar treaty so they exaggerated the Bombay‐ Burma Teak company's problem. In this way King Thibaw was taken away by the British due to the internal weakness and external strength.
This paper deals with the study of a manuscript on Rakhine history which is deposited today in Oriental and India Office Collection of the British Library as the accession number OR 3465 A. The External Criticism of this manuscript shows that it is a manuscript, which was commissioned Nga Mi to compile by Sir Arthur P. Phayre by making references of the existing Rakhine chronicles in the early colonial period, as Phayre wanted a historical account with an outline of the royal dynasties. The Internal Criticism reveals that the compiler Nga Mi did not invent the writing of his own but drawn the sources from various Rakhine chronicles in compiling his work. And Sir Arthur Phayre who used this Nga Mi Chronicle or OR 3465 A as the chief source in writing Rakhine history. He did not analyse the mythical, supernatural and improbable elements in Nga Mi Rakhine Razawin. Phayre did not problematicize any historical issue from Nga Mi Chronicle. One of the outstanding examples of the legend of King Min Saw Mon is discussed in this paper. As Arthur Phayre took this account from Nga Mi Chronicle and framed the story into a convincing narrative in his “History of Burma”, the scholars after Phayre have continued to present the legend as a historical fact.
There are many Rupcumkyon: ‐ Monasteries with sculptures in Magway Region. But some were ruined and some are preserved and maintained still today. Most of the monasteries are built in Radanapon Period. But some are built in early Colonial Period.
Nobilities and wealthy persons donated these monasteries to their learned Sayadaws. The architect used a lot of log in construction. Some monasteries have six stairways but other has four stairways. At these monasteries, sculptures were put on blusters. These were illustrations of extract from 547 Jataka stories and Dhammapada. Illustrations admonish the people not to do excessive craving and passion. These sculptures depict the art of sculpture, costume and adornment, and socio‐economy of that Period under survey. This paper is to reveal and to explore the significant features in building monasteries and to compare each of the monasteries with sculptures at Sale, Salin, Legaing and Sagu in Magway Region.
A widely shared view identifies civil society with the set of nonprofit or nongovernmental organizations. This tradition reflects a long history of social theory viewed in institutional terms. Myanmar society has developed, mainly based on Buddhist culture and tradition. Buddhist practice necessitates public validation within an economy of merit in which moral action earns future rewards. Myanmar private voluntary associations have, since ancient times, played a vital role in achieving social purposes.
Buddhist monasteries were the main education institutions in Myanmar. Until today, monastic schools, or monastic education centers as they are often called, have been the most important civil‐society institutions bridging the accessibility gap in the state‐ run education system in government‐controlled areas. Apart from social or community based that serve for public health in Myanmar there has been a number of religious organizations serving for the same. Moreover there appeared an association to very differently help those who need much urgent help. Since military coup in 1962, however, successive regimes have sought to stamp out civil society and permit only state‐controlled organizations. Civil society re‐emerged during the nation‐wide pro‐ democracy demonstrations in 1988. After 1988 civil societies are allowed as like a political party to form. Now a day some civil societies have worked to start small‐scale projects addressing local problems, but they must stay clear of politics.
Đoạn tuyệt is the representative of not only Nhất Linh’s literary life but also of the Tự Lực Văn Đoàn [Self‐Strength Literary Group]. Đoạn tuyệt’s contributions are emphasized in the following aspects: 1) critique of the feudal family model, 2) an advocate of female and individual liberation, 3) nationalistic content, though rather vague. Based on analysis of gender power relations in the masculinization of femininity exemplified in the character Loan of the novel, this paper addresses the following points: ‐ In Đoạn tuyệt, the woman is eager to free herself from feudalist ties not to construct her own identity but to identify her with men’s identities.
‐ The construction of new feminine identities was conditioned in new rising discourses of Western modernity‐based nationalisms in pre‐revolutionary Vietnam.
‐ The feminization of masculinity echoes the crisis of Vietnamese masculine in facing colonial power.
The place where models of Indonesian templed and sculpture remain in best condition is in central Java. Central Java was a center of culture from the 8th century to the 9th century. After the mid-10th century, a dynasty moved from central Java to eastern Java, because of frequent volcanic explosions and illness.
Eastern Java became the center of politics and culture until the 16th century, when Islamic culture gained superiority. The classical temples of Indonesia before the rise of Islam are called ‘Candi’, which we can divide into the western Java period (?~8th century), the central Java period (8th~10th century), the eastern Java period (10th~16th century).