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2008, Vol.40, No.

  • 1.

    In-appropriateness on Recapture System of Betterment of Housing Reconstruction Projects

    이주희 | 2008, 40() | pp.1~19 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Government established “Law on Recapture of Excess Gains of Housing Reconstruction Project” and is enforcing it since 2006.6.24. There are already a number of legal means that enable to recapture Betterment of housing reconstruction projects. Those are a ‘Transfer income tax’, ‘Allotment on infra-facilities’, ‘Fixed rate of building small-sized housing’ and ‘Mandatory of supply of lendable housing' etc. result in increasing regulations into reconstruction project. The government declared that they will recapture the Betterment generated by reconstruction project the least \30 million to the highest 50% of excess-profits. This paper aims at studying on In-appropriateness of the Recapture system of Betterment of Housing Reconstruction projects(RBHR). Government will have to amend RBHR because it has some in-appropriateness as follow : First of all, fixed rate of building small-sized housing' and ‘Mandatory of supply of lendable housing in reconstruction-site because there is some infraction on the constitutional rights of pursuing people's happiness. Secondly, A real property acquisition tax, A registration tax on new building or housing and Demage against environmental right's violation will have to be approved of as a cost in estimating Betterment. Thirdly, Allotment for basic facilities and Mandatory donation of public facilities will have to be abolished on account of in-appropriating in views of effectiveness. We will have to reorganize inefficient regulations and devise the most efficient ways that does not infringe as much as possible.
  • 2.

    Public Projects and Betterment- Focusing on Exclusion and Recapture of the Betterment -

    허강무 | 2008, 40() | pp.21~43 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    It is controversial to exclude the betterment of public projects in the process of the evaluation of compensation appraisal as it is a sensitive matter closely related to private property right. In addition, the betterment due to the increase in land prices in the region near a large-scale public projects makes it more difficult to solve the problem. In a situation when there were no sufficient systematic devices to recapture the betterment, an unexpected rise in land price in the surrounding area of a large-scale public projects was the major cause of numerous complaints. Therefore, it is essential how to solve the exclusion of the betterment within the district of the proposed public projects and the betterment recapture from land in the region near the public projects. In this regard, this study is to examine several points related to the systematic devices for the exclusion of the betterment in order to control speculative purchase of land that can occur while the new government of President Myung-Bak Lee implements large-scale public projects worth KRW 230 trillion, which includes the construction of the cross-peninsularcanal and the Saemangeum development project. The contents of this study are as follows: Chapter 2 reviews the necessity for the exclusion of the betterment of public projects and the balance with the adjacent areas. Chapter 3 draws the problems and solutions of the matters mainly related to the betterment of public projects. Chapter 4 evaluates the necessity to improve the devices to recapture the betterment in the region near the public projects and the ways of improvement, and finally Chapter 5 summarizes the overall contents of this study.
  • 3.

    Rethinking on 『the Exercise of Eminent Domain for Private Owner』- Focusing on US Supreme Court's Decisions on Whether Economic Development Taking is Constitutionality -

    Park Tae-hyun | 2008, 40() | pp.45~68 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract
    While Eminent Domain Power has been traditionally recognised as the authority of such public entities as Government, acts that allow property to be taken for the private entity tend to increase,. “The principle of public necessity” under constitution does not mean that public entities are entitled to exercise of Eminent Domain exclusively. Many opinions over at what circumstances it is permitted to exercise of Eminent Domain for the private have been presented because there is no guarantee of the public nature of taking for the private owner, which are that Eminent Domain is allowed restrictively provided that legal and institutional arrangements to warrant public character of taking exist. These opinions are not persuasive in full degree in that the arrangements as the foregoing didn't ensure that economical and/or societal public benefits such as obvious increment in the level of employment or local and/or sectoral improvement of economic structure would be achieved. Differently, following argument of dissenting opinion at kelo case is very persuasive: “...Thus a public purpose was realized when the harmful use was eliminated. Because each taking directly achieved public benefit it did not matter that the property was turned over to porcate use” If agreed that whether ‘principle of public necessity’ is met or not depends not on what entity of Eminent Domain but on existence and realization of public necessity, taking for the private is coincidental to public necessity so long as the taking directly serve public purpose through achievement of public benefits. In light of this perspective purported ‘direct contribution test’ would be a valid standard in the determination of whether taking for the private satisfy public necessity requirement provided by article 23 of constitution.
  • 4.

    A Study on Occupation Permission of a River and Public Water Surface and Approval of a Mining Plan

    양승업 | 2008, 40() | pp.69~95 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    An exclusive use permission right of a River and Public Water Surface is the use of res publica by a patent. When doing exclusive use permission, a problem of the order of priority can occur. A government agency can't cancels or withdraw the administrative disposition in optional way. The third person who makes the profit on the law can raise a revocation suit of disposal. When getting main permission, consider to have got related permission by other laws. This is called a Permission Legal Fiction system. The target for Legal Fiction is unlimited. But when it's always groundless legally, it won't be. We have the biggest effect of a Permission Legal Fiction on unification at the permission part. Before permitting it mainly, it has to be under the conference beforehand with a permission government office for Legal Fiction. Occupation Permission of a River and Public Water Surface must receive a rightful person's agreement. When it's a harmful mine in the environment, an interest person can suffer the environmental damage. When the environmental damage is expected, it's possible to consult an opinion of an environmental impact assessment person. Because Occupation Permission Disposal of a River and Public Water Surface is a patent, an administrative agency doesn't permit it.
  • 5.

    Land Development Conditions and Development Agreements- A Comparative Study on the Cases and Laws of the Republic of Korea and the United States -

    OH, JUN GEN | 2008, 40() | pp.97~115 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Land Development requires a variety of public facilities - roads, water, parks, schools - to support it. States and local governments expanded developer funded public facility provisions by means of required exactions, dedications and fees and land development conditions. The major legal issue with respect with these conditions is the connection to the land development. The cases and laws of the Republic of Korea and the United States about these land development conditions were compared in this article. It dealt with the cases of the Korean Supreme Court - the Reconstruction of old Apartment Housing Complex in Seoul and the Development of New Collective Housing Area in Yongin and the cases of the United States Supreme Court - Nollan v. California Coastal Commission and Dolan v. City of Tigard. The Results of the analysis were summarized as follows. First, the government agencies of the Republic of Korea and the United States imposed various conditions accompanied by land development permissions. Second, the standards of the legitimacy of these conditions were developed through the decisions of the courts. The Korean Supreme Court used “Proper Connection Doctrine.” The necessity and usefulness of the conditions and mutual consent beforehand were the major contents of this doctrine. According to the decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States land development conditions must seek to promote a legitimate state interest, had to be related to the land development project and must be proportional to the needs or problems which the land development projects were expected to cause. Because both developers and agencies face difficult problems in the land development approval process, the system of “Development Agreement” has been used in the United States. Some specific statutory authorization were established to make clear that the agreements effectuate a public purpose recognized by the state. There had been no legal foundation for the introducing of this system in Korea. But the Korean agencies made actual consent with the developers about the conditions before they gave approvals of the land development projects. The Korean Supreme Court made the confirmity between the contents of the consents and land development conditions as major standard of decision of the legitimacy. This article indicated these problems and discussed the possibility of the introducing the development agreement system.
  • 6.

    A Study on Loss Compensation and Restriction of Property Rights in Cultural Properties ProtectionLaw of Korea

    윤수진 | 2008, 40() | pp.117~142 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    The purpose of this article is to offer an analysis of the Cultural Properties Protection Law that is dealing with loss compensation and restriction of property rights. Surprisingly, the protection of cultural properties is often noted but rarely studied in detail. And our legal system about protection of cultural properties is relatively young. Revealing problems of our present Cultural Properties Protection Law is various. The range of loss compensation in our law is so limited that in many cases people deliberately break the law to avoid their pecuniary loss. And on the other side, the regulations dealing with protection of cultural properties are too vague for us to provide suitable protection of cultural properties. So the objectives of this research is to analyze important legal issues about mentioned area and to examine desirable legal system for protection of not only cultural properties but also personal property rights. Therefore, proper legal system should be prepared to deal with these problems. At first, our legal concerning cultural protection should be specified a little more for people to estimate their loss and gain. Secondly, the range of loss compensation should be expanded more than present system for people who sacrifice their own properties to protect cultural properties. Results of this article leave more to be investigated and answered, but it is certain that our present legal system is insufficient for suitable protection. So I propose some alternative ideas and hope that this article will serve as a platform for further studies.
  • 7.

    A Constitutional Study on the Private School Law- Especially of the ‘Sang-ji School Case’ of the Supreme of Korea -

    Kyung-Keun Kang | 2008, 40() | pp.143~179 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The Private School Law with other major legislations in the National Assembly, the so-called open school board system, with the aim of enhancing transparency in the management of private schools, stipulates that all private schools should fill a quarter of their board of directors with outside personnel recommended by parents and teachers. It would infringe upon the independence of private school foundations. At the center of the dispute is the open school board system, which requires all private schools to allow outsiders onto the board of trustees. The Supreme Court declared on May 17 in 2006 that such directors - who in this case were appointed by the Minister of Education in an emergency situation-are merely temporary managers not allowed to elect regular directors to the university's board. The ‘Sang-ji School Case’ presumes that the law runs counter to the spirit of the Constitution protecting the property rights of private foundations, by excessively restricting the autonomy of private schools, “they claimed in the petition. And such measures violate the private schools” rights to organize their boards of directors and operate their schools. The ruling was made by eight out of 13 justices on a plenary panel, which overturned a 1970 decision. In spite of the absence of a statutory provision regarding the issue either way, the majority opinion established the ruling by means of a holistic interpretation of the relevant provisions of the Private School Law. The case will be likely assessed as one of the best cases illustrating how to solve theoretical and interpretational issues in order to reach a conclusion judges deem appropriate. The case was brought by former directors of the university's board, who were ousted in 1993 by the Education Minister due to their involvement in illegal or other activities detrimental to the university, against the school as an incorporated entity for the reason that the school had elected new directors in 2003 by vote of the board, which was then solely composed of the government-appointed directors. The key issue was the temporary directors' authority to elect regular directors. The majority opinion regarded the temporary directors as “emergency managers” who were appointed to limited terms in an abnormal situation and who could not be appointed as “regular directors,” as stipulated by the Act. This finding went along with the profound understanding that the autonomy of the establishment and the founding principles of a school shall be protected as much as possible. On the other hand, the dissenting opinion didn`t find any difference in the Private School Law clear enough to distinguish the temporary directors from other temporary directors of incorporated entities (mostly appointed by courts) under the Civil Code, who have been granted the same full authority that regularly appointed directors have.
  • 8.

    A Study on Due Process of Law

    kang seungsik | 2008, 40() | pp.181~198 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    Due process of law in lexical meaning is the conduct of legal proceedings according to established rules and principles for the protection and enforcement of private rights, including notice and the right to a fair hearing before a tribunal with the power to decide the case. But it is extensive in its coverage in reality. Due process of law is divisible into its substantive content and its procedural content. Substantive and procedural due process differ markedly in their application and import. Substantive due process limits the legal standards or requirements that government may establish in its law, and substantive results or objectives that government may achieve through its laws. The goal is to prevent governmental power from being used for purposes of oppression. In a criminal case context, substantive due process controls both the law criminalize particular conduct and the principles of criminal liability. Procedural due process limits the types of procedures that government may use when applying its legal standards or requirements to particular persons. The goal is to establish appropriate procedures that promote fairness to individuals whom government agents may deprive of their life, liberty. Procedural due process is further divisible into procedural legality and procedural fairness. Various countries recognize some form of due process under their constitution. The highest courts of some nations insist that due process of law means only procedural due process. But others admit substantive due process as well as procedural due process. In theory, I think that substantive due process is defensible, so due process clause in the constitution should be interpreted in a broad sense.
  • 9.

    Protection of Environment of Indian “Untouchable” Woman Environmentalist Kinkri Devi

    Moon-Hyun Koh | 2008, 40() | pp.199~223 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Indian Woman Environmentalist Kinkri Devi was an illiterate and impoverished woman who had waged a long and at least partly successful fight against illegal mining and quarrying in the mountainous northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Ms. Devi was born into a poor Dalit, or untouchable, family in the village of Ghaton in 1925. Her father was a subsistence farmer. That she came from a low caste made her struggle against powerful and politically connected mining interests all the more remarkable. With no hope of an education, she began working as a servant in early childhood and, at 14, married Shamu Ram, a bonded laborer. He died of typhoid when she was just 22, and she was forced to become a sweeper. Over the years, she watched the world around her change for the worse. Uncontrolled quarrying by indiscriminate grant of mining lease despoiled the fabled hills in many parts of Himachal Pradesh, harming the water supply and destroying once-rich paddy fields. Seeing the damage in her own district, she vowed to take on the mining interests. Backed by People’s Action for People in Need, a local volunteer group, Ms. Devi filed a public interest lawsuit in the Himachal Pradesh High Court in 1987 against 48 mine owners, accusing them of reckless limestone quarrying. The quarry owners dismissed her campaign, saying she was only trying to blackmail them. After a long period with no response to her suit, she headed for Shimla, the state capital and staged a 19-day hunger strike outside the court until it agreed to take up the issue. The strike won Ms. Devi national and international headlines. In 1987, the High Court not only ordered a stay on mining but also imposed a blanket ban on blasting in the hills. Faced with the prospect of closing their operations, her opponents threatened to kill her, but she continued to fight. The mine owners appealed to the Supreme Court of India, which ruled against them in July 1995, adding to Ms. Devi’s renown. The same year, still working as a sweeper, she was invited to attend the International Women’s Conference in Beijing because of the keen interest taken in her by Hillary Rodham Clinton, then the first lady. A private organization sponsored her trip to China, where Mrs. Clinton asked her to light the lamp at the inaugural function. She spoke to thunderous applause about how the enchanting Himalayas were being degraded by illegal limestone quarrying and how it was up to ordinary people like her to save the environment. Ms. Devi could neither read nor write and learned to sign her name in Hindi just a few years ago. But this handicap could never dampen her spirit to protect the area from degradation. Instead, she started a campaign to open a college in Sangrah, the village where she spent most of her life. Though her village has a school, those who want to study further have to travel 65 kilometres to Nahan, where the nearest college is located. “It wasn’t in my destiny to study,” she said, “but I don’t want others to suffer the way I did for want of education.” Even today her will to environment reminds Indian People of realization of Constitution of India Article 51A(g).
  • 10.

    A Study on the Knowledge Management & Information Resources Management Law

    KIM, MIN HO | 2008, 40() | pp.225~245 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    personal welfare but also promoting of national power. Thus management of information has to be managed for freely and practical co-using of information. For the purpose of that, all physical and human resources of information to gathering and dealing data and information also have to be systematically managed by enterprise. That is namely ‘information resource management(IRM)’. IRM is explained three different meanings depend on range of sense. The first meaning of IRM is identical with ‘information management’. The second meaning of IRM as a narrow sense can be explained ‘resorces management’. That is, IRM is management of all physical and human resources of information to gathering and dealing data and information. The third meaning of IRM as a broad sense is a concept combining the first and second meanings. As a matter of course, legislation of IRM regulation and guideline differs from meaning to meaning. Therefore, in this article I define a exact concept of IRM and I propose IRM regulation for successful managing information of public enterprises.
  • 11.

    Rechtliche Aufgabe der Finanzierung der Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht

    Sung-Soo Kim | 2008, 40() | pp.247~273 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Trotz der Teilauffassung der Wirtschaftswissenschaftler, dass die Finanzdienstleis- tungsaufsichtsinstitut(FDA) als ein privates Institut anzusehen ist, wird FDA nach dem gesamten Inhalt, der Zielsetzung, ihrer Geschaeftsfuehrung einschliesslich ihrer Kompetenz zum Erlass eines Verwaltungsakts nach dem ‘Gesetz zur Finanzdien- stleistungsaufsicht’(FDAG) fuer eine staatsmittelbare Koerperschaft des oeffentlichen Rechts gehalten. Heuzutage tritt die Erscheinung, wobei man mit der staatsmittelbaren Verwaltung eine Strategie versucht, die staatsmittelbare verwaltung mit dem Zweck der ‘Entpolitisierung’ und der Autonomie zusammenzuhaengen. In dieser Hinsicht ist es erforderlich, dass die Autonomie und Unabhaengigkeit der FDA im Hinblick auf die Haushalt, Buchfuehrung, und Personalverwaltung moeglichst gewaehrleistet werden. Aus der Autonomie und Unabhaengigkeit der FDA folgt logischerweise das dazu entsprechende Organisations- und Finanzierungsprinzip, nach dem ihre Operationskosten durch autonome Finanzquelle gedeckt werden sollen. Die Auffassung, dass der von aufsichtspflichtigen Kreditinstitutionen gelestete Aufsichtsbeitrag als eine Abgabe nach dem Abgabenbewirtschaftungsgesetz zu qualifizieren, ist insofern nicht anzunehmen, und zwar deswegen weil, bei dem Aufsichtsbeitrag an dem Zusammenhang mit einem bestimmten oeffentlichen Vorhaben fehlt. Im uebrigen kann der Aufsichtsbeitrag nicht als eine Sonderabgabe nach der Rechtsprechung des Koreanischen Verfassungsgerichts zu charakterisieren, denn die Finanzdienstleistung- saufsicht gehoert zur allgemeinen Aufgabe des Staates, die mit der Steuer zu erledigen ist. Der Aufsichtsbeitrag ist deswegen als eine Verwaltungsgebuehr anzusehen, weil als seine Bemessungsgrundlage das Aequivalenz- und Kostendeckungsprinzip angewendet wird und zwischen ihm und der Stabilisierung der Kreditinstitute eine Gegenleistung besteht. Demzufolge decken viele Laender die Kosten der Finanzdienstleistung rechtsvergleichend mit den gebuerenaehnlichen Beitraegen der Kreditinstitute. Dem liegt der Grundgedanke zugrunde, abhaengt die Kostendeckung der Finanzdienstleistung- saufsicht von staatlichen Haushalt und Sonderfonds, beststehen nach historischer Erfahrung einzelner Laender keine Unabhaengigkeit und Autonomie der Finan- zdienstleistungsaufsicht.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Road Traffic Law in North Korea

    Won Jung Kim | 2008, 40() | pp.275~292 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Road Traffic law of North Korea regulates general materials in the aspect of contents. Especially, in the constitutional aspect, it regulates totally 5 chart 86 article leading to broad-ranging substanes which are not specific. This shows us that although the law of Road Traffic is very significant in modern society, that of the North is not enough developed. As evidences of that case, speed of cars has preference to pedestrians, and there are regulations of carts, strollers and bicycles which are main transport in North Korea. An odd thing is founded in legislating the Road Traffic law that regulative articles are abnormally general and abstractive. There isn't legislated commitment law in the North. So, orders to be taken to low-ranking officers to can't be understood just with acts. Traffic Safety Rule of subordinate rule was built in 1996, and Road Traffic Law of superior law was in 2004 in which total 86 articles are compulsory. Such forces leave administration office no room for manoeuvre. Additionally, because articles are written excessively in pure Korean, it is too difficult to understand. From above facts, Road Traffic Law of the North is opposed to the purpose of modern legislation that should exist to protect the basic rights of the people. Also, the constitution and organization of Road Traffic Law don't conform to a law-governed country. It is a kind of formal law, not practical one. Moreover, it is not sure if there is really Road Traffic Law and if the law exists in North Korea, it is also not sure that the law is in effects, because Traffic Safety Regulations are already established. In order to increase the trade between the South and the North, and prepare for unifying the two, it is necessary to repair and revise the legislation of the North systematically through consistent inter-exchanging between the two and consulting legislative policy. In addition to that, continuous analysis and study on laws related with Road Traffic of the North are needed.
  • 13.

    Present Status of the EMF Dispute on the Building of Transmission Towers and its Legal Task

    Kim EunJu | 2008, 40() | pp.293~315 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Electricity is a vital part of modern society. However, studies increasingly suggest that electromagnetic fields (“EMF”) generated from electric power transmission towers may pose a risk to human health. Until now, the scientific research of EMF's effects are highly contradictory and inconclusive. Under the circumstances, policymakers must face the difficult decision of how to handle the EMF problem. The precautionary principle is a principle which states that in cases where there are threats to human health or environment the fact that there is scientific uncertainty over those threats should not used as the reason for not taking action to prevent harm. Generally, the precautionary principle is relevant to risk regulation. Risk regulation can be understood as that concerned with protecting the environment or human health from risks arising from industrial activity. Under the principle, the EMF problem has been handled in several ways: imposing field strength limits or proposing moratoria on the construction of new lines, taking a “wait and see” approach, or implementing a “prudent avoidance” approach. The theory behind prudent avoidance is to keep people away from EMF by undertaking avoidance activities that have a modest and well-defined cost.
  • 14.

    A Study on the Improvement of Disaster Management Systems in the Korea- Focusing on the Systems of Fire Fighting Area -

    김충묵 | 2008, 40() | pp.317~336 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    This study examined the national disaster management system, and fire and disaster management focusing on disaster response. Development in modern society has been changed lifestyle a lot, and these changes have been made both positive and negative affect on our life. The negative part is that as our society develops, it becomes more vulnerable to dangers. When disaster occurs, the National Emergency Management Agency which is in the charge of national disasters and public safety, organizes the emergency rescue management service depending on its size, and seeks to cooperate and interacted with other related authorities, under the Disaster and Safety Management Basic Law. Also, it pulls together all possible resources to carry out best counter measurements by managing recourse allocations and deployment effectively. However, the National Emergency Management Agency had short comings in their exertion to assure public safety and welfare, moreover, its abilities to manage this kind of dangerous society are restricted by political and financial aspects, which is the foundation for improving disaster management and countermeasure system. Fire department, which plays a significant role in field response that most important part of disaster managements, is being left out in policy making decision, which resulted in government’s reduction in disaster response funding. To make sure for Korea to be a safe country, the National Emergency Management Agency should be reformed to have more effective system by strengthening operations of agency, establishing new department of field operation and changing its administrative centered system to field response focused system. To accomplish these, fire department has to be granted its independence and reformed to its organizational structure to be unified. If government delays in reforming its system, it could risk life and assets of its own people, so continuous in-depth researches and attentions on this matter are required from now on.
  • 15.

    Regulation of New Drug Approval System by Federal Food and Drug Administration in the United States

    Soohun Park | 2008, 40() | pp.337~360 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Before a new therapeutic drug can be commercialized in the United States, it must meet the safety and effectiveness requirements of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Therefore, it is virtually impossible to put a new drug on the market without FDA's review and approval. In consequence, FDA is routinely blamed for delays in the availability of useful new drugs, and is sometimes charged with preventing access altogether. The expense of the studies FDA requires before granting approval coupled with the substantial time spent conducting these studies and waiting for agency approval is among the common explanations for the cost of new drugs. Thus, the current statutory criteria and administrative procedures for approval of drugs, which have been the causes of increasing health care costs and delays of using new drugs, have become target for would-be reformers. The FDA's regulation on drugs started with the Federal Food and Drugs Act of 1906. Now, the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act(FD&C Act) plays a role in the regulation of drugs as a general statute after suffering numbers of amendments. In this article, I accept the reformers' hypothesis that legal structure has a critical bearing on the rate of new product introduction, and on the cost of those products that are introduced. According to this acceptance, I recount the evolution of these standards and procedures and, in the process, seeks to identify the activities of Congress and FDA that have influenced this evolution. In doing so, especially, I focus on the efforts of Congress and FDA that have attempted to improve the contents and problems of new drug approval in 1962 Amendment. As a consequence, I reveal that Congress has amended FD&C Act all the time in order to meet the safety and effectiveness requirements for pre-marketing and post-marketing new drugs. On top of that, FDA's effort to improve the approval procedures more efficiently would be suggested.
  • 16.

    A Study on Reforming Audit Systems of Local Governments

    Song Dongsoo | 2008, 40() | pp.361~384 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Die Rechnungsprüfung in Korea ist die Prüfung des Finanzgebarens einer Körperschaft, einer Anstalt des öffentlichen Rechts. Bei Körperschaften des öffentlichen Rechts, wie Gemeinden und Landkreisen wird die Rechnungsprüfung durch externe Stellen (zum Beispiel Rechnungshof) oder interne Stellen durchgeführt. Der Rechnungshof prüft, inwieweit die Haushaltsführung des Landes ordnungsgemäß ist und den Kriterien der Wirtschaftlichkeit entspricht. Ziel der Tätigkeit des Rechnungshofs ist es einerseits, durch Erfolgskontrollen die Effektivität und Effizienz des staatlichen Handelns zu erhöhen. Andererseits macht der Rechnungshof auch Vorschläge, wie die Organisation der Verwaltung verbessert werden kann, so dass die von Bürgerinnen und Bürgern erwarteten Leistungen des Staates zu möglichst geringen Kosten erbracht werden. Die Verwaltung ist an Gesetz und Recht gebunden. Für ihr Finanzgebaren gilt im besonderen die Gemeindehaushaltsordnung mit ihrer Verpflichtung zu sparsamer und wirtschaftlicher Mittelverwendung. Aufgabe des Rechnungshofs ist zu prüfen, inwieweit die Verwaltung eben diese gesetzlichen Bestimmungen einhält. Stellt er Verstöße dagegen fest, muss er dies beanstanden.
  • 17.

    Eine Rechtsvergleichung zwischen dem 'Bundesgleichstellungsgesetz' Deutschlands und dem 'Gesetz der Gleichstellung und der Unterstuetzung fuer die Vereinbarkeit der Familie und der Arbeit Koreas

    Shin, Okju | 2008, 40() | pp.385~405 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    In Deutschland trat 2001.12.05 das “Gesetz zur Gleichstellung von Frauen und Maennern in der Bund(Bundesgleichstellungsgesetz)” in Kraft. Die deutsche Regierung zielt mit dem Gesetz, im oeffentlichen Behoerden und Gerichten tatsaechliche Gleichstellung von beiden Geschlechter zu verwirklichen. Ein Eckpunkt im Gesetz ist die Begriffsbestimmung der Unter-Repraesentation im §4(6), wonach die Frauen bevorzugt beruecksichtigt werden koennen, wenn ihr Anteil in den Anwendungsbereichen des Gesetzes unter 50% liegt. Im Abschnitt 3 ‘Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Erwerbstaetigkeit fuer Frauen und Maenner' sind Maenner auch fuer familiaengerechte Arbeitszeit und Rahmenbedingungen miteinbezogen, um die Verwirklichung der realen Gleichstellung zu erreichen. Die Erfahrungen und Faehigkeiten, die man bei Familienpflegen gesammelt hat, koennen beruecksichtigt werden, soweit sie fuer die Ausuebung der jemeoligen Taetigkeit von Bedeutung sind. Den Beschaeftlten mit Familienpflichten muss die Dienststelle die Telnahme an der Fortbildung ermoeglichen. Die Fortbildung muss unter realen Bedingungen unter der Beruecksichtigung auf zeitlichen Situationen der Beschaeftlten mit Familienpflichten stattgefunden werden. §25 des Gesetzes verlangt die deutsche Regierung, dem Bundestag alle vier Jahren einen Erfahrungsbericht ueber die Situation der Frauen zu legen. Das Vergleichsmassstab bietet maenliche Situation. Infolge des ersten Erfahrungsberichtes ist die Frauenerwer- bstaetigkeit sichtbar gestiegen und insbesondere im mittleren Beamtenschiechten betraegt das Frauenanteilsprozent fast 50%. In Korea gab es einen Fortschritt im Zusammenhang mit Gleichberechtigung. Denn am 2007.12 wurde das ‘Gesetz der Gleichstellung und der Unterstuetzung fuer die Vereinbarkeit der Familie und der Arbeit’, das am 2008.06 in Kraft treten wird, erlassen. Dem veraenderten Bewusstsein der Beschaeftigten entsprechend liegt das Ziel des Gesetzes neben der Gleichstellung im Arbeitsleben auch auf die Vereinbarung des Arbeits- und Familienleben. Neu geregelte Bestimmungen wie Verhinderung der sexuellen Belaestigung durch Kunden, Geburtsurlaub des Ehepartners, Teilarbeitszeit aufgrund der Kinderbetreuung, Beschaffung der Grundlage fuer die Vereinbarkeit des Arbeits- und Familienleben machen fuer Frauen Hoffnung. Aber man findet ein paar Schwaeche im Gesetz, die moeglichst schnell korrigiert werden sollten. Zu nennen sind das Fehlen der Begriffsbestimmung der Unter-Repraesentation und der Quoten sowie realer Fortbildung, der Gleichstellungsbeauftragte und der Kontrolle durch das Parlament.
  • 18.

    Wirtschaftpolitische Gestaltungsspielräume der EU

    Soong-Pyo Eun | 2008, 40() | pp.407~426 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Einer Dogmatik der wirtschaftspolitischen Befunisse der EU sind bereits durch ihren Gegenstand Grenzen gesetzt. Denn die europäische Kompetenzordnung zeichnet sich durch Lücken und Asymetrien aus, welche von unterschiedlichen wirtschaftspolitiscxhen Tradition und aktuellen Prioritäten der Mitgliedstaaten ebenso geprägt sind wie durch marktpolitische Vorbehalte, die sich naturgemäß gerade auf diesen Politikbereich beziehen, der als wesentlicher Gradmesser für den Erfolg einer Regierung dient. Die konzeptionellen Brüche schlagen sich in den Vertragsbestimmungen nieder und erschweren ihre rechtliche Einordnung in den Normkreis einer wettbewerbsgesteuerten Marktwirtschaft. Dennnoch bleibt die frühere Gemeinschaft, jetzige Union das, was sie ist: ein supranationales Rechtwesen, das durch völkerrechtliche Verträge ins Leben egrufen wurde und im Rahmen von Verträgen arbeitet, die seine Verfassung darstellen, so wie es EuGH siet langem formuliert hat. Die Union an Verfassungsgestalt und Erscheinungsformen des Staates zu messen und daraus Distanz oder gar Ablehnung herzuleiten, war bisher wenig sinnvoll wird es auch in Zukunft sein.
  • 19.

    The Reappraisal of Indirect Compensation for Loss

    이동찬 | 2008, 40() | pp.427~445 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The loss caused by execution of public works is occuring not only at the district of public work but also outside of the district. Compensation for the loss has been recognized only inside public works. The compensation for the loss that occurred was out of the district, namely indirect compensation for loss has not been recognized. However, the compensation for the loss which happened not only at the district of public works but also outside of the district of public works has to been made the same. This article observes the concept, legal nature, legal basis of indirect loss compensation and the problem and the improvement which is appearing from indirect compensation for loss. First, it is necessary to define the concept and the scope of indirect compensation for loss. Second, the legislative improvement and complement about current indirect compensation for loss is necessary. Third, in the case that current indirect compensation for loss is deficient, constitution 11, the principle of equality and constitution 23-3 will be ground for compensation requisition. Forth, research about the standard date for indirect compensation, discussion and calculation is necessary.
  • 20.

    A Study on the Legal Problems Involved in the Government Employee's Early Retirement System & Its Development Plan

    lee jae sam | 2008, 40() | pp.447~476 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The job security of a public employee is guaranteed in essence. The purpose for such a job security system is to encourage the public employees to work faithfully fulfilling their inherent duties despite of any possible political pressures. However, the present job security system brought out its structural limitations in that one can safely stay within the organization without being dismissed no matter how he or she is incompetent or negligent unless they make a serious mistake such as being suspected of corruption. And the decision-making process conveying the will and ideas of a superior officer to subordinate officials, together with their assigned duties that require no creative activities, led the entire officialdom to work from sheer force of habit, causing a serious structural defect of producing a system towards higher cost and lower level of efficiency. Recognizing the importance of efficient personnel management applied specifically to the public employees, the early retirement system was invented in each local government as a means of remedying the structural defect found in the prevailing public employee's job security system. The purpose of such an early retirement system is to instill a feeling of tension into the officialdom stimulating their job vitality, so that they may be properly motivated in order to actively adapt to the changing social environment. In other words, the system is designed to give any public employee destroying the healthy work environment by negligence and poor job performance an opportunity to reflect on themselves and to drive them into the spirit of exertion. And it might well be interpreted that such a reform is to create a democratic work environment in the officialdom providing a better public service to the people through the renovation of the bureaucracies. Also it signifies the renovation of self-governing administration based on competence and the job performance, breaking from the geniality which led to the public employee's unreasonable job security and the seniority system in dealing with personnel affairs. However, this system of early retirement has posed various problems while it is being enforced. Various procedural problems are being derived from the procedure for selecting, managing and dismissing the candidates from office. The criteria for selecting the candidates includes mostly the abstract and subjective matters such as those who substantially injure the harmony of the organization and those who disgraced the dignity of a public employee and the like. An enterprise may be able to evaluate the results of its manpower by the business performance. However, it is not easy to find such an objective standard for a public employee providing a public service. In other words, an arbitrary decision can easily be made by those in authority who have the right of personnel management, opening the way for an abuse of authority or for absurdities and evil customs. It is noteworthy that most of the government employees subject to early retirement have been those of a lower rank. Any early retirement excluding a high-ranking government employee may substantially reduce the desired effects of the public employee's early retirement system. The current practice is that either the director or chief of the departments in a local government recommends those 4 tor 6th grade officers who will work with them and dismiss those who are excluded from such a recommendation, thus regarded as incompetent. Such a dismissal process is likely to cause a sense of incongruity in a hierarchy of officialdom. The early retirement system, when executed, can reduce the morale of the public employees. It will create the unrest and instability of job security, and reduce the will to work, leading to human relations without harmony within the organization. And the extent of malpractice such as seeking and maintaining a useful connection, blindly following the will and ideas of the superior officer or avoiding anything innovative just to safely remain in office, will be deplorable. The early retirement system enforced in a form of unofficial punishment will be likely to reduce the public employee's official punishment system to formalism. There is an official punishment system in which any wrongful conduct or negligence is subject to punishment. Anyone committing an unlawful act can be called to account under such an official system. For this reason, it is very unreasonable to expel a public employee from office as in a witch-hunt. Also any discharge or dismissal from office executed without following the official punishment procedure will not constitute the normal system prescribed in the Government Employee's Act, and will greatly threaten the job security of the public employees stipulated in the law. And if punished just for the sake of rationality, it will probably discourage the creativity of those who work with enthusiasm, producing a passive attitude of following the superior's instructions blindly just to flee from responsibility. The public employee's early retirement system can be a matter of life or death to most of the subject of such retirement and their families. For this reason, a careful plan must be drawn up in advance so that those reasonable and objective criteria appealing to all the persons concerned must be set up. In particular, it is imperative to guarantee establishing the transparent and objective selecting procedure and the dismissal criteria, which is free from any unreasonableness or ill effects. After all, the early retirement system should be utilized to stimulate the loose officialdom and to increase the work efficiency, enhancing reformation and competitiveness. The system should help it to turn into that working briskly and actively while producing a competent performance of an individual public employee. In other words, with the early retirement system in force, all public employees should be encouraged to contribute to promoting public service, working creatively and with devotion.
  • 21.

    Human Rights Protection of North Korean Refugees and International Human Rights Law

    Bok-Hee Chang | 2008, 40() | pp.477~497 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In summary of protection of North Korean refugees, the first asylum states grant ‘Convention refugee’ according to the 1951 UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees(the Refugee Convention), but this case will not be available in fact. On emphasis, system of complementary protection is useful based on other international human rights treaties and standards. Complementary protection is to grant the status of de facto refugee and rights to asylum seekers similar to those convention refugees enjoys. Specially, the International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhumane or Degrading Treatment or Punishment are important complementary instruments to the Refugee Convention. As parties to general international human rights treaties, the first asylum states can give North Korean refugees ‘humanitarian status’, ‘humanitarian residence’ or ‘temporary protection’. In other hands, they can acquire the status ‘Mandate refugee’ through the UN High Commissioner of Refugees(UNHCR). In this case, Korea government should do more positive diplomatic efforts. Besides, the third countries as well as Republic of Korea may admit them. North Korean refugees are at least internationally ‘the subject of complementary protection’. The states that accomodate them should abide the principle of non-refoulement, at least give temporary protection to the persons who do not want come back to North Korea. Finally, solution of North Korean refugees has the aim to human rights protection in the lights of international human rights norms, protection itself has to be the core through the whole course towards the permanent settlements. ‘Prevention, protection and solution’ triple strategics have to be considered at once containing public information, dissemination education and discipline of international human rights norms, enhancement of related domestic law system, permanent solutions, opinions making, supports to NGO activities and enforcing of UNHCR role. These actions have the base on respect of article 14(right to seek asylum) proclaimed in Universal Declaration of Human Rights and begin to ensure dignity of human beings, life and security of person, freedom and equality.
  • 22.

    Die verschiedenen Arten von Mietverhältnissen, Mäklervertrag, Immobiliengesellschaft in Französischenrecht

    So,Jae-Seon | 2008, 40() | pp.499~523 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Wie in Frankreich in der grossen mehrzahl der Fälle die Nutzung einer Immobilie entweder auf Miete oder Eigentum und andere Nutzungsrechte kommen nur in besonders gelagerten Fällen als Alternative zum Miete in Betracht. Bei der vorliegenden Einführung in das französische Immobilienrecht stehen deshalb auch die Miete im Zentrum der Darstellung. Für einen Mietinteressenten sind sie insoweit von Bedeutung, als ein Mietvertrag nicht notwendigerweise nur mit dem Eigentümer, sondern in bestimmten Fällen auch mit dem Inhaber eines sonstigen Nutzungsrechts abgeschlossen wrden kann. Miete bedeutet nach dem Code civil eine vertragliche Verpflichtung des Vermieters, dem Mieter den Gebrauch der vermieteten Sache während der Mietzeit zu gewähren. In Frankreich sind die verschidenen Mietverhältnisse bis auf einige grundlegende Bestimmungen des Code civil in mehreren Gesetzen gesondert geregelt. In Abhängigkeit von der Nutzung des Mietgegenstands und dem Vorligen bestimmter weiterer Merkmale wird insbesondere zwischen der Geschäftsraummiete, der Miete von Wohnraum und zu Wohn- und freiberuflichen Zwecken genutzter Gebäude und Räume, der Miete von ausschliesslich freiberuflich genutzten Räumen und sonstigen Mietverhältnissen unterschieden. Die Vertragsfreiheit ist nicht nur bei der Wohnraummiete, sondern auch bei der Geschäftsraummiete durch eine Reihe zwingend anwendbarer gesetzlicher Bestummungen beschränkt. Im Code civil für die vertragliche Einschaltung eines Immobilienmaklers nur eine als mandat bezeichnete Vertragsform geregelt. Nach der Definition des Code civil ist ein mandat eine Vereinbarung zwischen einem Auftraggeber und einem Auftragsnehmer, kraft dessen der Auftragnehmer für und im Namen des Auftraggebers handeln kann. Vertragsinhalt kann damit sowohl ein dem deutschen Mäklervertrag entsprechendes Zahlungsversprechen für den Nachweis oder die Vermittlung eines abgeschlossenen Kauf- und Mietvertrags wie eine auftrags- oder dienstvertragstypische Handlungspflicht des Maklers mit einem Aufwendungsersatz- oder auch Vergütungsanspruch sein. Im Französischen Recht kann auch ein von mehreren Personen gemeinsam geplanter Immobilienerwerb nicht nur als Miteigentum, sondern auch über eine Kapital- oder Personengesellschaft erfolgen. Abgesehen von dem Erwerb durch Kapitalgesellschften und Personenhandelsgesellschaften wird in der Praxis oft von der Möglichkeiten der Gründung einer rechtsfähigen Gesellschaft bürgerlichen Rechts mit dem Zweck des Immobilienerwerbs und der Immobilienverwaltung Gebrauch gemacht.