Korean | English

pISSN : 1226-251X / eISSN : 2733-8371

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.77
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2009, Vol.43, No.2

  • 1.

    Anwendungsbereiche des enteignungsgleichen und enteignenden Eingriffs

    Kim Jung Kwon | 2009, 43(2) | pp.1~30 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Nach den richtungsweisenden Beschlüssen des deutschen BVerfG zur Nassauskiesung und zum Pflichtexemplar hat der BGH die Institute des enteignungsgleichen und enteignenden Eingriffs auf den in Art.74 und 75 Einleitung ALR verkörperten Aufopferungsgedanken als Richterrecht gestützt. Die deutsche heute h.M. sieht die Rechtsgrundlage der beiden Institute im Gewohnheitsrecht. Die Entschädigung wegen des enteignungsgleichen und enteignenden Eingriffs wurde damit von Art.14 deutsche GG abgekoppelt. Aber die beiden Institute sind Ausdruck des Gewährleistungsgehaltes(Eigentumswert-garantie) von Art. 14 Abs.1 GG, dabei dort alle Entschädigungsanspruchs-varianten ihre Grundlage haben. Im System der öffentlich-rechtlichen Ersatzleistungen sind die Anwendungsbereiche des enteignungsgleichen und enteignenden Eingriffs durch die jüngere Rechtsprechungen des deutschen BVerfG stark beschnitten worden. Die beiden Institute sind trozdem nicht obsolet. Bei Eigentumseingriffen unmittelbar durch Gesetz hat die Figur der ausgleichspflichtigen Inhaltsbestimmung zu einer fast vollständigen Verdrängung von enteignungsgleichem und enteignendem Eingriff geführt. Bei Eingriffen der Verwaltung aufgrund von Gesetzen erfüllt der enteignungsgleiche Eingriff weitgehend nur noch eine subsidiäre Funktion. Originäre Bedeutung kommt ihm nur bei irreversiblen Schädigungen order bei Verzögerungschäden zu. Auch der enteignende Eingriff besteht bei Eingriffen der Verwaltung dem Grunde nach fort. Nur bei unvorhersehbaren, vor allem atypischen Folgen, die vom Gesetzgeber allenfalls mittels unbestimmter salvatorischer Klauseln geregelt werden könnten, kann weiter auf die Grundsätze des enteignenden Eingriffs zurückgegriffen werden.
  • 2.

    Eine Studie über die Planungschädenentschädigung

    Kim,Hee-Gon | 2009, 43(2) | pp.31~70 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Heute wird häufig als die Zeit der Planung gennant. Staatliche Planung ist kein Phänomen nur unserer Zeit, sondern gab es auch schön früher. Sie hat aber in der Gegenwart erheblich zugenommen. Die Notwendigkeit der Planung ergibt sich rechtlich aus dem Sozialstaatsauftrag der modernen Verfassung und sachlich aus der zunehmenden Arbeitsteilung auch im staatlichen- und kommunalen Bereich, der Knappheit der zur Verfügung stehenden Mittel und Kapazitäten sowie den unteschiedlichen, oft gegenläufigen Interessen in einem pluralistischen Gemeinwesen. In Korea gibt es viele Planungsgesetze, die Bodennutzung des Eigentümers regeln. Sie enthalten kaum Regelung über die sogennante Planungsentschädigung. Aber deutsches Baugesetzbuch hat vorgesehen vielfaltige Regelungen über die Bodennutzung mit Planungsentschädigung. Zum Beispiel, die Vorschriften über die Bausperre, Veränderng der Bebaungsplan, Festsetzung im Bebaungsplan, Begründung von Geh-, Fahr- und Leitungsrechten, Änderung oder Aufhebung einer zulässigen Nutzung usw. Dementsprechend hier ergibt sich die Notwendigkeit der Studie über die Planungsentschädigung. Der Forschungsinhalt setzt sich aus folgenden Inhaltsschwerpunkten zusammen. Ⅰ. Einleitung Ⅱ. Typen der Planungsbeschränkung Ⅲ. Besonderes Opfer im Planungsbeschränkung Ⅳ. Maßstab für Planungsentschädigung Ⅴ. Planungsrbeschränkung ohne Vorschrift über die Entschädigung Ⅵ. Entschädigungsmittel Ⅶ. Aufgabe zur Entschädigung in Geld Ⅷ. Schluß
  • 3.

    Exxon Shipping Co. v. Grant Baker

    JEONG, HA MYOUNG | 2009, 43(2) | pp.71~94 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    The U.S Supreme Court delivered Exxon Shipping Co. v. Grant Baker, which involves a challenge to the large punitive damages awarded in litigation over the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 2008. The U.S Supreme Court used the case to push for further limits on punitive damages, but the Court's decision is limited to the maritime context. The Court denied review on the due process issues relating to the excessive punitive damages. The litigation originates in a colossal environmental tragedy that happened nearly 20 years ago. On March 24, 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound and an the tanker's cargo spilled an estimated 11 million gallon of crude oil into the area. The environmental devastation was enormous and wildlife-rich Prince William Sound area was disrupted. Commercial fisheries throughout this area were totally closed for the 1989 season. Exxon undertook a massive cleanup effort and spent more than $2 billion to remove the oil from the waters and beaches of the environmentally devastated areas. Exxon also created a voluntary claims program and paid out $303 million to fishers in those areas whose livelihood was disrupted by the spill. The federal government and Alaska government sued Exxon for environment damage and the company agreed to pay $900 million over a period of 10 years to both governments. Exxon was fined $25 million and ordered to pay restitution of $100 million according to criminal prosecutions. Thousands of civil suits against Exxon followed, filed by individuals who were injured by the oil spill. The civil suits were consolidated and tried together. There was no dispute over Exxon's liability. There was dispute over the extent of the plaintiffs' economic losses and the amount of the damages award. The jury found in favor of the plaintiffs and awarded compensatory damages of $287 million and punitive damages of $5 billion against Exxon. The company appealed and the Ninth Circuit ruled that the $5 billion punitive damages was excessive in light of the Supreme Court's decision in BMW of North America v. Gore(517 U.S. 559 (1996)) and remand the case. In the meantime, the Supreme Court decided State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Co. v. Campbell(538 U.S. 408 (2003)) and Exxon again appealed. After the Ninth Circuit reduced the punitive damages to $2.5 billion, Exxon sought certiorari to the Court. In 2007, the Supreme Court decided Philip Morris U.S.A. v. Mayola Williams(127 S.Ct 1057) and reduced the punitive damages award on the ground of the 14th amendment's procedural due process. In this paper, the development of punitive damages is touched and the U.S. Supreme Court's case law regarding to its limits is analyzed.
  • 4.

    Japanese Legislations and Suggestion to Protect Water Quality of Lakes and Marshes - Legal Studies in a Comparative Prospective in Korea -

    Jeonghun Park | 2009, 43(2) | pp.95~124 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In Korea, the government has established a policy agenda to encourage high growth. The industry economy has significantly been progressed and almost every people has lived in a metropolitan lifestyle. However, with said change in an economic society, an emanation of environmental pollutants has increased and then lakes and rivers which stinks has emerged nationwide. On the other hand, Korean government had also focused on rapid growth as a fundamental policy. Since 1990's, the government fortunately has regarded politic motto as 'sustainable development' which development and environment can be coexisted. Moreover, in legislative prospective, the government has improved and consolidated laws concerning environment from the enactment of fundamental law of environmental policy in 1990. As a result, the government has significantly improved water quality of a public body of water overall, focusing on a large river. On the other hand, the 'lakes-and-marshes' is trapped water by nature and construction of a dam or bank in a river such as a dammed pool. The water pollution of 'lakes-and-marshes' has been deeply deteriorated since it is a constructively closed or almost closed body of water. The water quality of lakes and marshes become worse and then it cannot be used as an agricultural water. Under said critical mind, this paper introduces and reviews the Japan model in the way to approach it with comparative prospective of legislation and policy and it is on the research purpose of the improvement or preservation of the water quality of lakes and marshes in Korea. It is because Japan has early been interested in this field. It is also because it has nationally tried to improve water quality of lakes and marshes at the government level. This parer, at least, can also suggest a direction and implication concerning the matter for protecting the worse water quality of lakes and marshes in Korea.
  • 5.

    Defizite und Lösungsansätze der Risikoregulierung und der Risikokommunikation als interdisziplinäres Problem in Deutschland - Unter besonderer Berücksitigung in Deutschland -

    Insung CHO | 2009, 43(2) | pp.125~144 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Ein Leben ohne Risiko ist nicht denkbar, eine absolute Sicherheit nicht erreichbar. Unterhalb dieser Schwellen lässt sich jedoch durch eine angemessene Abschätzung und Bewertung von Risiken und ein angemessenes Risikomanagement ein hohes Maß an Sicherheit erreichen. Insoweit bislang bestehende Defizite sind zuletzt durch die Risikokommission ebenso beschrieben worden wie pragmatische Ansätze zu ihrem Abbau. Was fehlt, ist die praktische Umsetzung der vorhandenen Vorschläge. Die Risikokommission hat in weiten Teilen Zustimmung erfahren, in einzelnen Punkten auch Kritik, insbesondere hinsichtlich des Vorschlags zur Einrichtung eines Risikorates. Unumstritten ist aber, dass der Risikoregulierung bislang ein allgemeiner rechtlich festgeschriebener Handlungsrahmen fehlt. Moniert wird dies seit Jahren vom Rat von Sachverständigen für Umweltfragen, von den Kommissionen für ein Umweltgesetzbuch, von vielen Stimmen in der Literatur und zuletzt wieder von der Risikokommission, deren interdisziplinäre Zusammensetzung ihren Vorschlägen besonderen Nachdruck verleiht. So bleibt am Ende nur ein Appell an die verantwortlichen politischen Stellen, die Umsetzung der Vorschläge der von ihnen selbst eingesetzten Gremien energisch voran zu treiben. Sie sollten nicht auf den nächsten Skandal warten, bevor sie tätig werden. Offenen und transparenten Verfahren und einem einheitlichen Organisationsrahmen auf nationaler, aber auch auf der europäischen Ebene wird in Zukunft eine besondere Bedeutung zukommen, um Schäden vorzubeugen und zu für alle Seiten akzeptablen Ergebnissen zu kommen. Eine angemessene Risikoregulierung und Risikokommunikation ist in unserer hochtechnisierten Gesellschaft unabdingbare Voraussetzung des Schutzes der menschlichen Gesundheit und der Umwelt. Nicht erst die BSE-Krise hat gezeigt, dass die Bewältigung der insoweit bestehenden staatlichen Aufgaben mitunter nur unzureichend gelingt. Der Beitrag beschreibt bestehende Defizite bei der Risikobewältigung sowohl auf der nationalen als auch auf der europäischen Ebene und zeigt Lösungsansätze auf. Vorgestellt werden insbesondere die Vorschläge der Risikokommission.
  • 6.

    Loss Compensation Issue under Land Expropriation of China

    Sungyeon Lee | 2009, 43(2) | pp.145~166 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Protecting the freedom and property right of the people in modern constitutional state is an important goal where the country exists. To exercise the right of eminent domain imposes a special sacrifice on people who is levied a land. So the country must reasonably compensate for economical loss caused by land expropriation. We need reasonable compensation for protecting property right of the people and easily performing land expropriation. Since china reform and open policy, social economy development and urbanized advancement acceleration, the rural collective land has become the main way for expanding the building site and the city scale. Under this process the rural collective land is widely expropriated, as a result so many farmer lost theirs farmland. “2005: Analysis and Forecast of China's Social Situation” written by the group of Analysis and Forecast of Social Situation from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences thought among china's facing social problems land expropriation issues take the premier place. There have been 40 millions farmers lost farmland and several millions increase every year. Also more than 65% of national rural group incidents were caused by land expropriation. The reason land expropriation issues take the main problem in china society just is an illogical compensation system of land expropriation. This system had formed in the time of planned economy, thus there are many problems: low standard of compensation; narrow the scope of compensation; inflexible manner of compensation; illogical principle of compensation; compensation process and judicial relief is imperfect. The land expropriation arrogate property right which is the direct object and inflict indirect loss which caused by land expropriation. thus through improving compensation system of land can prevent from caused by land expropriation process, and can protect the lawful rights and interests of farmer.
  • 7.

    The Legal Problems of PFI in Korea

    김광수 | 2009, 43(2) | pp.167~182 | number of Cited : 20
    Abstract
    Since the law was enacted in 1994 to attract private capital in Korea, a vigorous private investment in social overhead capital has been in progress. Private investment promoted the construction of social infrastructure, construction and management of community-based facilities with the private sector know-how and creativity to provide convenience to residents. However, it is also said that the laws failed in providing a flexible legal means to achieve the original purpose, the realization of public projects by the cooperation between the private investment and the government. Private investment law(Mingantujabeop) implies significant changes in the conventional way for government procurement, and this article contains some discussion of legal theory. Anyway, I regard the legal relationship built with private investment, infrastructure, based on the implementation of the convention on the contract as a method of operating to watch as a public contract. 10 years of the project showed many challenges to improve, with the highlight of the economic efficiency and the recovery of pubic welfare. It is important for not only to improving the welfare of the people, but also the future of private investment for sustainable development. The measures to strengthen public interest include strengthening the control of the Congress, the guarantees of the procedural participation of citizen, making supervising system complete, introducing competition in contract procedure
  • 8.

    Legal Analysis on Private Finance Initiative for Social Infrastructure Project

    Daein Kim | 2009, 43(2) | pp.183~206 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    Private Finance Initiative (PFI), which is a typical type of PPP (Public Private Partnership), is gaining importance nowadays for social infrastructure project. However, PFI has been criticized for its failure in meeting transparency & efficiency needs in Korea. To address this issue, this article analyzed PFI in comparison with traditional public procurement. The reason for this comparison is as follows. First, historically, PFI was introduced as an alternative to traditional public procurement. Second, in comparative law perspective, PFI related laws were established in the context of applicability of traditional public procurement law. Hence, we can grasp the desirable PFI regime by making clear the common and different features of both regimes. The major difference of both type is that efficiency is relatively more emphasized in PFI. Since PFI is usually associated with long-term & complex project, 'distribution of risk' is crucial point in devising PFI related laws. Considering these features, many commentators emphasizes flexibility and incentive system which are mandatory for the efficiency of PFI. However, there are also common features in both regimes. The most typical similarity is that PFI should also meet the needs of public interest, and efficiency should be pursued on the basis of transparency. Christine Harland's "7 steps of development in public procurement" theory gives the basis for this argument. In this context, a few suggestions can be made. First, the standard for selecting a specific method - whether a certain project should be managed by PFI or traditional public procurement - should be established clearly. In devising this standard, Value for Money will be a crucial concept. However, this concept should not be understood in narrow economic perspectives. Second, adequate competition should be guaranteed in each PFI stage. Not only in pre-selection phase, but also in main-selection phase, due level of competition should be realized for transparency. Third, various government support system should be used. Direct subsidy should be prevented for its lack of transparency & efficiency. Other methods, such as tax benefit, anciliary revenue sources, should be actively used.
  • 9.

    Improvement Methods and Case Study for the Right of Sale Claim with Reconstruction Project in Urban and Residential Environment Maintenance Law

    KANG JEONG GYU | 강진영 | 2009, 43(2) | pp.207~228 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract
    Reconstruction is concerned with lots of parties like the housing union, the members, non-members and officials of the union, public authorities concerned, the main constructor and the company of urban rearrangement management. Such project can be properly proceeded and completed only when interests of concerned parties are better coordinated. To proceed housing reconstruction more smoothly requires better coordinating different interests of concerned parties who are entangled or even confronted with each other. But this may be very difficult. Actually, there were few cases of reconstruction that were smoothly proceeded under mutual positive cooperation among interested parties of the project. In fact, disputes among concerned parties of reconstruction may be said as inherent in the project. Such disputes, especially legal, necessarily result in the extension of the period of reconstruction. What the extension, or the waste of time means is financial cost increase. This situation ultimately may lead to the abandonment of reconstruction despite an enormous expenditure of the project was already made because it may cause the project to lose its validity. Giving up reconstruction is never a result that interested parties of the project. It is also undesirable in terms of public benefit. Shortening the period of reconstruction by preventing or rapidly solving legal disputes among interested parties has a great effect on the success of the project. Based on the above problems of reconstruction, this study investigated actual cases of legal disputes over the right of claim for sale as arisen in the progress of the project, and proposed how to improve the existing system of using the same right. Here, the ultimate purpose of this study lies in contributing to the success of reconstruction by using the foresaid proposal to help prevent or rapidly solve legal disputes over the right of claim for sale as arisen in relation to the implementation of the project.
  • 10.

    Die Verfassungsrechtliche Schranke und die Verbesserungsrichtung von das Gesetz über Jeju Spezial Selbst-Verwaltung Provinz

    Hwan Myoung Pyo | 2009, 43(2) | pp.229~256 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Das im 21. 2. 2006. veröffentlichte Gesetz über Jeju Spezial Selbst-verwaltung Provinz stammt von dem Grundplannung über im 20. 5. 2005 Jeju Spezial selbst-verwaltung Provinz'. Der Zweck von das Gesetz über Jeju Spezial Selbst-verwaltung Provinz ist ‘die Führung der kommunalen Dezentralisation’ und die Konstruktion von ‘Frei Internationalen Stadt’. Das vom spezialen Kommunalrect geschützte Jeju Spezial Selbst-verwaltung Provinz wurde im 1.7. 2006. errichtet, um diese Zwecke zu erreichen. Das von dem Grund des Gesetz über Jeju Spezial Selbst-verwaltung Provinz errichtete Jeju Spezial Selbst-verwaltung Provinz has die Schranken, die Jeju Spezial Selbst-verwaltung Provinz errecihbar nicht ist. Zumal ist die verfassungsrechtliche Schranke. Das ihre Problem ist nur durch die Verfassungsrevision lösbar. Dieser Aufsatz errichtet seinen Zweck, um dies Problem zu lösen.
  • 11.

    Zusicherung im Verwaltungsrecht unter Beruecksichtigung der Kireanischen Rechtsprechung

    Hae-Ryoung Kim | 2009, 43(2) | pp.257~286 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Bei dieser Abhandelung handelt es sich die Probleme der Zusichrung des Verwaltungsrechts Koreas. Nach 0bersten Gerichts Koreas ist die Zusicherung im Verwaltungsrecht als eine eigenstaendige Verwaltungshandel anerkannt. Demgegeueber betonen einige Autoren, dass es den Charakter des Verwaltungsaktes haette. Trotz dem anderen Ansicht des obersten Gerichts wurde andere Vorstellung ueber den Rechtsnatur der Zusichrung in der Rechtsprechunng aufgetaucht. Daraus ergibt sich eine verwierrende Situation ueber der Rechtsprobleme bei der Verwaltungszusichrung. Es wird diskutiert in Korea, ob die Zusierung und die Zusage egegneniander ubtersiwdlich sind. Angesichts der effektiven Rechtschutz ist es erforderlich, die Zusierung des Verwaltungsrechts als VA angesehen, weil sie nicht nur den Betroffenen, sondern auch den Dritten beeinfussen kann. Da die Zusichung mit dem hoheitlichen Willen der Verwaltungsbehoerden zustande kommt und mit dem Vertrauenschutsprinzip den Inhalt der Zusichrung in der nachfolgenden Hauptakten realisiert werden soll, ist es erforderlich schon in dem Zeitpunkt der Zusichrung, die Rechtschutzmoeglichkeit geoeffnet werdel soll. Ansonst koennte die vollendete Tatsache mit dem Inhalt der Zusichrung geursacht werden. Bei dieser Untersuchung wird der Gesichtspunkt auch beruecksichtigt, welche Fatoren um Anerkennung der Zusichrung wichtig sind. Seit juengerer Zeit wurden einge wichtige Rechtsprechungen ueber die Zusichung in Korea aufgetaucht. Um diese Untersuchung durchzufuehrung wurde diese Rechtsprechungen mit den verschiedenen Gesichtspunkt auseinandergesetzt. Daraus folgt einige neue Gesichtspunkt gegenuerder den Rechtsprechung und wurde einige Gesstzteserneuerung vorgeschlagen.
  • 12.

    Legal Character of Administrative Notice

    Hwang Yongnam | 2009, 43(2) | pp.287~316 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This is a critical note about whether an administrative notice can be the object of revocation suit in the administrative court or not. Under the present Administrative Litigation Act, the object of revocation suit should be an administrative act which is exercised by public power and has forcible effects to enforce peoples to follow. According to this provision, it is impossible for us to suit the administrative notice. Because notice is not the forcible administrative act but just an act to notify someone of something. Nothing is changed by the notice. On the contrary, forcible administrative act is to limit our right or bound us to do something. In the case I have analyzed in this note, the court dealt with the notice as an administrative act. I agree with the conclusion of the judgement but have a different way of thinking from the reasons of the judgement. I don't think of notice as a forcible act. I think the notice is just a notice and has no power to change people's rights or duties. I maintain that the court should judge the case, not on the ground that it is a forcible act but there are no objects but the notice to relieve their rights. In my opinion, the judicial understanding on the object of administrative suit henceforth should be changed.
  • 13.

    The Change of Legislative Task and the Functions of Congressional Supporting Organization

    Yooncheol Choi | 2009, 43(2) | pp.317~340 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    Legislators are needed to be more professional than before because international and domestic legislative task have been changed rapidly for many reasons, such as political and economic globalization, crisis of internationalism, diversification of legislative circumstance, and the spread of national problems. These changes are challengeable to traditional law-makers who have trouble to research certain legislative area for their lack of professionalism. ‘The legislative supporting organization’ is an organization to support and aid Congressmen so that they can make ‘the desirable laws’. Especially ‘Congressional supporting organization’ has power to support congressmen’s legislative activities through professional researches. Korean congressional supporting organization began in earnest to be specialized since 2000, but it has been not able to use its all resources because of a budget deficit of Korean national assembly, labor shortages of research, and Congressmen’s lack of understanding about congressional supporting organizations. However, I am sure that if some conditions were improved, congressional supporting organizations could be excellent aides to make up for weaker points of Congress than the Administration. Also they could offer objective and exact legislative resources to legislators based on well-educated professional researchers and advantages of Congress from collecting the public opinion
  • 14.

    The Study on the Theory of Risk Liability

    Kim Ki Jin | 2009, 43(2) | pp.341~360 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    The theory of risk liability is one of absolute liability and it derived from originally private law sphere. In public law sphere the theory of risk liability is important because there is defect which is not covered in present state compensation for damage system. Therefore in case that neglecting state compensation for damage because of defect of written law, the right of citizen is encroached and the principle of substantial rule of law becomes groundless. The theory of risk liability in public law sphere should be estimated affirmative for the right of citizen and the principle of substantial rule of law and it requires ultimately the solution by legislation. And it should be urgently required the acknowledgment of the theory of risk liability for the complement of the defect of present state compensation for damage system. Then the right of citizen shall be enlarged and the principle of substantial rule of law shall be established.
  • 15.

    Autonomie der (Gelds)Wirtschaft als Basis des (öffentlichen, privatlichen) Wirtschaftsrechts

    Kwon,Young-Ae | 2009, 43(2) | pp.361~378 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Hier diskutieren wir über die Autopoiesie des Wirtschaftssystem als wirtschaftsrechtliche Gegenstände und den Sinn der Differenz von Staat und Gesellschaft(oder Wirtschaft). Wir diskutieren jetzt noch eine einzige dieser Konsequenzen im Rechtssystem. Mit dem formalen Begriff der Geltung in Anspruch nehmenden und transportierenden Operation können mehr Tatbestände erfaßt werden als mit dem Begriff der Rechtsquelle. Diese Ausweiterung unterläuft klassische Einteilungen des Rechts - insbesondere die Einteilung von öffentlichem Recht und Privatrecht und die Einteilung von Gesetzgebung und Rechtssprechung. Vor allem aber gelingt es auf diese Weise, die mit der Vertragsfreiheit gegebenen Gestaltungsmöglichkeit einzubeziehen. Wir hatten bereits notiert, daß v. Savigny Verträge aus dem Bereich der Rechtsquellen ausgeschlossen hatte. Das kam der zeitgenossischen Vorstellung eines unpolitischen Privatrechts entgegen und lenkte im Kontext der liberalen Ideologie davon ab, daß Private mit dem Instrument der Verträge die öffentlichen Gewalt dazu zwingen können, zu ihren Gunsten zu intervenieren, ohne daß der Vertragsinhalt zuvor politisch kontrolliert werden wäre. Ähnliches gilt für die Privatisierung der privilegierten Korporationen mit dem neuen Privileg privater Haftungsbeschränkungen bei immenser organisatorischer Marktakkumulation.
  • 16.

    Eine Untersuchung über das Normenkontrollverfahren in Deutschland

    KANG, HYUN HO | 2009, 43(2) | pp.379~402 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Hiermit wird das deutsche Normenkontrollverfahren untersucht. Das Normenkontrollverfahren besitzt eine besondere Bedeutung im Vergleich zu der Kontrolle des Verwaltungsaktes, denn es garantiert dem Bürger für die rechtliche Sicherheit und den grundlegenden Rechtsschutz. Durch das Normenkontrollverfahren können auch die Rechtsgewißheit und die Einheitlichkeit der Rechtsanwendung und damit auch die Verfahrensökonomie durch die Vermeidung weiterer Prozesse sichergestellt werden. Das Normenkontrollverfahren besitzt auch eine doppelte Funktion nämlich die Funktion des subjektiven Rechtsschutzes der Antragsteller und auch die Funktion der objektiven Rechtsbeanstandung. Deswegen ist die Behauptung der Rechtsverletzung der Antragsteller nur die Eröffnungsvoraussetzung der Normenkontrolle. Nach der Eröffnung wird bei der Begründetheitsprüfung eine umfangreiche Kontrolle durchgeführt, bei der die Rechtsvorschrift darüber geprüft wird, ob sie mit der höheren Norm angepaßt ist. Wegen des objektiven Rechtsbeanstandungscharakters der Normenkontroll besitzt die Entscheidung des Oberverwaltungsgerichts, mit welcher die Nichtigkeit einer Norm festgestellt wird, eine allgemeine Verbindlichkeit. Neulich erscheint die Meinung in Deutschland, in der die Unterscheidung zwischen der Rechtsnorm und dem Verwaltungsakt aufgegeben wird oder die Rechtsnorm und der Verwaltungsakt als Gegenstände der Verwaltungsklage angenommen werden, um die Bedeutung des Artikels 19 Abs. 4 GG aktiv ins Gang zu setzen. Natürlich gibt es eine andere Meinung, nämlich hinsichtlich der demokratischen Legitimation. In Korea wird auch die Meinung aufgetaucht, in der die Rechtsnorm für Verwaltungsakt gehalten wird, um als Gegenstand der Verwaltungsklage insbesondere der Anfechtungsklage anzunehmen. Aber dieser Versuch bringt wiederum ein schwieriges Problem mit sich, denn er macht die Rechtsnatur von anderen Verwaltungshandlungen unklar. Darum ist es dringlich geboten, wie in Deutschland ein Normenkontrollverfahren in das koreanische Verwaltungsklagesystem einzuführen.
  • 17.

    The Achievement and the Problem of the Taxpayer Movements in Korea

    KIM DOO HYUNG | 2009, 43(2) | pp.403~436 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The taxpayer movement is when the taxpayer consists the main body to find their rights by a systematic activity. As the 21st century approached, NGO played a core role around the budget supervision, opening individual data base, tax reformation, and the education of taxpayers. These movements were increasing rapidly as of year 2000. However, the taxpayer movements were joined only by a group of people and even those participants did not have the understanding of what the taxpayer association does or how it benefits themselves. As for Korea, the last 10 years' achievement since KTA and KTU's were established is impressive. Nevertheless, KTA's activity has some problems to fix. For the development of the taxpayer movement, the following problems from operations should be solved: First, the identification and the object of the association should be established and the operations of KTA should focus towards the object. Second, the management of NGO should be done in a democratic way. Third, the leaders of NGO should be equipped with the theoretical knowledge. Fourth, to overcome the lack of finance support, more members should be gathered. Lastly, international network should be reinforced for development.
  • 18.

    The Problems and Improvement Plan of Enacting Municipal by-law

    Kim, Byeong-Rok | 2009, 43(2) | pp.437~460 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract
    The local council contains three fundamental functions such as autonomy legislation right, budget voting right and administrative audit right. Among these functions, the autonomy legislation right accepts citizen's opinion and reflects it into the policy while enacting municipal by-law like the local condition to contrive residents to promote welfare which is one of a deed that is local autonomy system's keynote. However, most of the framework of the municipal by-law is conducted by the executive and nevertheless, for an assembly to have an revised voting for the original bill from the chief of the municipal corporation's revoting demand rights or precedent disposition is not an easy thing in reality and speaking from the aspect of the legislation function such as model municipal by-law counseled by central government which has quite a lot of followings, local counsel has been having indication that it has not been able to fulfill it's general function. Also from the aspects of law, resident's limitation in rights or added obligation facts should have legal mandate. Despite representatives that has been elected by the citizens should accept resident's various opinions and should decide the municipal by-law. This dissertation introduces general theory related to municipal by-law and suggest the direction for improvement and suggest so local counsel could reside.
  • 19.

    A Constitutional Study on the State's Duty of Upholding Traditional Culture and the Preservation of Traditional Temples

    Kim, Sang-Kyum | 김성준 | 2009, 43(2) | pp.461~482 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The 21st century is an age of culture. Diverse exchanges and communication among nations have accelerated globalization. Among the multi-layered interaction has cultural exchange become more important and frequent. The Constitution states in Article 9 the duty of the state to do every effort for the upholding and development of traditional culture. The importance of culture to the State can be definitely inferred from the fact that our Constitution mentions traditional and ethnic culture. Furthermore, in the culture lies the spirit and identity of a nation which were formed through the historical river. Our country has protected traditional temples as a part of traditional and ethnic culture. Traditional temples, as a preservation of Buddhist culture ingrained in our culture since the introduction of Buddhism to Korean peninsula, are being protected for the development of the culture. The state enacted “Traditional temples preservation law” to reach the goal. However, the content of this law hardly complements the “Traditional temples appointment policy”. That is, the law has not been playing a proper role for the cultural value and historical meaning granted to traditional temples. The basic characteristics of the temple as a residents for monks and at the same time as a space for people's religious acts are not even considered in the law. The most problematic issue in the Temple Law is the issue of temples within the environment protection area. Since most of the temples are located in the greens comes the issue in conflict with environment. The environment issue is an important agenda for the survival of human being in the 21st century. This provides the background why people must search for a method to cope with environmental issues and at the same time preserve the meaning of traditional temples. As our Constitution states, the state has an obligation for the preservation of its culture. Law makers should contemplate on a breakthrough to this issue within the rights and freedom of legislation. Not only environment, but also culture is the main agenda of the 21st century. The Buddhist culture as a great legacy of history is not merely a religious phenomenon. It is the spirit and mentality of our tradition and ethnicity. Law and institutions would have to develop in a way, in which traditional culture can be preserved and developed and at the same time, in which the flow of globalization is not disregarded.
  • 20.

    Realization of Cultural State and Cultural Decentralization - At the Time of Establishment of Busan Cultural Foundation -

    Kim, Se-Kyu | 2009, 43(2) | pp.483~504 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    In our nation, ever since the practical local governance began in 1995, each local government entity has been competitively holding festivals for strategic purposes such as establishment of local identity, development of regional culture, revitalization of local economy and improvement in the image. That is, local festivals lack distinction as in the expression “poverty in the midst of plenty” and accompany negative evaluations in terms of security of local identity, possession of culture and improvement in life quality. In addition, virtuous festivals are being held in excess. If such situation had been generalized, there must be improvements in laws and policies on cultural administration of local government entities under the presumption of cultural decentralization. On one hand, France revised its Constitutional Law in 2003 to regulate a new statement of “National organization of France is based on local decentralization” in Article 1 Clause 4, clarifying decentralization of France. Here, realization of cultural state and the meaning of cultural decentralization based on characteristics of each region must be reviewed. Assuming a cultural state, if cultural area is the basic cultural right generally taken by citizens, cultural decentralization refers to local decentralization from cultural perspective. That is, the problem of 「cultural decentralization」 is not a merciful consideration by the state but the recovery of local autonomy that had been lost.
  • 21.

    Legal Issues of ASP Proliferation Strategy in Public Sector

    KIM, IL HWAN | KIM, MIN HO | 2009, 43(2) | pp.505~524 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    ASP has the strong point that it can spread information quickly by lease in inexpensive price, due to the the anxiety about safety and reliability, the result of promotion of information by ASP method is however very weak in public sector. To proliferate ASP in public sector, It's important to understand the environmental factors that cause public institutions to evade the introduction of ASP and provide institutional mechanism or legal basis to eliminate those factors. Especially in the public sector, there are not only problems of ASP in the private sector, but also problems concerning the particularity of public institutions. In case damage to civil applicants or difficulty in handling civil application due to the defect of solution program, while operating ASP service, people try to ask excessive liabilities of the compensation or punishment to the public service personnel in charge. It is likely that the introduction of ASP would be highly contracted with the rigidity of public offices. Therefore, once procedural justice and legal adequacy are examined in the process of ASP introduction considering characteristics of public offices, it is necessary to provide institutional provisions or legal basis responding to the administrative responsibility that can occur afterward. In addition, the ground for granting adequate incentives for actual results of ASP introduction, budget reduction, or accomplishment in civil application service should be established in order to suggest realistic alternative that can spread the introduction of ASP in public sector. In these those purposes, this study will thoroughly examine own problems of ASP service which are indicated as the subject that should be still complemented and problems in enforcement, though the service is already activated in enterprises, so it attempts to fundamental analysis for legal and institutional improvement for activation of ASP service in public sector. After that, it provides legal orinstitutional equipment plans related to public information, which can be the very core and essential requirements for positive proliferation and activation of ASP service in public sector. With with this premise of improvement of legal institution, this study tris to establish the improvement strategy of information activation in public sector using ASP, and more over, examine possibilities and connection devices for linking with e-Government project. Finally, this study derives politic auspicious schemes for the proliferation of ASP service in public sector.
  • 22.

    A Study on the Safety Guarantee of Public Structures like Professional Baseball Park in the View of Public Law

    김종천 | 2009, 43(2) | pp.525~564 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Professional baseball must be the popular sport which is loved by the public. It is natural for a crowd to fill ball parks after baseball season starts. If so, how about the safety of professional baseball Park that can accommodate many people? Accidents such as death from pressure can happen at narrow paths in a ball park and self safety diagnosis under a local autonomous entity has been conducted though many years have passed since most of the professional baseball parks were built. This unreliable safety supervision can threaten the lives and bodies of people. So the legal theory and the legal system should be prescribed to guarantee safety of the lives and bodies of people from risk or danger which can be caused by old ramshackle professional baseball parks. And to do that, the national safety protection obligation theory of the constitution should be systematized. Building Act, National Land Planning and Utilization Act, Installation Maintenance and Safety Control of Fire-Fighting Systems Act, Special Act on the Safety Control of Public Structures that belong to a field of the safety administrative law related to risk on the basis of the constitution should be radiated and then through the safety administrative law, the national safety protection obligation can be realized. For example, Building Act as a law to prevent in advance risk or danger of the lives and bodies of people caused by old ramshackle professional baseball parks provides safety supervision system such as construction permission, construction report, structure safety, fire prevention requisites, evacuation requisites, the others risk prevention requisites, building use recognition system. Both permission of development act in National Land Planning and Utilization Act and restriction of the purpose of use and form restriction requisites which belong to construction permission requisites can guarantee safety of the lives and bodies of people. Installation Maintenance and Safety Control of Fire-Fighting Systems Act legislates prescriptions related to fire inspection, consent of construction permission and fire. And in case of the existing professional baseball parks, safety supervision can be achieved through Special Act on the Safety Control of Public Structures. Therefore professional baseball parks cannot get close safety diagnosis because facilities like professional baseball parks under Special Act on the Safety Control of Public Structures conform to class 2 facility. They come under culture and assembly facilities more than 5,000㎡ by the same law Enforcement Decree Article 2 Clause 1 annex list, so safety diagnosis and repair works are provided to be done once a 6 months through 3 years. Accordingly, the provision that class 1 facilities which is 50,000㎡ can get close safety diagnosis under the same law Enforcement Decree Article 2 Clause 1 annex list should be revised or exceptionally the provision that outworn facilities like old ramshackle professional baseball parks can get the close safety diagnosis should be legislated. So revision of the law through Special Act on the Safety Control of Public Structures realize to guarantee safety of the lives and bodies of people from risk or danger caused by old ramshackle professional baseball parks.
  • 23.

    A Study on Private Security - Focusing on Revision of the Private Security Law -

    Kim Chang-Hwee | 2009, 43(2) | pp.565~586 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    It is impossible for the police to control and clean up all the kinds of crime which come about in our rapidly-changing society. For this reason, we need private security in order to prevent crime and protect us from danger. The essential function of private security, however, is included in police action as a proper right of the nation. It is true that the police action is an exclusive power of the nation, but can be enforced by private organizations if controlled appropriately. The harmony between law made by legislators and the national police and the change of people's attitudes about private security will help it play a key role in the security of public peace. But criticisms of private security, such as the low-quality levels of its guards, its lack of services in dangerous areas, its incomplete services due to the worsening of management caused by excessive competition, and its pursuit of private rather than public interests, etc. have been raised. There are good and bad points involving private security, but above all we should realize that the problem of crime can not be dealt with and solved only by national organizations such as the law and the police. The key to solving it lie in various subjects and mutual recognition and union of various groups and a shared consciousness of living together. On top of this, the role of the national police is to positively support local societies to help them solve the problems themselves. For private security to overcome a lot of criticism and remain as a force for public peace in the nation, the research and development of private security firms and its law are needed.
  • 24.

    A Study on the Reform Measure of the National Subsidy System

    김충묵 | 강민규 | 2009, 43(2) | pp.587~610 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    Discussion on autonomy and independence of the local finance has been continuously attempted as a trend of the decentralized governance system changes over a period of time. In spite of the continuous attempt, most of the Korean local autonomous entity has a financial structure of largely depending on support from the central government rather than raising the necessary funds of itself. Especially, national subsidy system has a function of an effective resource allocation of the central government along with a role as a significant income source of local autonomous entity. However, unlike local share tax, the national subsidy is proscribed to invest in segmented purposed business, and therefore, reveals various institutional and administrative problems. Therefore, it has been revealed from the study that it is urgent to find a solution for the national subsidy system to lower the burden of the local contribution and promote autonomy in local finance. As a conclusion, the top-down system with focus on the central government needs to transfer the government’s function and responsibility to local autonomous entity so that the local autonomous entity becomes the central of the national subsidy system with its autonomous decision and responsibility. In addition, systematic execution and regulation of the system, implementation of the unified administrative system for review, and implementation of the regulation system, which is specified in the law, are also necessary to be carried out. However, since the rapid transformation of the current system could raise a side effect due to the current local autonomous entity condition and the previous custom, and therefore, transformation should be carried out by stages based on the long term blueprint.
  • 25.

    Öffentliche Unternehmen als Träger der Daseinsvorsorge und Wirtschaftlichkeitsprinzip in Deutschland

    Kim Hyung Seob | 2009, 43(2) | pp.611~636 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract
    Auf dem Weg der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung hatten die öffentlichen Unternehmen in Korea die Privatwirtschaft ergänzt, Mängel der Volkswirtschaft ausgeglichen und eine große Rolle auf das Wirtschaftswachstum gespielt. Obwohl die Grundlegung der öffentlichen Unternehmen von öffentlichen Zwecken ausging sind, haben wirtschaftliche Betätigungen der öffentlichen Hand jedoch viele rechtliche und wirtschaftliche Probleme verursacht: übermäßige Eingriffe in der Privatwirtschaft, Grundrechtsverletzungen, die strukturellen Ineffizienzen und Überwälzung des Betriebsverlust auf das Volk usw. Heutzutage soll eine Verschlechterung der wirtschaftlichen Lage als Folge der internationalen Finanzkrise die öffentlichen Unternehmen sogar in den Mittelpunkt einer Reform rücken. Dennoch wird die Bedeutung ihre Existenz hervorgehoben, denn sie sind noch heute als Instrumente staatlicher Wirtschaftspolitik in vielen Branchen vertreten: Garant für eine Infrastruktur für Daseinsvorsorge, Wirtschaftsförderer Wettbewerbsregulator, Gemeinwohlbindung und Förderung der sozialpolitischen Aufgaben. Das öffentliche Unternehmen ist jedes Unternehmen, auf das die öffentliche Hand aufgrund Eigentums einen beherrschenden Einfluss ausübt. Dieser Begriff des öffentlichen Unternehmens kann nur als umfassender Sammelbegriff für gesamte wirtschaftliche Tätigkeiten der öffentlichen Hand und vielfältige Unternehmenstypen verstanden werden, die unter dem Einfluss der öffentliche Hand stehen und nach Art der Aufgaben spezifiziert werden müssen. Der Verfassungsstaat muss als Staatszweck die individuelle Freiheit aus der Menschenwürde und Sicherheit garantieren. Die Staatszwecke werden durch notwendige Staatsaufgaben konkretisiert. Im modernen Wohlfahrtstaat ist die Daseinsvorsorge als “Vorsorge zur optimalen Freiheitsverwirklichung” und notwendige Staatsaufgabe zudem zu sicherstellen. Die Daseinsvorsorge als Rechtsbegriff dient unmittelbar öffentlichen Interessen und befindet sich im Rahmen der öffentlichen Zweckbindung. Das Wirtschaftlichkeitsprinzip stellt als Optimierungsgebot ein allgemeines Verwaltungsrechtsprinzip im Bereich der Verwaltungshandlung und Verwaltungsorganisation dar. Es erreicht bei der Auswahl der Organisationsform und Organisationsstruktur als Organisationsprinzip das anvisierte Ziel mit dem geringsten Aufwand und erzielt mit den eingesetzten Mitteln den möglichst größten Nutzen. Im Bezug auf die Daseinsvorsorgeaufgabe dient die Wirtschaftlichkeit bei Daseinsvorsorge der Kostensenkung und die Wirtschaftlichkeit im Wettbewerb dient der Gewinnmaximierung. Wie die öffentlichen Unternehmen die Wirtschaftlichkeit verfolgen und damit die politische und wirtschaftliche Staatszwecke erreichen können, wenn sie Staatsinteressen verlangen, ist von großer Bedeutung. Zum Schluss sollen die öffentlichen Unternehmen die Staatszwecke erlangen, indem sich ihre Wirtschaftlichkeit mit den effizienten Methoden unter öffentlichem Interesse erhöht, so dass sie dem Volk hochwertige Dienstleistungen anbieten können.
  • 26.

    A Study on the Issue Arising from the Use of Private Telecommunications Facilities beyond its Installation Purposes in Ubiquitous Cities

    Wan-Q Pak | 2009, 43(2) | pp.637~656 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Ubiquitous cities(“u-City”) are now being constructed and will be constructed in over 50 cities including but not limited to Busan, Dongtan, Paju, Kwangkyo, and Heungduck. The lack of law directly concerning the construction of u-cities caused many problems such as difficulties in obtaining necessary permits, inconsistent technological standards, and confusion as to the concept of u-City, etc. In order to resolve these problems, ‘Ubiquitous City Construction Act’ (“UCCA”) was enacted last March 28th and became effective as of September 29th. Connectivity, integration, and interchangibility are the functional traits of u-City and such traits needs to be realized amongst different information types, technologies, and administrative entities through information network. Under the Telecommunications Framework Act(“TFA”), information network is classified according to its installation purposes either as private telecommunications facilities (“PTFs” hereafter) or business telecommunications facilities(“BTFs” hereafter). Particularly Article 21 of TFA strictly restricts PTFs to be used only as their installation purposes prescribe unless “a special provision in other statutes” provides otherwise. In order to accomplish u-City's functional traits, it may be necessary to use PTFs beyond their installation purposes. The question is whether the UCCA provides for “a special provision in other statutes” within the meaning of Article 21 of TFA. It is not so. UCCA does not provide any provisions for PTFs at all let alone it does not provide for a “special provision” within the meaning of Article 21 of the TFA. Therefore, UCCA may not be interpreted as abolishing the restriction on PTFs under Article 21 of TFA. The Ministry of Land and See attempted to lift the restriction on PTAs. The proposed presidential decree by the agency contained a controversial provision that included PTAs as one of telecommunications network provided for under UCCA. If PTAs are to be used to accomplish u-city's functional traits without restriction, it may frustrate Article 21 of TFA. However, this controversial provision was modified later by inserting ‘ubiquitous sensor network’ instead of PTFs. Another attempt to lift restrictions are being made in the parliament. Some parliamentary members has proposed to amend UCCA so that administrative agencies and public institutes may interconnect with each other through PTFs. I suggest there be ample and serious discussion and consensus amongst interested parties including citizens, relevant industry leaders, policy makers, and scholars concerning the PTFs policy before such amendment is made. Considering the magnitude of u-Cities nationwide, the impact that such deregulation will bring to society as a whole as well as telecommunications industry is too great to think lightly. The policy regulating PTFs has not been made in a few days, and abolishment of it also should not be.
  • 27.

    Recent Trends and Issues on Legislation of Personal Information Protection Law

    BAEK YUN CHUL | 2009, 43(2) | pp.657~680 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    As technology developed rapidly, the era of E-Government and Ubiquitous has been brought into the real world. Especially, by virtue of the development of telecommunication and internet technology, the effectiveness and convenience of the works (or tasks) has been increased through an E-commerce and On-line service in the industries. On the contrary, the issue of misuse or abuse of personal information has been centralized in the society since there has been increased number of problems related to misuse or abuse of personal information. Thus, many scholars have focused on how to use or control personal information and how much discretion should we allow the authority to handle personal information. Since E-Government and other various information systems will be adopted to utilize for public, it is time to establish a legal system to protect the personal information and to ensure its stability, transparency, and responsibility. Particularly, in the information society, it is necessary to legislate a regulation which includes both public and private sectors for stimulating improvement of legislations and guaranteeing independency and effectiveness of works. Moreover, in order to protect any disturbance of personal information, the legal systems regarding financial, medical, and educational information should be established or reorganized.
  • 28.

    A Study on Administrative Guidances & Ex Facto Post Reliefs

    Lee Soonja | 2009, 43(2) | pp.681~714 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Administrative guidances function as an elastic and flexible administrative means in that they could be carried out with no legal grounds, playing a complementary role in defective legality. On top of that, they have helping functions of preventing conflicts and resistances by seeking a voluntary cooperation from their recipient, providing new knowledge and technologies, and integratively adjusting conflicting stakeholders. On the other hand, they are of non-authoritativeness based on their recipient's voluntary cooperation, which is why it's difficult to admit their mandative enforcements and impossible to accept a claim for compensations in accordance with an administrative litigation since there have been a prior consent from the recipient. These problems make it hard to realize ex facto post reliefs. Comparing cases and theories on administrative guidances and state tort liabilities between Japan and South Korea, this study aims at developing an upgraded theory of state tort liabilities based on the institutional differences between them. The study also addresses the flow of administrative guidances in accordance with the requirements for state tort liability, and the possibility on whether the types of administrative guidances could determine the state tort liabilities. In conclusion, the flow chart of administrative guidances proposed in this study enabled one to have knowledge not only at what stage each requirement for state tort liabilities has to be secured in what form, but also how each type of administrative guidances induce a judgement on voluntariness and causal relationships. In addition to that, it's been found that whether illegality and deliberation or negligence should be considered the same kind of requirement for state tort liabilities or not led to different results on whether the state tort liabilities can be acknowledged or not.
  • 29.

    Study on The Protection of Personal data and It's Reuse

    Jeong Jun-hyeon | 2009, 43(2) | pp.715~736 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Nowadays, Korea is estimated and recognized as the most conveniently digitalized nation in the world, enough to access the internet and enjoy ubiquitous society. In other words, korean peoples become so much more dependent on the internet that most of them can not get along without internet, and these environments make it possible that every internet service provider gather and store a lot of personal data. As a natural consequence of the above mentioned, it is necessary such a policy as to utilize the above personal data less than to keep them in drawers. For this aim, the followings are possibly suggested; First, the personal residence number as a unique-permanent identified personal number shall give it's own legal place to “Alternative code”, which is easily changed in accordance with the number owner's wish and is not permitted to identify the code without warrant issued by the judge. Secondly, public authority to confirm identify shall be given to the alternative code like the officially authorized key, to keep legal safety between parties concerned in blind anonymous cyber space. Thirdly, it shall be drawn up plans to solve the digital divide in popularizing the alternative code and the officially authorized key. Fourthly, personal data like telephone number or e-mail adress, which make it possible to communicate each other in cyber space characterized as Zero-privacy Society, shall be open to everybody. Above the personal data shall bo found acceptance as social restrict but the alternative code and the officially authorized key. Last, in one hand, it shall be imposed duty upon ISP to separate only none-identifying data from personal data first of all and then to store or reuse the data, if ISP wish to gather personal data. In another hand, the government shall promote the right of data base and the concerned industries to realize the sustainable ubiquitous-society.
  • 30.

    Constitutional Review on the Right to Fresh Drinking Water - focusing on water service-related law -

    Yongjeon Choi | 2009, 43(2) | pp.737~752 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    As water industry of the twenty-first century is called as Blue Gold, in our country, too, the structural reform in water industry and fostering of water-related enterprise, including public water service have come to an urgent problem. As part of it, privatization, structural reorganization of public consignment and wide area service and others in public water service come into limelight, and the issue is on the stage of legislation. But in the middle of discussion about legislation and policy selection, it is in the face of a national objection because of a lack of argument about 'right to fresh drinking water', and so meets with difficulty. Today, recognition of 'right to fresh drinking water' is admitted as international law, and is stipulated as constitutional right rather than legal right in some countries. Therefore, this paper will examine the human right in 'right to fresh drinking water' through international law, foreign laws and theories and judicial precedents in our country. Also, it will exhibit 'right to fresh drinking water' as a new paradigm about public water service.