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2009, Vol.43, No.3

  • 1.

    The Development of Modern Property Right's Taking Jurisprudence - focused on the analysis of the U.S. Supreme Court's decisions-

    In-Sun Seok | 2009, 43(3) | pp.1~30 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    The United States has a highly individualistic market-based concept of property in the guarantee of property rights. One of the important provisions regarding economic regulations in the U.S. Constitution is the Fifth Amendment(hereinafter “Taking Clause”), which prescibes “Nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.” The federal and state governments have the power to take private properties for public use. Due to the Taking Clause, the government must provide private person just compensation for national appropriation or restriction of private properties. The jurisprudence over the scope of and extent to the property right's protection is embodied through the type, requirement and compensation of the property right's infringement by the government, such as a taking. Considering these matters, the study of the U.S taking jurisprudence is very useful for understanding the theories and practices of property right's guarantee in the U.S. The U.S. Supreme Court tends to interpret the Taking Clause as protecting the economic value and expectation of the property, not the purpose of property right's guarantee. In addition to the brief provisions about property rights in the U.S. Constitution, the guarantee of property rights is realized to the taking jurisprudence by the U.S. Supreme Court's decisions. Accordingly, the review of property right's taking jurisprudence focused on analyzing the Court's cases is an essential part of the discussions over the property right's guarantee in the U.S. Constitution. With previewing the historical development of taking jurisprudence, this article mainly deals with modern taking jurisprudence surrounding the Taking Clause in the U.S. Supreme Court. Through this study, I will explore how the private person's economic right, especially the right to landownership, is protected and limited by the Taking Clause. In this article, Part I raises the need to preview the subject and Part II deals with the history and development of the Taking Clause to analyze the modern property right's taking jurisprudence. In Part III, I examine which property is protected by the Taking Clause, through analyzing the Court's cases. After looking over the type of problematic regulations in the taking jurisprudence in Part IV, I consider how the modern taking jurisprudence responds to and develops discussions over the sensitive practical taking problems rising from economic regulations by means of evaluating the Court's main cases regarding the Taking Clause in Part V.
  • 2.

    Achievements and challenges of national territorial of policies in Korea

    Soon-Tak Suh | 2009, 43(3) | pp.31~54 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Since the national foundation, Korea has experienced both population growth and economic growth rapidly. This paper will show how Korean government respond to spatial issues they face during the last 60 years. In the context, this study aimed at reviewing the achievements of national territory policies in Korea since 1948, and at identifying their challenges in the future. The results of this paper are summarized as follows: The 1960s and 1970s in Korea were the decade of industrialization and economic growth. Therefore regional equity was emphasized in the period. The 1990s were the decade of globalization therefore spatial competition was emphasized at both national and local level. After the 2000s both regional equity and spatial competition is highlighted. In conclusion, the trajectories of national territory policies in Korea since the 1960s show that Thirdly, to carry out land banking, a land banking operation system which allows national territory policies have played an important role in economic growth and national development. But these quantitative growth led to unexpected results such as land speculation, regional disparity, land commercialization, and politicization of national territory plan. Such legacies should be overcome in the future.
  • 3.

    Legal Study on the U-City Law

    손형섭 | 2009, 43(3) | pp.55~76 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    There are legal issues in the Study on the Ubiquitous law, (1) What should be an ubiquitous law? (2) It is necessary to clarify how a legal problem in each concrete field is to solve it in the ubiquitous society. Moreover, (1) The legal problem concerning u-City must clarify the relation to the Constitution for a long-term the development of u-City. And (2) whether the u-City law according to a field has embodied an appropriate appearance of the law? We have to be examined. Thus this article will look into the principle of ubiquitous law based on the 100 tasks with respect to a ubiquitous society. Based on such, this article will specifically explore the constitutional relation of the ubiquitous city, and look through the ubiquitous city law, so that the said law can work properly in the construction and management of the ubiquitous city.   The ubiquitous city law enhances public welfare under the constitution. The law should play its role in providing a better city service and in managing a safer city. In that respect, the current law still leans toward its construction role. The law should be continuously studied so that ubiquitous can be managed, be provided with the safe city service. At the same time, the law relating to the protection of the private information should also be studied as to continuously develop ubiquitous city and provide residents with comfortable space and safe management, and as to create a new city culture within such city.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Cases of Just Compensation

    LEE SANG HOON | Ho-Young SEOK | 2009, 43(3) | pp.77~94 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    The purpose of redevelopment work is to recover the function of city, to maintain the living environment, to promote the public welfare and to ensure the property right at optimum level. In order to achieve these purposes, however, just compensation clearly stated under the Article 23, clause 3 of the constitutional law needs to be fulfilled for the private properties taken by the government for public utilities in the redevelopment areas as a prior condition. Accordingly, the redevelopment work, not premised by the just compensation, would only exact the sacrifice from the private owners whose properties are taken by the government in the project area, and, as a result, it would not be able to achieve its very first purposes. This study first summarizes the latest case 'Yongsan Fourth Area Redevelopment Project' and surveys the cause of 'Yongsan tragedy' happened on 2009. Jan. 20. to examine the actual compensation matters accompanied by the expropriation, and then attempts to present any possible plan or resolution of executing the just compensation for the private owners whose properties are taken for the redevelopment project by reviewing the compensation provisions of other countries, the U.S., Germany, and Japan. It seems to be obvious that the countries considered in this study all recognize the necessity of just compensation when taking the private properties and of reflecting a proper market value in computing the just compensation. Yet, the provisions and cases examined in this study were not still enough to provide the standard of just compensation because some cases showed different judgements on the recognition of the just compensation or the limitation of private property. Although presenting the standard of just compensation was not possible in this study, this study understands that, for the execution of just compensation, the social factor and circumstance, the type of property taken by the government, the limitation of property right, etc. need to be considered in estimating the just compensation according to each individual case, and, the institutional improvement or political plan such as the reformation of appraisal system, the improvement of selecting the appraiser, the city maintenance fund, etc. need to be performed for covering the losses such as investment cost or rental premium which cannot be covered by the compensation provisions.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Revitalizing Law and Policy for Less-Developed Regions and Balanced National Development

    Seo, Bo Keon | 2009, 43(3) | pp.95~112 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Eestablished regional development programs for less-developed regions have shortcomings, such as overlapped investment, arbitrary budget sharing, top-down process, etc. As one of solutions to solve these problems, presidential Committee on Balanced National Development had launched, and establishment by Law of New Development Regions. But, policy programs for less-developed regions are not enough to provoke voluntary driving force for development due to individual execution by different central government departments. As a conclusion, effective implementation system should be established including desirable promotion of the law and policy, substantial aspect and subjective aspect.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Legal Principles on Compensation Appraisals for Lands used as Roads under the Land Compensation Act

    육정균 | 2009, 43(3) | pp.113~130 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Lands used as roads are compensated at depreciated values under Korea's Land Compensation Act. Lands used as roads are classified into four categories for compensation purposes and they are non-compensative roads, approved privately-owned roads, non-approved privately-owned roads, and other roads. Of the four types of roads, the most problematic are private roads and in-effect private roads. Approved privately-owned roads are appraised at normal prices and only one fifth (1/5) of this assessed valued is compensated with four fifth of the value deduced. Likewise, non-approved privately-owned roads are appraised at normal prices and only one third of the appraised valued is compensated after two thirds is deduced. The public does not understand purpose behind this system of depreciated compensation and tends very often to raise strong objections. Theoretical basis for such depreciated compensation is the formative transfer theory. That is, partial value of land A is transferred to value of land B and is included in the price of land B. For example, when a building is constructed on a land without roads, roads that allow access to the building must be constructed. If so, the road ends up giving utility value to adjacent lands, so normal appraisal of the road would include duplicated value of the land. Therefore, the reasoning is that depreciated compensation is rational. However, this reasoning lacks objectiveness and this paper (thesis) aims to take a look at some argumentative issues to propose some ways in which it can be improved. This paper is focused as follows : Ⅰ. Preface Ⅱ. Compensation of lands used as roads under the Land Compensation Act Ⅲ. Legal principles on compensation appraisals for lands used as roads Ⅳ. Justification for depreciated compensation Ⅴ. Conclusion
  • 7.

    Improvements for a Selection System of Appraisal Business Operators of Compensation Appraisals

    허강무 | 2009, 43(3) | pp.131~150 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Requirements of objectivity and fairness of compensation appraisal businesses such as land incorporated into public projects by implementation of large scale development projects are increasing due to increase of impacts on national finance and real estate market. However, a selection method of current appraisal business operators of compensation appraisals is operated in a method possible to hurt independence and neutrality of appraisal evaluation. Therefore, it will be reasonable for the third organization in a neutral position to take the function of selection and recommendation of appraisal business operators for securing fairness and objectivity of compensation appraisal while implementing public projects smoothly and protecting rights of land owners. Accordingly, this study examines various problems appearing in operation of selection methods of appraisal business operators of compensation appraisals and has the purpose of preparing improvements for selection methods of reasonable appraisal business operators for smooth operation of public projects and for securing fairness and objectivity of compensation appraisals. As contents of study, Chapter 2 reviews a selection system of appraisal business operators of compensation appraisals, Chapter 3 analyzes problems of a selection of appraisal business operators of compensation appraisals, Chapter 4 examines improvements for a selection system of appraisal business operators of compensation appraisals, and Chapter 5 summarizes contents of the study.
  • 8.

    Korean Unification and the Land Policy of North Korea

    Cholho Choi | 2009, 43(3) | pp.151~176 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    The Land policy of North Korea which is having basically socialistic possession system is essentially difference to system of South Korea which is having private possession principle. Land use system of North Korea is not organized the planning system which considers a development and preservation because Land use system of North Korea is not developed the system of the land use planning which can design the zoining(land use for purpose) into land. After unification problem of right of ownership which has been illegally confiscated by North Korea authorities would be very important. We have to deal with not only policy that return to original land owner by our constitutional 23rd article but also stabilization of North Korea resident's livehood and reconstruction of North Korea economy. It would be needed strategic access method to apply to North Korea as the land use policy which hold a policy at step by step. 1st step is at the preparation phase that introduce free market economy system to North Korea, 2nd step is to enlarge the landowning and use under free market economy system, 3rd step is to integrate landowning and use system of South and North Korea . This paper is introducing two important policies. the one is the land public lease system which in order to prevent a speculative buying by land development. the other is the development act license system which in order to prepare to sprawl for the urban development and the industry site.
  • 9.

    The Principal Contents and the Problems on the Revised Bill to theSpecial Act On the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province - Focusing on Transfer of the Tourism 3 Acts -

    Ko Heon Hwan | 2009, 43(3) | pp.177~198 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In Jeju island, a special law for the establishment of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province and the creation of an International Free City was proclaimed and established in February 21, 2006, and Jeju island became Jeju Self-Governing Province since the effect takes in July 1, 2006. The Special Act On the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province has been accomplished its deregulation as well as the transfer of the central authority for launching Jeju Special Self-Governing Province and the improvement of a necessary extra system for fostering core industry through the system improvement of twice, but it came up with the third phrased system improvement bill including a model plan of the package transfer by subject and skill on the necessity of acceleration of the system improvement bill to complete Jeju Special Self-Governing Province and ensure the pioneering role of the nation new growth power. However, it is excluding very important contents in the package transfer of the government authority among the third phased system improvement bills, and compared to the general law related to the tourism, there are many problems of legal effectiveness. Therefore, this thesis suggests a legislative task to show the problem of the revised bill to the Special Act On the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province and realize its the legal effectiveness by the package transfer of three Acts of tourism.
  • 10.

    Institutionalization of Emission Trading System in Korea.

    Kim, Choon-Hwan | 2009, 43(3) | pp.199~228 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    The international community reached agreement at the Kyoto Conference to reduce green house emission through an emissions trading system. Following adoption of the Kyoto Protocol, the operational methods and implementation mechanism for the emissions trading system became the subject of intense debate. At the 4th Conference of Party held in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1998, a detailed work plan for an emission trading system was agreed upon. At this conference, Korea announced its intention to first reduce green house gas emissions on a voluntary basis and then, beginning in the third implementation period (2018-2022) of the Kyoto Protocol, become subject to the legally binding emissions reduction target. Joining the Kyoto Protocol, however, presents significant challenges to Korea, the greatest of which are presents significant challenges to Korea, the greatest of which are presented by ever-increasing domestic energy demand and an industrial structure dominated by manufacturers that inefficiently consume high amounts of energy. Thus, there is an urgent need for Korea to develop multi-dimensional strategies to reduce green house gases. Institutionalization of emission trading system in Korea is very important among the strategies. The emissions trading system, a ceiling on allowable worldwide emissions is established. Especially, the developed countries as well as EU have developed the emission trading system from long time ago. Legal systems of these developed countries can help us to legalize the system. In this paper, the meanings, purposes, merits of emission trading system were described in this paper. The emission trading system of EU, U.S.A., Japan, and England as developing countries were examined and evaluated thoroughly. And the emission trading system of current Korean laws were reviewed, and pointed out several problems. Finally, the legalization of emission trading system presented.
  • 11.

    Steuerungsinstrumente der Abfallentsorgung

    Song Dongsoo | 2009, 43(3) | pp.229~246 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Die Umweltbelastung in den Industriegesellschaften nimmt immer mehr zu. Deshalb ist der Staat gefordert, den Gegensatz zwischen Ökonomie und Ökologie zu überwinden und beide Bereiche miteinander zu versöhnen. Kern des Umweltmanagements sind Handlungsprogramme zur konkreten Verbesserung der Umweltsituation. Dabei geht es um das gesamte Spektrum umweltbezogener Maßnahmen und Handlungsfelder. Pläne und Strategien in der Abfallwirtschaft umfassen in der Verwaltungspraxis zunächst die klassischen gemäß dem AbfG zu erstellenden Abfallwirtschaftspläne und -konzepte. Darüber hinaus bedarf es jedoch weiterer Strategien und Instrumente, um möglichst weitsichtig die zukünftige Entwicklung der Abfallwirtschaft zu erkennen und ggf. lenkende Maßnahmen umsetzen zu können. Bereits mit der Entwicklung zur Kreislaufwirtschaft beschränkt sich die Abfallwirtschaft nicht mehr nur auf Fragen der ordnungsgemäßen Entsorgung von Abfällen, sondern ist darüber hinaus eng verknüpft mit Fragen zu den Prozessen, die vor einem Abfallanfall stehen: Produktionsprozessen, Produktgestaltung und -eigenschaften sowie im Allgemeinen Materialflüssen im gesamtwirtschaftlichen Zusammenhang. In Verbindung mit diesen Prozessen wurden und werden Instrumente gesucht und entwickelt, die Möglichkeiten zur Abfallvermeidung und einer möglichst hochwertigen Verwertung von Produkten am Ende ihres Lebensweges bzw. deren möglichst langer Erhalt im Wirtschaftskreislauf erkennen lassen und fördern. Hierzu gehören neben den erprobten Instrumenten der Abfall- bzw. Produktökobilanzen weitere Instrumente wie der Produktionsintegrierte Umweltschutz.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Land Use Restriction for the Environment Conservation

    설계경 | 2009, 43(3) | pp.247~266 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    All activities of the human being is related with the land. According, solution of environmental matter is will help how regulates the land use. But supply of the land is restricted. because the government intervenes directly and at second hand. The various country is like this actual condition. Our constitution is providing the environment circle and the environmental conservation duty in all citizens, and the right of property is limited for the environmental conservation. Use and limit of the right of property is representative for a environmental conservation. The paper was tried to observe related with like this environmental matter. Related with the limit of land use, First of all, The paper was investigated environmental regulation and land right of property. Next, analyzed the present condition of relation laws about environmental legal coat. Last, re-illuminated problem and improvement program to the statutes.
  • 13.

    Das Gewässerschutzrecht in Deutschland und Dessen Bedeutung

    Kim, Hyun Joon | 2009, 43(3) | pp.267~294 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Bei der vorliegenden Arbeit handelt es sich um den rechtlichen Schutz des Gewässers. Dafür analysiert die Arbeit insbes. das Wasserhaushaltsgesetz(WHG), das den Hauptteil des deutschen Gewässerschutzrechts bildet. Das WHG ist bisher siebenmal, zuletzt grundlegend 18. 6. 2002 zur Umsetzung der europäischen Wasserrahmenrichtlinie(WRRL), novelliert worden. Wegen des integrativen Ansatzes der WRRL und ihres ehrgeizigen Ziels der Erreichung wird diese 7. Novelle als Umbruch der europäischen Gewässerpolitik gewertet. Die wesentliche Neuerung der Novelle ist die Konzeption wasserrechtlicher Planungsinstrumente, wie Bewirtschaftungsplan des § 36b WHG und Maßnahmenprogramm des § 36 WHG. Bemerkenswert ist auch, dass nach der Föderalismusreform, die am 1. 9. 2006 in Kraft getreten ist, hat der Bund nunmehr die konkurrierende Gesetzgebungskompetenz im Bereich des Wasserhaushaltsrechts, während die Rahmengesetzgebung des Bundes abgeschafft wurde. Diese Arbeit, die auf die Verbesserung des koreanischen Gewässerschutzrechts abzielt, ist wie folgt aufgeteilt; - Problemstellung sowie Systematik des Wasserrechts in Umrissen -Rechtsgrundlagen des deutschen Gewässerschutzes im Zusammenhang mit der EU-Wasserrahmenrichtlinie -Gewässerschutz im Wasserhaushaltsgesetz, insbes. der rechtliche Begriff des Gewässers, Ziele und Grundsätze der Wasserbewirtschaftung im WHG, sowie Instrumente der Wasserbewirtschaftung - Gewässerschutz im UGB II-RefE - Rechtsvergleich zwischen deutschem und koreanischem Gewässerschutzrecht
  • 14.

    Zum Deutschen Projekt - Mechanismen - Gesetz

    yi,jong-yeong | 2009, 43(3) | pp.295~318 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Der deutsche Gesetzgeber hat durch die Einführung des Projekt-Mechanismen-Gesetzes zum 30.9.2005 Instrumente geschaffen, die die Einbeziehung von Emissionsgutschriften aus den projektbezogenen Instrumenten Clean Development Mechanism und Joint Implementation in den Emissionshandel ermöglichen. Mit dem ProMechG sind dabei die Vorgaben der Eu-Richtlinie 2004/101/EG umgesetzt worden. Diese Richtlinie ergänzt die EH-Richtlinie und schaft die Grundlagen für die Nutzung von zertifizierten Emissionsre- duktionen(CER) und Emissionsreduktionseiheiten(ERU) im Emissionsahndelssystem der Eu. Mit den genannten Instrumenten CDM und JI besteht die Möglichkeit, Emissionsberechtigungen zu generieren. Sie gehören zu den im Koyto-Protokoll vorgesehenen flexiblen Instrumenten zum Klimaschutz und haben mit seinem inkrafttreten Anfang 2005 völkerrechtliche Verbindlichkeit erlangt. Die speziellen Voraussetzungen zur Durchführung eines CDM-Projektes regeln §§ 8, 9 ProMechG. Danach hat das Projekt bestimmte Anforderungen zu erfüllen und bedarf der behördlichen Zustimmung. Unter anderem ist für das Projekt zunächst erforderlich, dass von einem Projektträger eine Projektdokumentation erstellt wird. Neben der Projektbeschreibung müssen dort Angaben zu den erwarteten Emissionsminderungen gemacht werden, wobei die Emissionen in der Ausgangssitutation und die Emissionen nach Projktumsetzung zu vergleichen sind. Damit ein CDM-Projekt überhaupt genehmigungsfähig wird, muss im Projekt Design Document auf der Grundlage dieses Vergleichs eine positive Emissionsr- eduktionsmenge dargelegt werden. Ein weiteres Element des PDD besteht in der Festlegung eines Monitoring-Plans. Bei CDM-Projekten kann die Bundesrepublik Deutschland nur als Investorstaat auftreten, das Projekt ist auf dem Staatsgebiet eines Entwiklungslandes durchzuführen. Hier hat DEHSt auf schriftlichen Antrag des Projektträgers die Zustimmung zu erteilen, wenn die mit dem Antrag vorzulegende Projektdokumentationen und sach und fachgerecht erstellte Validierungsbericht ergeben, dass die Projekttätigkeit eine zusätzliche Emissionsminderung erwarten lässt und die Projekttätigkeit keine schwer wiegenden nachteiligen Umweltauswirkungen verursacht und der nachhaltigen Entwicklung des Gastgeberstaates in wirtschaftlicher, sozialer und ökologischer Hinsicht, insbesondere vorhandenen nationalen Nachhaltigkeitstrategien, nicht Zuwiderläuft.
  • 15.

    A Study of the Ex-Ante Assessment Mechanism for the Japanese Regulatory Impact Assessment System

    Jang Kyo-Sik | 2009, 43(3) | pp.319~338 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The current global economic crisis is foreshadowing the need to move away from current trends emphasizing autonomy and deregulation. While the maximization of profit is an inherent characteristic of a capitalistic system, it does not necessarily mean that capitalism itself sanctions extreme activities that result in complete destruction. Therefore, economic society needs a reasonable social mechanism to limit human greed and risk-taking. One possible solution to this need is regulation. Future crises such as the current global financial crisis, which is a result of an economic system oriented toward autonomy and competition, can be give avoided through renegotiation of government regulation and supervision of the market. This paper focuses on the series of measures taken by the Japanese government as part of a successful regulation reform implemented during the financial crisis of the 1980s. In particular, oneof the main characteristics of the regulatory administration adopted by the Japanese government during this period was that the government alleviated regulations in those economic sectors which required alleviation and strengthened government regulations in those sectors which required stronger governmental intervention. In order to successfully implement this plan, the Japanese government established a Committee on Regulation Reformation, making annual announcements regarding the necessary reform measures for each different economic sector. During these series of processes, the Japanese government also implemented a Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) System, to regularly assess regulatory impact on each different sector of the market. In order to materialize these necessary implementations, the government legislated amendments to its existing laws and regulations. This type of approach could be classified as an expansion of the Ex Ante Assessment Mechanism to the regulations under the Act on Policy Assessment. In the analysis of the Ex Ante Assessment Mechanism in regards to the Japanese market regulations, this paper focused on amendments to the Act on Policy Assessment, as well as the Enforcement Ordinance and Enforcement Regulations. In addition, this paper further investigated the basic policy for Administrative Assessment as well as guidelines provided to conduct these Ex Ante Assessments. The Regulatory Impact Assessment System and the Ex Ante Assessment Mechanism in Japan both have great significance to Korea, which is currently undergoing a comprehensive reformation of its regulations. During this kind of comprehensive reform for the promotion of economic development, an Ex Ante Assessment Mechanism provides an opportunity to assess the possible effects of regulation reforms before their actual implementation, and therefore have great significance in predicting the social cost necessary in implementing the plans.
  • 16.

    Eine Studie ueber die Problematik der Bio-Dieselfoerderung in Deutschland"

    Shin, Okju | 2009, 43(3) | pp.339~356 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Seit 2000 wächst in EU Bio-Dieselprodukt jählich 28.2%. Deutschland ist das stärkste Herstellungsland von Bio-Diesel unter den EU-Mitgliedstaaten. Zufolge eines Berichtes von 2005 produziert Deutschland 52.4% von gesamte Bio-Diesel in Europa. §2 Nr. 6 von Bundesnaturschutzgesetz verlangt “Aufbau einer nachhaltigen Energiever- sorgung als das Grundsatz zur Minderung der Umweltzerstörung. Das zum 01. Januar 2007 in Kraft getretene Biokraftstoffquotengesetz verpflichtet die Mineralölwirtschaft, einen wachsenden Mindestanteil von Biokraftstoffen, bezogen auf die jährliche Gesamtab- satzmenge eines an Otto- und Dieselkraftstoff, in Verkehr zu bringen(Biokraftstoffqqote). Und durch die Nachhaltigkeitsverordnung ist das nachhaltige Menagement bei Land-, Forstwirtschaft und Umweltschutz gesichert. Problematisch ist aber, dass die Nachhaltig- keitsverordnung zwei Kriterien für die Nachhaltigkeit gestellt hat. Einerseits stellt sie für deutsche Landfläche sehr strenge. Kriterien, nämlich ‘Anforderungen der guten fachlichen Praxis’, andererseits stellt sie ausserhalb von Deutschland den gelockertn Massstab für die Nachhaltigkeit. Bis heute importiert Deutschland meistens aus Indonesien Palmöl, Palmkernöl und Palmschrot, die meistens als Nahrungsmittel verarbeitet sind. Deutschland hat vor, Biostoffe wie Palmöl aus anderen Ländern, insbesondere aus Indonesien zu importieren. Denn es ist unmöglich, deutsche landwirtschaftliche Fläche in Lapsfeld umzuwandeln, um die gezielte Biostoffequote zu erreichen. Seit langem hat Indonesien Umweltprobleme im Zusammenhang mit dem Bau der Palmplantagen, die durch die Abholzung, Roden und Waldbrände verurscht sind. Der Bedarf am Palmöl wird die Regenwald- und Umweltzerstörung von Indonesien beschleunigen. In diesem Zusammenhang prognostizieren viele Wissenschaftler, dass durch Förderung der Biokraftstoffe im Lauf der nächsten 30 Jahre bis zu neun Mal so viel Kohlendioxid freigesetzt. Die minimale Massnahme, die präventiv weitere Zerstörung des Regenwalds und der Umwelt von Indonesien dienen kann, ist das Nachhaltigkeitprinzip. Die Nachhaltigkeitsverordnung muss geändert werden, damit Landfläche innerhalb und ausserhalb Deutschlands gleich nach dem Prinzip der nachhaltigen Entwicklung geschützt werden können
  • 17.

    Die Verschiedenen Arten von Mietverhältnissen in Italienrecht

    So,Jae-Seon | 2009, 43(3) | pp.357~398 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Das neulich geänderte italienlische Mietrecht(1998) ist zwar als Mietvertragssystem nicht nur mit der Vertragsfreiheit, sondern auch mit dem vorherigen bestimmten Vertragssystem eingeführt, aber ist das vor allem durch Standardvertrag entstanden, das von Vermieters- bzw. Mietersgenossenschaft bestimmt ist. Die für die von der gemeinschaftlichen Vereinbarung entstandene Begründung der vertraglichen Verbindung benötigte Methode ist darauf hinzuweisen, dass dies durch den Schutz gegen das zwingende Eingreifen eine Methode zur autonomen Konfliktlösung bzw. zum zukünftig zu erwartenden Rechtssystem bedeutet. Bezüglich der funktionalen Veränderung im heutigen Rechtssystem ist das italienische Mietrecht beachtenswert. Deswegen haben wir die Tendenz des italienischen Mietrechts zu beachten. Insbesondere gibt es in Italien einige Tendenz, das Mietrecht von der Immobilienpolitik streng zu trennen. Unter Berücksichtigung der Aktivität im Immobilienmarkt hat das zwischenzeitliche italienische Mietrecht die strengende Kontrolle über die Miete im Immobilienmietvertrag erleitert. Aber das erleichterte Mietrecht ist ein Ergebnis, das durch das Reform des Mietrecht im Jahre 1978 entstanden ist, so war das als ein freilicher Vertrag ins Gesetzbuch nicht integriert. Hinsichtlich der Regelungstechnik ist das eine Pfropfung und bezüglich dessen Methode ist das auch fraglich, ob das mit dem Verfassungsrecht übereinstimmt, aber durch das geänderte Mietrecht ist der Immobilienmarkt wieder balanciert. Wegen der Fortdauer des Mietersrechts ist die Festigkeit zwischen der Fortdauer und der Begrenzung der Miete gemildert. Nach einigen Auffassungen in italienischen Lehren ist das als eine Rückkehr zum Zivilgesetzbuch angesehen, aber ist das richtig bzw. in sich widerspruchfrei formuliert? In der Mietekontrolle gibt es grundsätzlich eine Beschränkung, so ist das auch ein Ergebnis, das vom tatsächlichen Bedarf im Markt nachgebend entstanden ist. Durch das Recht im Jahre 1992, das zwar aus dem Recht im Jahre 1978 stammt, hat das Recht im Jahre 1998 einige Besonderheiten. Aus diesem Gesichtspunkt soll das Recht im Jahre 1978 eine rechtsgeschichtliche Bedeutung haben. Die Fortdauer des Mietersrechts bzw. die Rückkehr des Immobilien- mietvertrags zum Zivilgesetzbuch bedeutet nicht die Rückkehr zur Besitz- od. Vertragsfreiheit. Daher ist die Geleichstellung der Vollziehung über die Übergabeentscheidung gesetzgeberisch zu berücksichtigen. Zwischen beiden Mietrechten im Jahre 1978 bzw. 1998 gibt es einen großen Unterschied. Wie oben genannt ist, wollte das Recht im Jahre 1978 durch das unmittelbare Eingreifen in den individuellen Vertrag die Mietekontrolle bzw. Fortdauer des Mieterrechts ausführen. Das war die Absicht des Gesetzgebers, dass der Mieter leicht die Mietobjekte erhalten konnte, auch dadurch das Mietverhältnis mehr stabilisiert wurde. Aber durch das gesetzliche Eingreifen war die Gelegenheit zum Erhalten der Mietobjekte weggenommen und schließlich waren die nicht gemieteten Immobilien drastisch zugenommen. Daher ist das Mietrecht im Jahre 1998 ein Ergebnis, das nicht die alte Fassung nachfolgte und systemmatisch sich umgewandelt. Nach dem Mietrecht im Jahre 1998 ist die Miete von den Vertragsbeteiligten selbst entschieden und ist das bestimmte Vertragssystem durch den steuerpolitischen Vorteil gefördert und durch die staatliche Förderung zur Miete konnten die niedrigen Einkommende viel leicht die Mietobjekte erhalten. Zusätzlich kann das Mietrecht auch die Privatautonomie noch beschränken, um die Stabilisierung des Mietverhältnisses zu sichern. Das Vorkaufsrecht ist auch dem Mieter eingeräumt. Die oben genannten Inhälte sind Ansichte des italienischen Gesetzgebers, um die Zusammenhang zwischen dem Mieter und der Mietobjekte stabil und fortdauerlich zu sichern.
  • 18.

    Contrôle de constitutionnalité des lois en France

    Park, In Soo | 2009, 43(3) | pp.399~412 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Le contrôle de constitutionnalité est l'activité principale du Conseil Constitutionnel(C.C.). Pris en cette qualité, le C.C. dispose de compétences complexes qui peuvent faire l'objet de multiples classifications. En retenant comme critère la procédure de saisine, on distingue le contrôle obligatoire, et le contrôle facultatif. Le contrôle est obligatoire pour les lois organiques avant leur promulgation et pour les règlements des assemblées parlementaires et du Congrès avant leur application en vertu de l'article 61 al. l. Dans les deux cas, il s'agit d'un contrôle exhaustif qui porte sur toute les dispositions soumises au C.C. Celles des dispositions qui ne sont pas censurées sont donc présumées conformes à la Consititution. En dehors dans les deux cas, la révision constitutionnelle en 2008 ajoute l'objet du contrôle obligatoire par l'article 61 al. 1. C'est à dire, pour le troisième cas, les propositions de loi mentionnées à l’'article 11 avant qu’'elles ne soient soumises au référendum. Le contrôle est faculitatif pour deux catégories d'actes : les lois ordinaires et les traités. Les lois ordinaires peuvent être déferées au C.C., avant leur promulgation, par le Président de la République, le Premier ministre, le président de l'autre assemblée, soixante deputés ou soixante senateurs. Le C.C. se prononce sur leur conformité à la Constitution. Ces dispositions contenues dans l'article 61 alinea 2 constituent une innovation. En ce qui concerne le contrôle des traités et accords internationaux, l'article 54 prévoit que le Président de la République , le Premier ministre, le Président de l'une ou l'autre assemblée, soixante deputés ou soixante senateurs, peuvent soumettre au C.C. un traité avant sa ratification ou son approbation. Le Conseil dispose, comme pour le contrôle de consitutionnalité des lois, d'um mois pour se prononcer. D'après la révision constitutionnelle en 2008, la constitution française introduit le contrôle postérieur de constitutionnalité des lois par l'article 61-1. L'article 61-1 dispose : Lorsque, à l’'occasion d’'une instance en cours devant une juridiction, il est soutenu qu’'une disposition législative porte atteinte aux droits et libertés que la Constitution garantit, le Conseil constitutionnel peut être saisi de cette question sur renvoi du Conseil d’'État ou de la Cour de cassation qui se prononce dans un délai déterminé. Une loi organique détermine les conditions d’'application du présent article.
  • 19.

    Die Demokratische Legitimation und Das Institut des Verfassungsgerichts

    양충모 | 2009, 43(3) | pp.413~428 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Eine Frage ueber die Normkontrolle des Verfassunsgerichts stellt sich unter vielen vordringlich, wenn man einmal ins Betracht zieht, dass das von den direkt vom Volk gewaehlten Abgeordneten ins Kraft treten lassene Gesetz nichtig werden koennte, wenn es dazu von dem Verfassungsgericht, an dem irgend eine direkte Legitimation fehlt, verurteilt wuerde. Dabei kann ein Widerspruch zwischen Volkswille und Entscheidungsgruende entstehen. Natuerlich geben es zur Zeit zwei Arten von Verfassungsgericht, eine von U.S. Supreme Court, der sich schon auf andere Verfassungsorganen staerkere Einfluesse ausgeuebt hat, eine andere vom Bundesverfassungsgericht von BRD, das schon eine eigenstaendige Stellung in der ganzen Rechtsordnung erkriegt hat. Gleichfalls koennte man ohne weiteres danach zwei Fragen stellen wie folgende: zum ersten ob es eine andere Verfassungsorgan in der Wirklichkeit geben kann, die so stark und so gross wie das verfassungsrechtliche Gericht sein wuerde, und zum zweitens wie die Autoritaet von einen Verfassungsgericht unter dem repraesentativen Demokratiesystem rechtfertigen kann? Hinter diesen beiden Fragen besteht meines Erachtens letztendlich eine Tatsache, dass es dabei nicht von Bedeutung ist, welche Form die Befugnisse des Verfassungsgerichts hat, sondern wichtig ist, wie sich das Institut Verfassungsgericht in Bezug auf seine Befugnissen, Autoritaet und Organisationen mit dem Prinzip der Gewaltenteilung und noch des repraesentativen Systems harmonisieren laesst. Hier wird also eroertert, wie das Institut Verfassungsgericht seine Rerechtfertigung finden kann und welch Grenze in Bezug auf seine Befugnisse gegenueber anderen Verfassungsorganen daraus als ein Konsequenz gezogen werden kann.
  • 20.

    A Study on Problems of the Bills of law Against Terrorism and Their Improvement Measures

    이대성 | 2009, 43(3) | pp.429~450 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    Terrorism has become one of the major issues that constantly draw media attention in the world of today, since it is a new factor that threatens national security in the 21st century. The very terrorist attack that occurred on the 11th of September, 2001 in particular was so destructive that it is considered to be tantamount to an act of war in terms of its effect on the entire nation and whole society. Furthermore, the so-called 9/11 symbolizes all the more conspicuously the destruction of human civilization and the intensification of the feeling of terror that remains immanent deep inside of the human mind. The international community, therefore, intends to reach consensus and come up with various efficient measures aimed at preventing terrorism. As these measures may be categorized into the group of laws and that of policies and be explained as such, I would rather focus on the former in this study . First of all, the UN adopted the resolutions #1368 and #1373 on the 12th of September, 2001 to define terrorism as a major threat to the world peace and make it imperative to block the funding of terrorist organizations and the provision of their logistics. In the same vein, the US passed a bill, entitled USA Patriot Act 2001, on the 19th 0f September, 2001 in order to enhance counter-terrorist operations of investigation agencies, while Japan enacted a law that penalizes the funding of criminal acts against the public in 2002. France had already established a law (LOI 86-120, also known as 09 Septembre 1986 LOI relative a la lute contre le terrorisme et aux atteintes a la sureté de I'Etat) on the 9th of September, 1986. The main content of such bills and laws overseas is as follows: Firstly, definition of terrorism and designation of terrorist organizations; Secondly, supervision over terrorist suspects and enhancement of investigative powers; Thirdly, strengthening of customs service in terms of security at the airport and seaport; Fourth, vigilance over money laundering of foreign funds and terrorist funds; Fifth, sharing of information and reorganizing of counter-terror agencies; Sixth, stricter punishment of terrorists; Seventh, enlargement of jurisdictions. In Korea, as well, anti-terrorist bills were presented to the National Assembly in November, 2001, March, 2005, and October, 2008. They, however, ended up exposing some of their limitations: Firstly, possible infringement on human rights by those bills. Secondly, question of the mobilization of regular armed forces. Thirdly, monopolization of powers by specific State agencies. This study intends to allow these matters to be discussed reasonably and systematically, so as to come up with their improvement measures. For that purpose, this study suggests that the function of checks and balances be re-established amongst State agencies and the respect of basic human rights be re-enforced by enacting such laws aimed at controlling abuse of power or arbitrary execution of State powers.
  • 21.

  • 22.

    Etude sur le Service Public en France

    이순우 | 2009, 43(3) | pp.473~490 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Le service public, s'il affronte régulièrement des crises - dont celle de sa confrontation avec le droit communautaire - demeure la pierre angulaire du droit public. Critère des fins, il est complémentaire de la notion de puissance publique, critère des moyens, il aide à la reconnaissance du caractè public d'une activité. La présence du service public se décèle à partir des trois éléments entrant dans sa définition : activité d'intérêt général, assurée par une personne publique (ou privée) et soumise à un régime juridique particulier. Le service public est soumis au respect de trois principes : ceux de continuité, d'adaptation et d'égalité. Deux grandes catégories se distinguent selon l'objet et le régime juridique : les services publics administratifs et les services publics industriels et commerciaux. La gestion peut être confiée à des organismes de droit public, mode le plus ancien d'intervention. Deux structures se distinguent : la régie, c'est-à-dire l'exploitation directe par l'administration, et l'établissement public, service public 'personnalisé', doté de l'autonomie administrative et financière. L'ouverture à la concurrence, exigée par l'Union européenne, a modifié profondément les règles de fonctionnement et le ‘service public à la française’ s'est marginalisé, remplacé par la notion plus réaliste de service d'intérêt général. Il a dû s'adapter aux règles de transparence et de mise en compétition qui s'appliquent à la passation des marchés.
  • 23.

    A Study on The Unconstitutionality of The Criminal Conversation - Focused on The Criticism of The Conclusion of the Constitutional Court 2008. 10. 30, 2007HunGa17 -

    Hiehoun Lee | 2009, 43(3) | pp.491~510 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    The purpose of legislation for the regulations of criminal conversation, regulated in the Criminal Law(1953) for the first time, is not valid due to the 3 reasons as follows. First, It is not necessary to regulate adultery by the Criminal Law to establish monogamy institution because monogamy system has been already established in our society. Second, absolute majority of our social members do not regard adultery as outrageous evil and the individual has sexual right to self-determination defined in article 17 of the Constitutional Law. Hence, adultery should not be regulated by the Criminal Law but committed to morality. Third, if adultery is to be punished by the Criminal Law, the relationship between married couple and between the family members might be worse and it may result in earlier dissolution of marriage. In addition, divorce is the premise to bring an accusation against criminal conversation pursuant to the Criminal Law. It violates the spirit of protection rules of marriage system and family system in article 36, clause 1 of the Constitutional Law. The regulations of criminal conversation pursuant to the Criminal Law is unconstitutional regulations contrary to the principle of proportion since the purpose of legislation for the regulations of criminal conversation had to be realized through several ways in the Civil Law, not by the punishment pursuant to the Criminal Law, and punishment with a fine is not defined in criminal code but imprisonment only is defined in it unlike the crimes that violate other sexual customs. Therefore, it is desirable for Korea to abrogate the regulations of criminal conversation in the Criminal Law as soon as possible, which never make general protection function like most countries in the world.
  • 24.

    Le Droit Européen Dans L'ordre Juridique de L'Etat Membre par Voie de la CJCE(ECJ) et la CEDH(ECHR)

    Jeon, Hoon | 2009, 43(3) | pp.511~528 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Il est nécessaire de connaître la question des rapports entre l'ordre juridique communautaire et les ordres juridiques nationaux. Le droit européen se caractérise par l'applicabilité immédiate et directe et la primauté du droit communautaire sur le droit national. Le développement du droit européen résulte des efforts de la Cour de justice des Communauté européenne(CJCE), institution judiciaire de l'Union européenne(communautaire) et de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme(CEDH) qui protège des droits de l’homme prévus par la Convention européenne. La CJCE, siège à Luxembourg et assure le respect du droit communautaire, l’interpréation et l’application des traités instituant l’Union europénne. Elle a pour tâche d’as surer que la législation de l’UE est interprétée et appliquée uniformément dans tous les États membres, de manière à assurer la sécurité juridique et la primauté du droit pour tous. La mission essentielle de la CJCE consiste, telle une cour suprême ou constitutionnelle, à examiner la légalité des actes communautaires et à assurer, notamment par l’examen des renvois préjudiciels, une interprétation et une application uniformes du droit communautaire. La CEDH, institué en 1959, siège à Strasbourg, est une juridiction internationale compétente pour statuer par des arrês obligatoires sur des requêtes individuelles et interéatiques de violations de la Convention europénne des droits de l’homme. Elle assure le respect par les Etats des obligations de la Convention europénne des droits de l’homme. Les arrêts de CEDH concernant la laïcité(Kokknikaki en 1993, Leyla Sahin en 2004) donnent une guide d'interprétation pour le juge national, Conseil d'Etat en France. Le méchanisme de coopération instauré par l'article 234 TCE offre une grande latitude au juge national qui est finalement maître du renvoi préjudiciel même si la primauté du droit européen est admis dans l'ordre juridique de l'Etat membre.
  • 25.

    L'étude sur la Inconstitutionnalité de la Limite D'âge D'entrée Dans la Fonction Publique

    JEON Hak-Seon | 2009, 43(3) | pp.529~548 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    L'article 25 de la Constitution coréenne dispose que ‘tout citoyen est admissible à tous les emplois publics comme prévu par la loi’. Tout citoyen a le droit de l'égalité d''accès aux emplois publics. L'accès des citoyens à la fonction publique est dominé par un principe général de valeur constitutionnelle. Le principe de l'égal accès aux emplois publics signifie d'abord que tous les citoyens peuvent avoir accès à la fonction publique s'ils réunissent par ailleurs les conditions générales d'accès. Il interdit qu'une fonction publique soit réservée à une catégorie de citoyens ou encore que les fonctions publiques soient férmées à certaines catégories de citoyens. La loi relative à la fonction publique et le même règlement prévoient un âge minimal et un âge maximal pour les concours de la fonction publique. Pour le 5ème degré, l'âge maximal était fixé 32 ans et pour le 6ème et le 7ème, 35 ans. La Cour constitutionnelle coréenne a décidé que pour le 5ème degré 32 ans est contraire à la Constitution. Elle a admis que la limite de l'âge maximal d'entrée elle-même n'était pas contraire à la constitution, mais elle était trop bas. Il n'est pas raisonnable que les personnes jusqu'à l'âge de 32 ans minimum sont nécessaires pour l'accomplissement de fonctions officielles de la fonction publique à la 5ème degré et les personnes de plus de 32 ans, de perdre une telle exigence minimale. En outre, il n'est pas raisonnable que la limite d'âge de l'être candidat à la fonction publique en 5ème classe est l'âge de 32 ans tandis que celle du candidat à la fonction publique dans les 6ème et 7ème degré est l'âge de 35 ans. En conséquence, la restriction de l'âge de candidat à la fonction publique en 5ème classe jusqu'à ce que 'l'âge de 32 ans “par la règle de disposition d'application dans ce cas est unconformable à l'article 37 section 2 de la Constitution exige que la restriction des droits fondamentaux d'être moins restrictive un. Toutefois, la restriction de l'âge de candidat à la fonction publique en 5ème degré n'est pas interdite dans la pleine échelle et de la restriction minimale nécessaire pour l'efficacité de la nomination de fonctionnaires publics et de leur exercice de fonctions officielles dans le cadre de la limite d'âge est permise. La limite doit être décidé par le législateur envisage diverses mesures législatives telles que l'âge limite de la fonction publique, les politiques du personnel et l'ajustement d'une offre et la demande de main-d'oeuvre. Par conséquent, nous avons émis l'avis de unconformable à la Constitution. La décision dans cette affaire est la première décision que la Cour constitutionnelle a déclaré inconstitutionnelle la limite d'âge dans le droit d'occuper des fonctions publiques. Ministère de l'Administration et de la sécurité à réviser les plans de fonctionnaire de nomination à la règle selon la teneur de la décision de la Cour constitutionnel d'être à la Constitution unconformable.
  • 26.

    Wahlberechtigung des Volks im Ausland und Reform des Wahlgesetzes

    Jeong Kuk Won | 2009, 43(3) | pp.549~570 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    Im modernen Verfassungsstaat wird eine vorwiegend repräsentive Demokratie verwirklicht. Dementsprechend muss das Volk nach Art. 41, 67 KV(Koreanische Verfassung) eine Vertretung haben, die aus allgemeinen, gleichen, unmittelbaren und geheimen Wahlen hervorgegangen ist. Diese sind vier Wahlrechtsgrundsätze genannt. Der Grundsatz der allgemeinen Wahl verbiet dem Gesetzgeber, bestimmte Bevölkerunggruppen aus politischen oder sozialen Gründen von der Ausübung des Wahlrechts auszuschlissen. Der Grundsatz der gleichen Wahl wird das Stimmrecht auf jeden Fall gleichwohl entwerten. Das koreanische Verfassungsgericht hat auf Grund dieser beiden Wahlrechtsgrundsätze über die Nichtsverleihung des Wahlrechts des Volks im Ausland verfassungswidrig gezählt. Danach haben die Abgeordnete um die Wahlberechtigung des Volks im Ausland durch die Reform des Wahlgesetzes versucht. Aber sieht diese Reform auch verfassungswidrig aus, weil das Volk im Ausland das Stimmrecht ausserhalb der Abgeordnetenwahl hat. Dies wird insbesonderes zur Verletzung des allgemeinen und gleichen Wahlgrundsatzes führen. Deshalb muss das Volk im Ausland die Abgeordnetenwahl berechtigt werden.
  • 27.

    The Critical Interpretation on Marriage and Family in Article 36 Constitutional Law

    Youngh Jung | 2009, 43(3) | pp.571~592 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    The remarkable change in Korean traditional patriarchy Family system with resulted in the social specialization of industrialization might be witnessed through those index of population statistology after 1960s. An important character of those changes made minimize the scope of family and emerged into the multifarious shape and formations of families in according to the effect of urgent Urbanization. For example, An improvement of women's education level and the increase of their employment made lead to a considerable change of societal values among women and it brought out a late marriage and a decline of birth rate. With the consequence that we have to face with the critical and indispensible change on the constitutional policies and legislatures with related marriage and family institutions. Although we shall confront with the family liquidation in recent, The Article 10 of Constitutional law make burden on state to be responsible for maximum protection of fundamental human rights. However Article 36 of Constitutional law shall prescribe the basic principle of marriage and equality of both sexes, but our Constitutional law has not enacted the scope of protection on a marriage and a family as well as leaves the basic rights of family open toward a jurisdictional power. First, I shall research the effects on the family law of constitutional interpretation about marriage and family in constitutional law and do the legal nature and contents of article 36 clause 1. Second, It is concerned with the meaning of maternity and legal nature and a scope of protection related the article 36 clause 2. Third, I am concerned on the essential scrutiny rule to enforcement the validities and contents on the marriage and family in Constitutional law article 36 shall be enforced to realize the human dignity and value and the right to live substantially as human being and of a family living community.
  • 28.

    With Proposal to Cyber Defamation Law Enactment and Freedom of Expression

    Choi Kyeong Ok | 2009, 43(3) | pp.593~618 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The suicide of an actress ‘Choi Jin-sil’ set off a furious debate on Internet real-name reply and cyber defamation law. This kind of debate is not new. Looking back to social and political issues in 2008, such as mad cow (U.S beef) issue, candlelight rally and Internet reply thereof, controversial points on social role of ‘malicious reply’ and ‘Internet portal (Portal hereof means a site on the Internet that enables people to access useful information)’ becomes a hot issue in the bilateral diffusion culture of the 21st century. This study deals with the press nature of portal sites that is on the rise (II); How far we should admit an individual freedom of expression in the cultural aspect of direct bilateral communication characteristic of portal sites, and cyber defamation therefrom (III); Reply blockoff on Choi Jin-sil's suicide news and the scope of responsibility that portal sites or Internet service providers should bear (IV).
  • 29.

    A Study on the Revision of French Constitution in 2008

    Han Dong-Hoon | 2009, 43(3) | pp.619~642 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    The object of this study is to introduce some major revisions of French Constitution in 2008. These revisions of French Constitution were read twice by National Assembly (Assemble nationale) and Senate, and then Congress passed the revision. Three major revisions are finalized by Congress. First of all, to improve the control over the power of the President of the Republic of France, the President is allowed to be reelected only twice, and the power of the President to grant amnesty and to appoint ministers was revised. Next, the power of Congress is strengthened by this revision. Above all, French residents abroad are represented by senators in the way of increasing representation of Congress, and three provisions are added to the revision that a local autonomous entity is represented by senators, that the number of seats in National Assembly and Senate is limited to some extent, and that electoral district is divided according to new standards. Finally, the constitutional provision on the referendum is revised, and the reform of the Economic and Social Council, the Constitutional Council and the Superior Council of the Judiciary is carried out in the revision. Besides, the ombudsman system is introduced to the revision.
  • 30.

    The American Constitutional Law and the Freedom to Marry

    Soon Chul Huh | 2009, 43(3) | pp.643~664 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    It has been said that marriage is not only a foundation to form a family, but also the most fundamental relation to our very existence. However, what is marriage? A law dictionary defines marriage as a legal union of a man and woman as husband and wife. But, in Goodridge v. Dep't of Pub. Health, the court said that it is the exclusive and permanent commitment of the marriage partners to one another as a union of any two persons regardless of their sexes. In the U.S., the institution of marriage is a creature of state law. Two forms of marriage have been authorized: one is civil marriage that is solemnized by a person authorized to perform marriages, the other is a common-law marriage, which is a marriage without formal solemnization. The U.S. Supreme Court cases that purport to recognize a fundamental right to marry do not provide any core definition of the right. Only when the state refuses to let certain people into the state-defined institution, or when the state violates the anti-discrimination principle, does the Court apply constitutional protections. The right to marry is principally a product of three cases. The initial decision is Loving v. Virginia, where the Court struck down a ban on interracial marriage. It stressed that “freedom of choice to marry” may “not be restricted by invidious racial discrimination.” In Zablocki v. Redhail, the Court invoked the Equal Protection Clause to strike down a Wisconsin law forbidding people under child support obligations to remarry unless they obtained a judicial determination. The Court announced that “the decision to marry has been placed on the same level of importance as decisions relating to procreation, childbirth, child rearing, and family relationships.” In Turner v. Salfi, the Court added that marriages are often recognized as having spiritual significance--and that “marital status often is a prerequisite for” a number of material benefits, including property rights. In the U.S. some scholars say that they are skeptical of the official institution of marriage and it should be abolished. Meanwhile, the Court has declined to intervene with the realm of domestic relations and also emphasized that it is appropriate for the federal courts to leave domestic relations to the state court. Even if the words of the Article 36 (1) of the Korean Constitution--“both sexes”--should be understood not to permit same-sex marriage as some scholars argue, the legal question whether it is legislatively desirable or not is totally different one. Furthermore, it also should be reviewed whether the institutions such as civil union and domestic relations may be adopted in Korea.
  • 31.

    The Legal Status of the “Fishing Entities” in the Regional Fisheries Management Organizations - The Case of Taiwan -

    Jeong Gab Yong | 2009, 43(3) | pp.665~684 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    From ancient times, fishing has been a major source of food, the welath of aquatic resources was assumed to be an unlimited gift of nature. However, with the dynamic development of fishing skills need to provide a new framework fo the better management of marine resources. Traditionally, the subjects in international law have been considered to be states, while “Fishing Entities” have been regard as subject of international law only since 1990's and proliferation of the various international organizations. The past decade vast changes has happened in the new international law of the high seas fishing, the old aged “freedom of fishing” has changed into the “international management system”. “Fishing Entities” as subjects of international law has been changed rapidly, in particular Taiwan is regared as an “Fishing Entities” in several regional fishery management organizations (RFMOs). This study is aimed to analyze the legal concept of the “Fishing Entities(Case of the Taiwan) in the international fishery management organization, especially, 1995 UNFSA, FAO-COFI, CCSBT, WCPFC, IATTC, ICCAT, IOTC. The legal capacity and personality of the “Fishing Entities” depends on the convention of the specific RFMO, is composed of various factors that are name, position, participation and vote in the Commission and Sub-Committee, measures of conservation and management (boarding and inspection, VMS, scientific observer, control on the fishing vessel, port state control, collection and report of the scientific statistics, quotas, limits of the fishing vessels and their capacities, amendment of the Convention, etc.. It appears that claiming and fighting for a status as an “Fishing Entities” in the future, strengthens the “personality” and “legal capacity” of it as a subject of international law in various RFMOs. As a conclusion, Korea is a major high seas fishing country, it needs to promote mutual cooperation concerning high seas fishing and strengthen the good relationship of fisheries management between Korea and Taiwan.
  • 32.

    A Study on the Self-Regulation Model of the Advertisement Through Internet

    JI, SEONG WOO | 2009, 43(3) | pp.685~704 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to probe the premises and limits of self-regulation for advertisement through internet. Advertising plays an essential part in all market economies. It is an important element in maintaining or increasing market share and vital to the introduction of a new product or the improvement of an existing one. The advertising industry draws up a code of standards and practice, which it formally agrees to support, financially, morally and practically. Bad advertising, even though it may account for only a small percentage of the whole, will gradually undermine consumer confidence and all advertising will suffer. So it is in the interests of the advertising industry to ensure that advertising is properly regulated. There are some differences between legal regulation and self-regulation on the Internet Legal regulation and self-regulation have the strong and weak points respectively. Then it sets up a body to apply the code and ensures that it is properly staffed and funded. This body is called a Self-Regulatory Organisation - SRO for short. Self-regulation in the advertising sector is the recognition that the advertising industry (advertisers, agencies and the media) create advertising that complies to a set of ethical rules, namely that it should be legal, decent, honest, truthful and prepared with a sense of social responsibility to the consumer as well as society as a whole. It should be created with due respect to the rules of fair competition too.
  • 33.

    Examination on the organization & status of the elderly income security system

    정회근 | Kim Hun | 2009, 43(3) | pp.705~734 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    For the rapid aging society due to the lack of national policy and system limitations on the expansion of the welfare of the elderly, and many of existing reporting system, the supplement or a new policy to check legislative attempts will want to emphasize the need. The report from the perspective of foreign law to review improvement us to realize the constitutional provisions and the spirit of the constitution guarantees a variety of retirement income, emphasize the necessity of the introduction of legislation to try. "Now, old age as a guarantee of a happy life," the most important social issues of today and the interest and social responsibility as it is the responsibility of the country.
  • 34.

    American Special Judicial Police for Environmental Protection

    Moon-Hyun Koh | 2009, 43(3) | pp.735~752 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Both general judicial police and special judicial police have the power to investigate environmental crime under Korean legal system. According as public administration is getting specialized, special judicial police are made for its professionalism and efficiency. Special judicial police for environmental protection as well as all kinds of special judicial polices have a poor expertise on account of withdrawal of services through frequent personnel shifts, overwork and a thriving economy atmosphere by a local government head so for. Special judicial police are grounded on investigating specific administrative field such as environmental administration in order to enhance proficiency of an investigator with expertise. Accordingly, there are two ways to enhance specialization. One is to keep present system with securing skilled investigators. The other is to adopt an independent organ which has exclusive power to investigate environmental crime. This paper holds up both Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training(OCEFT) of EPA and environmental conservation officer(ECO) who inspects environmental pollution and investigates environmental crime as a representative example of the latter. The Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance(OECA), working in partnership with EPA Regional Offices, State Governments, Tribal Governments and other Federal agencies, ensures compliance with the nation's environmental laws. Employing an integrated approach of compliance assistance, compliance incentives and innovative civil and criminal enforcement, OECA and its partners seek to maximize compliance and reduce threats to public health and the environment. OECA is composed of Office of Administration and Policy(OAP), Office of Civil Enforcement(OCE), Office of Compliance(OC), Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training(OCEFT), Office of Environmental Justice(OEJ), Office of Federal Activities(OFA), Federal Facilities Enforcement Office(FFEO), Office of Site Remediation Enforcement(OSRE). Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training(OCEFT) directs EPA's Criminal program through both the Criminal Investigation Division and the Homeland Security Division. OCEFT provides a board range of technical and forensic services for civil and criminal investigative support through the National Enforcement Investigations Center. Criminal Investigation Division(CID) Special Agents investigate the most significant and egregious violators of environmental laws which pose significant threats to human health and the environment. EPA CID Special Agents work within a structure of sophisticated environmental science and technology. EPA's CID Special Agents bring with them diverse backgrounds and a variety of work experience. The Legal Counsel Division(LCD) is responsible for providing legal support and guidance on all legal and policy matters pertaining to criminal enforcement of environmental laws and the operations of NEIC and HSD. The National Enforcement Investigations Center(NEIC) serves as the principal source of science and technical expertise providing support for unique and/or complex civil and criminal investigations having national impact on EPA and state regulatory programs for air, water, toxics, pesticides, radiation, and solid waste pollution control. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's(DEC) Division of Law Enforcement(DLE) has the great tradition. The oldest law enforcement organization in New York State remarkably began with a contingent of eight men appointed as Game Protectors in 1880. Since then, DLE has grown to a force of more than 300 uniformed Environmental Conservation Police Officers(ECOs) and plain clothes investigators. Their dedication to duty has its roots in a long and proud tradition of fish and wildlife enforcement, that also includes environmental protection today. 2005 marks the 125th anniversary of DEC's DLE. It is high time that Korea should introduce tentatively named ‘Environmental Conservation Officers’ such as EPA's CID Special Agents and Environmental Conservation Police Officers(ECOs) of DEC's DLE in order to respond more quickly and effectively to environmental crime.
  • 35.

    Delegation und Verweisung

    Hyonsoo Lee | 2009, 43(3) | pp.753~770 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Von einer Verweisung ist die Delegation zu unterscheiden. Waehrend durch eine Verweisung eine andere Norm oder Normenkomplex in Bezug genommen und ihr/sein Inhalt gleichsam “photographiert” wird, wird durch eine Delegation einem anderem Normgeber in einem ihm sonst nicht eroeffneten Bereich die Befugnis zur Setzung eigener Normen eingeraeumt. Wird auf eine andere Norm verwiesen, wird deren Inhalt in die Verweisungsnorm inkorporiert und die so zusammengesetzte Vorschrift wird insgesamt dem verweisenden Gesetzgeber zugerechnet. Waehrend durch eine Verweisung auf die Wiederholung des Textes, auf den verwiesen wird, verzichtet wird, der Umfang der Gesetze wird reduziert, wird durch eine Delegation versucht, um bestimmte problematische Seiten der strikter Anwendung von Zustaendigkeitsgregelungen zu bewaeltigen.
  • 36.

    The Improvement of Current Legislations about the Transparency of the Local Finance

    Im, Hyun | 2009, 43(3) | pp.771~792 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    In local self-government, it has been confronted with the fiscal crisis situation. Likewise the advanced nations, the crisis of local finance become one of the most serious problems in our country. Thus, the current study mainly focuses on developing and suggesting legal confrontation plan for revitalization of the local finance. Since local autunomous entities are responsible for performing a larger amount of direct social services to their residents than the central government, they frequently suffer from various types of financial problems. When they attempt to improve their financial stability, the local autonomies often find it difficult to achieve this goal, due to their unfairness management of local finance. For soundness of the local finance, it is necessary that inhabitants should be concerned about the local finance and take part in the conduct of local autonomous entities' fiscal performance. In order to achieving this aim, fiscal performance of local autonomous entities should be the general public by disclosure of fiscal information. However, the present system, Disclosure of local finance information, have many problems. The prime goal of this research is to improve current legislations about the transparency of the local finance.
  • 37.

    Legislative Study of Coast Management for Environmental Preservation

    Woo-Suk Chae | 2009, 43(3) | pp.793~808 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Our society has been striving to arrange legal grounds to build integrated management scheme for continued development, preservation, and use of coastal area. The result of such strive have been the successful enactment of a separate law of the Coastal Management Act. With this significance in mind, this thesis inquires the essential terms and issues related mainly to the Coast Management Act and together will scrutinize the principal laws for coastal management with the view of environmental preservation. Furthermore, this thesis will refer to the analysis of the Japanese legal system regarding coasting management for suggestions and implications to our legislative system.
  • 38.

    A Critical Review on the Personal Information Protection Law

    Kwon, Hun-Yeong | 2009, 43(3) | pp.809~826 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract
    Since 1990s, Korea has been achieved a remarkable progress in e-government. Because administrative informatization-centered e-government policy inevitably entailed electronic processing of personal information, the area of establishing appropriate legal basis and managing legal procedures for handling personal information electronically has to be one of the essential areas of e-government policy. As a part of legal efforts, the Korean government enacted ‘Public Information Privacy Law’ in 1994, and ‘Public Information Privacy Law’ triggered to advance the field of personal information protection in detail. During Roh Administration(2003-2007) Korea's 20 year long and enormous efforts towards e-government finally were rewarded. The Korean government actually obtained successful results from all e-government initiatives. On the other hand, debates on personal information protection became a hot issue in the Korean society, and the best example is the resistance against NEIS(National Education Information System) happened at the every beginning of Roh Administration. After this event, the Korean government tried to improve personal information protection law by social discussions and experts' studies. However, this personal information protection improvement initiative failed while being discussed at the national assembly because the government did not specify the exact name of the responsible authority. Lee Administration, the successor of Roh Administration, has been working on the same subject but using a different approach. It reformed the governmental structure, but it did not change the actual contents. The most important thing in Korea now is to clarify where the responsibility of personal information infringement administration lies and expand the organization and human resources so that the use of personal information can be carefully monitored. Even though all above are not enough, it is preferential for the government to accomplish the legislative improvement of personal information protection law early