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2011, Vol.53, No.

  • 1.

    Raumordnungrechtliche Kritik über den Gesetzesentwurf der Sanierung

    Kil Joon Kyu | 2011, 53() | pp.1~24 | number of Cited : 22
    Nach der schnellen Urbanisierung seit der Gründung von der Republik Korea als einem modernen Staat befanden meistene Großstädten sich in schwerigen Wohnungsproblemen. Um diese Probleme zu überwinden, hat die koreanische Regierung viele städtentwickelnden Maßnahmen hin und her außerhalb der Städten geführt: das sind Neustädte in Il-San, Kwa-Cheon, Bund-Dang usw. Danach hat sie neue Sanierungsmaßnahme im Verbindung mit Einwohner ausführt. Indem Immobilien als die effektiven Investierungsgegenständen betrachtet werden, fassiert unser Wohnungsmarkt zunehmenden Überbedarf und gedankenlos überhitzt. Rechtlich hat zu viele Ausnahmen im Städtebaugesetz gegen dem Raumordnung- und Baugesetz entstanden. Vor allem sollen meistene Einwohner wegen der Sanierung aufgrund der Politik von “New Town” ihren Wohnort ohne weiteres verlassen. Sogar hat koreanische Regierung bis dahin unter der Städteerneuerung den Städteneubau und die Städtesanierung zum blühenden Immobilienmarkt in Verbindung mit Unternehmen mißbraucht. Deshalb ist es schwerige Probleme in der koreanischen Gesellschaft geworden. Zur Zeit haben die Regierung und einige Länder noch an dem Gesetzesentwurf über die Städteerneurung als eine Sanierungsmaßnahme geplant. Aus diesem Grunde werden Gesestzesentwürfe in vorliegender Arbeit in raumordnungsrechtlich und sanierungsrechtlich kritisiert.
  • 2.

    Evaluation of Eminent Domain Legislation in South Korea

    류하백 | 2011, 53() | pp.25~86 | number of Cited : 4
    The Korean Land Expropriation Act of 1962(KLEA), succeeded the outline of the Japanese Imperialist Land Expropriation Act of 1900(JILEA), not of 1951(JLEA) as a general statute concerning compulsory land acquisition for public use, was enacted by the Military Regime, that is, is inconsistent with the democratic Constitution of Korea. Several provisions of the amended law of JLEA(1967) in Japan, was misunderstood, was amended as those of KLEA of 1971, and thereof have been distorted. This study is mainly focused on evaluating three topics concerned in public projects, that is, the acquisitions by negotiation, public use requirements and just compensation for the real property acquired in accordance with the democratic Constitution. The 2nd chapter covers that Japanese Government Regulation(Cabinet Order) governs the requirements for the real property acquisition policy, not to affect the essential substances of private property, the processing of a project recognition necessary for conforming a grant of authority to determine a contemplated project for public use in the condemnation proceedings in JLEA and the Town Planning and Zoning Act(JTPZA) of 1968, and the amount of just compensation therefor to guarantee the current value. The 3rd chapter reviews the processing of legislations in the individual eminent domain laws in Korea, succeeded the misinterpreted and distorted provisions of three topics of JLEA and JTPZA. The 4th chapter focuses on several problems of unconstitutionality violating the Constitution provided for guarantee of property rights and construing It to be a virtual nullity by compulsory provisions of every condemnation law. The 5th chapter evaluates the failures of providing preventive provisions against the acquisitions by negotiation for owners, the compulsory provisions of every eminent domain law enabling to exercise eminent domain power notwithstanding lack of satisfying the ends “public use” requirements, and the amount of just compensation should be the amount based on officially assessed land price designed under a substantial land use regulation in the zoning, on an affirming hypothesis that windfall should be excluded from, which makes arbitrary discrimination against the owners(the expropriated), unable enough to acquire alternative land nearby which is equivalent for the taken, may result in the denial of the guarantee with the Constitution. The last chapter reminds the duties of Constitutional Court and suggests the author's opinions about three topics reviewed above.
  • 3.

    A Study on Key Issues of the Project Recognition and Just Compensation

    이상훈 | 윤동건 | 2011, 53() | pp.87~112 | number of Cited : 1
    Just compensation was always at the center of the dispute on the issue of compensation for a loss. It is truly rightful to provide just compensation according proper expropriation process in case of forced expropriation of property rights of a private individual. According to the land compensation law, it is provided to give assessment based on standard land value by public announcement. And regarding the estrangement issue with the actual trading value which is the limit of the land value by public announcement, it has been dealt through revisions of other factors acknowledged by precedents. The problem raised in compensation appraisal done by appraiser is rather in the calculation of compensation amount based on land value by public announcement that is not excluded of development gains. Suppose there is a sharp increase of the image price at the phase of development plan or starting of construction. If the compensations are given based on this condition, then naturally a problem of over-compensation occurs. In order to solve this problem, it seems that changing of the standard date of land value by public announcement from the value announced in prior year to the value announced two years ago, and to that applying land value fluctuation rate, regional factors, individual factors and other factors for additional revision would help improving the problem of excessive compensation. Also, concerning the project recognition process and contents, it is considered that sharing the right of project recognition which is now solely exclusive to the minster of land, transportation and maritime affairs, together with mayors and governors which more appropriate for provincial self-government.
  • 4.

    The Littoral Rights and Takings

    JEONG, HA MYOUNG | 2011, 53() | pp.113~127 | number of Cited : 1
    Republic of Korea has about 11,914 km in length of coastline and has been suffered a serious coastal erosion. The causes of coastal erosion are storm surges, hinterland development, off shore installations etc. Korean government takes measures of erosion prevention project for the repair and maintenance of the coastal line. “The 1st Coastal Maintenance 10 Year Plan” was established in 2000. There were the coastal conservation project, area improvement project, and coastal improvement project. The current “2nd Coastal Maintenance 10 Year Project (2010-2019)” has been prompted the budget amount 1,099.6 Billion Won. Jeju Island is carried out the concept of safe and pleasant seaside parks in waterfront areas. The government authorities reinforce efforts to prevent sand erosion. In this case, there is possibility of conflicts between waterfront land owner's littoral rights and coastal maintenance project. In United States, littoral rights refers to rights concerning properties abutting an ocean, sea. Littoral rights are usually concerned with the use and enjoyment of the shore. Rights relating to the ownership of property that abuts an ocean, sea. The U.S. Supreme Court dealt the conflicts between the littoral rights and the coastal maintenance project in Stop the Beach Renourishment, Inc. v. Florida Department of Environmental Protection (130 S. Ct. 2592 (2010)).
  • 5.

    A Study on the Land Planning Act of North Korea

    Kim,Young-Sam | 이성연 | 2011, 53() | pp.129~150 | number of Cited : 3
    국가의 국토계획은 그 나라 국토계획의 수립․효율적 추진·국토정보체계를 구축하여 활용함에 있다고 하겠다. 대한민국은 헌법상 한반도 전체가 국토이나, 분단된 상태이므로 남북한이 통일되지 못한 상황에 남쪽과 북쪽의 국토계획이 각각 다르게 펼쳐지고 있다. 더욱이 우리나라 대한민국(남한)과 조선민주주의인민공화국(북한)이 공교롭게도 아주 비슷한 시기에 국토계획법을 제정하였다. 북한은 2002년 3월 27일 최고인민회의 제10기 제5차회의에서 조선민주주의인민공화국 국토계획법을 채택하였다. 그 후 2004년 10월 26일 최고인민회의 상임위원회 정령 제742호로 수정보충하였다. 북한의 국토계획법은 국토계획법의 기본․국토계획의 작성·국토계획의 비준·국토계획의 실행·국토계획사업에 대한 지도통제의 총 5개장으로 나누어진 전문 41개조(부칙조항은 없음)로서 4,558자로 된 982개 낱말로 구성되어 있다. 북한의 국토계획법은 국토계획의 작성과 비준·실행에서 제도와 질서를 엄격히 세워 국토관리를 계획적으로 하는데 이바지하는 것으로 하여, 국토와 자원·환경의 관리에 관한 통일적이며 종합적인 전망계획으로서의 성격을 갖는다. 북한법의 제정이나 운용이 조선 노동당의 정책에 예속되어 있고, 북한의 헌법상 조선민주주의 인민공화국은 조선 노동당의 영도 밑에 모든 활동을 진행하도록 규정하고 있어서 북한에서는 노동당의 정책과 이념이 법의 해석과 적용을 좌우하고 있기에 북한의 국토계획법도 그 예외일 수 없으므로 이러한 현실과 장래 남북한의 통일을 대비한 국토계획의 과제로서 국토계획이념과 체제전환의 구조에 바탕 하여 거시적·장기적 여건변화를 고려한 대한민국의 국토기반시설의 지속가능한 국토이용관리체계를 향한 국토계획이 수립되어야 할 것이다.
  • 6.

    Der Rechtsschutz des Dritten in der Bauplanungsrecht in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Park,Jong-Guk | 2011, 53() | pp.151~185 | number of Cited : 0
    Es läßt sich nicht bezweifeln, daß der Nachbarschutz im öffentlichen Baurecht vor der Entwicklung des Gebots der Rücksichtnahme unzureichend war. Im Geltungsbereich eines Bebauungsplans wurde dem Nachbarn ein im wesentlichen umfassender Anspruch auf Einhaltung des Bebauungsplans zuerkannt, im Bereich der §§34, 35 BBauG konnte der Nachbar sich demgegenüber nur gegen schwere und unerträgliche Eingriffe in sein Eigentum zur Wehr setzen, weil das BVerwG die §§34, 35 BBauG nicht als nachbarschützend ansah. Unterhalb der Schwelle des schweren und unerträglichen Eingriffs in das Eigentum, d.h. eines “groben Mißgriffs der Baugenehmigungsbehörde”, gab es im nichtbeplanten Innenbereich und im Außenbereich keinen Abwehranspruch des Nachbarn gegen eine Beeinträchtigung seiner Belange durch ein rechtswidriges Bauvorhaben. Der Schutz des Nachbarn hing somit davon ab, ob ein wirksamer Bebauungsplan bestand. Daß diese Situation unbefriedigend war, kann kaum in Abrede gestellt werden. Zur Lösung dieser Problemlage war es allerdings nicht unbedingt notwendig, ein neues Rechtsinstitut, nämlich das Gebot der Rücksichtnahme, heranzuziehen. Es hätte wohl zunächst nahegelegen, die Frage des Nachbarschutzes der §§34, 35 BBauG erneut zu durch denken, zumal §34 BBauG durch die BBauG-Novelle 1976 inhaltlich beträchtlich geändert worden war. Die Frage eines Nachbarschutzes des §34 BBauG ist dabei von wesentlich größerer praktischer Bedeutung als die Frage nach der nachbarschützenden Wirkung des §35 BBauG, denn Nachbarstreitigkeiten im Außenbereich sind relativ selten. Die zum Teil massive Kritik an der Rechtsprechung des BVerwG wendet vor allem ein, das Gebot der Rücksichtnahme stelle eine Durchbrechung der Schutznormtheorie dar, weil das Gebot der Rücksichtnahme nirgends normativ verankert sei und der Unterschied zwischen nachbarschützenden und nicht-nachbarschützenden Vorschriften verwischt werde. Dieser Kritik ist einzuräumen, daß sich das Gebot der Rücksichtnahme allein im Wege der Auslegung kaum aus §§35, 34, 31 II BBauG oder §15 BauNutzVO ableiten läßt; es handelt sich vielmehr um einen Akt richterlicher Rechtsfortbildung. Insoweit bestehen jedoch keine grundsätzlichen Bedenken; allgemein anerkannte Rechtsgrundsätze sind auf diese Weise entstanden. Voraussetzung für die richterliche Rechtsfortbildung ist freilich, daß eine Regelungslücke besteht, die dann durch Richterrecht ausgefüllt werden muß.
  • 7.

    Study on legal systemization method for integration of national land information

    이재삼 | 2011, 53() | pp.187~209 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of national land information system is to establish information management system that systemizes all information related to the national land. Thus, integration system as computer program is necessary in order to automatically process data and information that are utilized as information sources of national land in the future. In this process, integration or institutional systemization of information related to national land should be preceded. First, legal and institutional basis for national land integration information structure and use should be established and revised. In other words, institutional base that is the basis of national land integration information structure and use is required. Thus, relevant laws and policies should be revised for the effective integration of national land integration information. Legalization of national land information law is necessary for integrating laws relevant to national land including fundamental law of national land. Second, it is necessary to construct metadata of national land information for integration․connection of national land information that has been constructed by parts such as national land information, land information, mountain, farmland, cultural heritage, environment, real estate registration, and measurement and to maximize synergy effect of data or system use through use of necessary information with metadata and connection of information system to each part. Third, integration of administrative organization is necessary for operation of national land information integration system. In other words, in order to maximize the efficiency of integration of national land information, an organization that is responsible for planning and adjusting national land information should be established, and the role administrative organization should be strengthened. Detailed and realistic execution plans such as execution of step-by-step plan of data connection and information integration, advancement of national land integration information contents, establishment of standard system of national land information, mutually cooperative upgrade of national land information, sharing direction and road map of infrastructure establishment for administration organizations, and securing continuous budget support. Fourth, the center of structure of information system should be shifted from supplier to consumer. Demand of national land integration information should be analyzed by the perspective of consumers, and the range of public national land information such as private information protection and security information needs to be expanded. In order to provide One-Stop service on national land integration information to the people wherever and whenever, national land integration information portal, which is infrastructure that takes the role of hub and window for national land integration information, should be established. Thus, integration information portal should provide real-time information, regulation procedures, regulation guidelines, and various national land information through internet and become an open portal that enables consultation, connection inquiry, and administration participation. Fifth, in order for synthetic use of national land information, the balance of national land information is required in various perspectives such as underground and above ground, land and ocean, and real national land and cyber national land. Also, higher level demand for national land information for public and private should be met by applying national land information project to cyber national land. Through promotion of information-oriented real national land and construction of cyber national land, national competitiveness and productivity should be improved and 'digital integration national land' should be pursued to promote convenience of life for the people. In conclusion, institutional and systematic support should be expanded through national land information integration based system in order to maintain precise, updated, unified, and consistent national land information. Especially, advanced national land information policy is required for high quality and realistic national land information service. When considering change in information technology and competition among countries, it will be an essential task to propose visions and strategies appropriate for international environment change in order to continuously maintain internationally highest level of national land information and, consequently, to establish national land information system to strengthen national competitiveness.
  • 8.

    A review on police enforcement law relating to school safety

    Won Jung Kim | 2011, 53() | pp.211~234 | number of Cited : 8
    Those who are taught involving elementary education are guaranteed by the constitution the right to learn freely that is specified on primary law of education. The third article of the law stipulates that all of the national people have the right to receive education appropriate to their aptitudes and capabilities throughout their whole lives. In addition to it, the ninth article clarifies the learning by schools by defining ‘school education’ that schools should exist for the people to get from infant to high education. So, it guarantees the learning right to be educated, and regulates general elementary and middle education to be taught by schools. The nation and its local self-governing community have responsibilities for the education of the people, so they should make efforts to make sure their education, because all of the national people have the right of being educated. In order for the education to be done properly it needs to make a safe school society. so, the government including local self-governing community should attempt to be suitable for the ideas of the constitution and primary law of education by eliminating various types of crimes and violent behaviors occurring within schools so that students could devote themselves to learning by recognizing that schools are safe. The law enforcement by the police should be done to a minimum for school safety. Particularly, it should be enforced without violating school primary law as well as based on official duty law of the police. Thus, this study investigated the realities and suggests reform measures about how police enforcement law should be performed on the side of legal principles and policy relating to safety accidents taking place within schools.
  • 9.

    Legal Issues about Discriminatory Regulation between Comprehensive Programming PP and Terrestrial Broadcasting

    KIM, MIN HO | 양은영 | 이용미 | 2011, 53() | pp.235~254 | number of Cited : 2
    In today's multimedia society, multi-channel terrestrial broadcasting channels are losing the value of the rare. More than 90% of households in Korea are joined to cable and satellite, IPTV, and pay-TV services and people are already over 80% through cable or satellite services to get terrestrial broadcasting channels. Therefore, in terms of free universal service, the presence of terrestrial broadcasting is getting smaller. The era of broadcasting and communication convergence service, with the expansion of the broadcast area boundaries are crumbling due to the scarcity of radio broadcasting in the public interest for which the logic is going to lose more strength. Moreover, terrestrial broadcasting and the other pay-TV market and compete for a share of advertising market are driven by circumstances. In this situation, the Korea Communications Commission in December 2010, adopted four ‘Comprehensive Programming PP’, then in 2011 March, introduced ‘OBS Kyung-in Broadcasting outside Seoul to permit re-transmission’, those such introduction of competition on broadcasting markets to further enhance Broadcasting and public responsibility for it is expected to collape. ‘Comprehensive programming PP’ and ‘OBS Kyung-air’ with 3 terrestrial broadcast content and broadcast rights reversed are virtually identical to the existing legal status, but the current ownership restrictions for broadcasting, programming regulations, duties, transport and so it ‘comprehensive programming PP’ discriminatory status for has been given. While local terrestrial broadcasters ‘OBS Kyung-air’ for the existing 3 terrestrial broadcast and is applied to the same regulations, local private broadcasting has been considered realistic conditions of such system. In addition, those of ‘terrestrial broadcasters’ and ‘non-phase wave media’ in the past in the broadcast industry has been classified as ‘public broadcasting group’ and ‘commercial broadcast group’ which is changing the paradigm's. In case of ‘OBS Kyung-TV’ in the competitive market system establishing the identity will be preceded to improve the competitive ability of their own. In this broadcast industrial issues and for the resolution of the issues of fair competition in the market current broadcasting system maintenance and Communications Commission for broadcasting policy is essential to establish the principle. Ultimately, the broadcast competition in the market environment to receive broadcast services were for viewers.
  • 10.

    The Current State and Tasks of Administrative Procedures Act

    Jang Kyo-Sik | 2011, 53() | pp.255~272 | number of Cited : 3
    Administrative procedures in the modern administration is important in terms of citizen`s participation in administration as well as preventive remedies. The purpose of Administrative Procedures Act is to attain fairness, transparency, and confidence in administration and to encourage citizen`s participation in administration by stipulating the common matters regarding administrative procedures. 10 years later, since enactment and enforcement of Administrative Procedures Act, the diagnosis is needed regarding the achievements and future tasks by checking the operation status and analyzing the decisions of the courts. According to the enactment of Administrative Procedures Act, of course, citizens or residents in administration have contributed to the democratization of the administration by participating in the process of administrative action such as administrative measure or administrative legislation beyond mere administrative objects. In addition, the administrative purpose can be achieved based on understanding and trust of the people, and business processes are standardized by the management experience of administrative procedures and the accumulation of administrative practices, so it is true that administrative efficiency has been improved in the long term. Despite the enactment and the enforcement of Administrative Procedures Act, however, it still leaves something to be desired. Therefore, this paper would like to draw the problem, to find the solution for the problem, and to offer the revision of Administrative Procedures Act by analyzing the current state of administrative procedures of administrative agencies. Even though usefulness of administrative procedures, the will of the subject who operates the system and the legislation and the awareness of citizens are important in the end, so the diagnosis and the improvement through continuous assessment and monitoring should be involved.
  • 11.

    Öffentlich-rechtliche Probleme hinsichtlich der Fraktionsbildung in den Gemeindeordnungen der deutschen Bundesländer

    Kim, Bong-Cheol | 2011, 53() | pp.273~288 | number of Cited : 1
    Da die Gemeinderatsfraktionen durch ihre verfahrensrechtliche Mitwirkungsrechte, Informations- und Kontrollrechte vielfältigerweise am Willensbildungs- und Entscheidungsfindungsverfahren des Gemeinderates mitwirken, sind sie ein unerlässliches Willensbildungsorgan im Gemeinderat. Aus diesem Grund schreiben die Gemeindeordnungen der deutschen Bundesländer (mit Ausnahme von bayerischer und baden-württembergischer Gemeindeordnung) ausdrücklich die Fraktionen vor. Die Gemeinderatsfraktionen sind freiwillige Zusammenschlüsse politisch gleichgesinnter Gemeinderatsmitglieder zur effektiven Willensbildung und Entscheidungsfindung im Gemeinderat. Die einzelnen Gemeinderatsmitglieder haben aufgrund ihrer gemeinderatsinternen Mitwirkungsrechte, die auf ihrem freien Mandat basieren, das Recht zur Fraktionsbildung. Dabei ist es nicht notwendig, alle Fraktionsmitglieder im Gegensatz zur Bundestagsfraktion einer gleichen Partei anzugehören. Wenn man berüsichtigt, dass die Fraktion hinsichtlich des gemeinderatsinternen Willensbildungsverfahrens und des Kontrollverfahrens über den Bürgermeister eine Führungsposition innehat, ist die Fraktionsbildung eine bedeutende Sache für die Ausübung der Mitwirkungsrechte der einzelnen Gemeinderatsmitglieder. Daher müssen bei der Festsetzung der Fraktionsmindeststärke neben dem Verhältnismäßigkeitsgrundsatz und Willkürverbot das Minderheitenschutzprinzip und die Gleichheit aller Gemeinderatsmitglieder berücksichtigt werden. Wenn man die Voraussetzungen der Gemeinderatsfraktion und deren Rechte betrachtet, sind die Gemeinderatsfraktionen keine nicht-rechtsfähige Vereine des bürgerlichen Rechts, sondern sind sie als Organteile des Gemeinderates öffentlich-rechtliche Vereine.
  • 12.

    Taxation issues on Contributed Acceptance - focusing on BTO method and BTL method -

    이중교 | 2011, 53() | pp.289~311 | number of Cited : 4
    Contributed acceptance has been used as a means of PPP(public private partnership). The PPP aims to cope with the lack of budget and to enhance efficiency of public service through the creativity of private sector. In the field of taxation contributed acceptance associated with gratuitous permission is mainly discussed. A private enterprise builds facilities and transfers ownership to a public sector or school through contributed acceptance and receives a operating permission to use it. The contributed acceptance associated with gratuitous permission is subject to taxation because a private enterprise receives a gratuitous permission in return for contributed acceptance. The Act on Private Investment toward Social Infrastructrue regulates several kinds of contributed acceptance. In the BTO(build-transfer-operate) model ⅰ)a private enterprise builds facilities and transfers ownership to a public sector or school, ⅱ)a public sector or school grants the operating right to the private enterprise, ⅲ)a private enterprise operates it. On the other hand, in the BTL(build-transfer-lease) model ⅰ)a private enterprise builds facilities and transfers ownership to a public sector or school, ⅱ)a public sector or school grants the operating right to the private enterprise, ⅲ)a private enterprise leases it to a public sector or school. Taxation issues related to contributed acceptance are as follows. First, the real estate leasing service of a public sector or school has become an object of a value-added taxation by Value-added tax law. A public sector or school receives a rent in advance through contributed acceptance, so the time when the taxable period expires is transaction time. Second, the value-added tax on the provision of goods or services associated with school facilities built by applying BTO is exempted. Tax exemption associated with school facilities should be applied to BTL method because there is not a essential difference between BTO d and BTL. Third, BTL is similar to installment sales and financial leases in economic substance. However, in the BTL value-added tax is levied twice at the transfer and lease stage. For the remedy to double taxation problems, it is not desirable to regard BTL as installment sales and financial leases since it is not in harmony with the purpose of The Act on Private Investment toward Social Infrastructrue. It is the better way to apply zero rate when a private enterprise transfers ownership to a public sector or school.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Developing Scheme of the Parliamentary Inspection System in Korean Constitution

    Junseok Ko | 노제훈 | 2011, 53() | pp.313~330 | number of Cited : 4
    The modern democracy was developed and based on the Separation of Power of government and allowed to fulfill its function of “check and balance” among the three powers. This paper begins with the idea that the Parliamentary right to inspect and investigate, having been created for need to straighten the unbalanced Separation of Powers, is considered to correct the situation of the Executive’s invasion into the People’s right, its unpair Political action, and its anti-democratic action. This study is designed to correct some defects which appeared in past constitutional system and to find out the best way this system should be exercised, through the consideration of the power of inspection and investigation which was in our past constitutional system. This paper is a theroretical study on the Parliamentary right to inspect and investigate, which is based on the practical grounds in Korea. This peculiar system of the Parliamentary inspection was reintroduced when the Constitution of 1987 was adopted. In order to prevent the President from dictatorial ruling, the drafters of the Constitution vested the general inspection power to the National Assembly. Since then, it has been widely accepted that the system has facilitated to monitor state affairs effective means of fulfilling the ideal of the sovereignty residing in the people. The inspection system, however, has been under severe criticisms for its malfunctioning. Some advocates of amending the Constitution thus propose to eliminate the inspection system from a new constitution. This article surveys the historical development and changes of the inspection system, examines the arguments of the pros and cons of the system, and appraises those conflicting positions. The author agrees that the Parliamentary inspection system does have many problems. He, however, believes that it is much better to improve the system rather than to abolish it. The author proposes in this regard that financially supported by the the national government. With respect to the inspection of national state affairs, the paper suggests that the target government agencies should be reduced, and the procedures of the inspections should be reformed in order not to burden the agencies’ regular function.
  • 14.

    State Obligation to Confirm and Protect Fundamental Rightsin Article 10, Paragraph 2, of Korean Constitution

    Pyo, Myoung-Hwan | 2011, 53() | pp.331~353 | number of Cited : 8
    This paper investigates problems concerning the interpretation of the Constitution related to Article 10, Paragraph 2, of Korean Constitution, which regulates both confirmation obligation for and state obligation for Fundamental Rights assured by the Constitution. But, it has simply been focused on an integrated state’s obligation to protect the fundamental human rights. That is, this shows that as types of obligations for fundamental human rights, confirmation and protection are the same. However, confirmation obligation and protection obligation regulated in article 10, paragraph 2, of Constitution are based on different performance levels and control standard of state obligation as well as different targets. Therefore, this paper tries to categorize a range of between Fundamental Right assured under the Constitution and one not regulated under the Constitution. At this point, the following two questions are indicated in this paper: First, how can Fundamental Right not regulated under the Constitution be identified? Second, how can the unregulated Fundamental Right have constitutional effects?Moreover, this paper discusses three other subquestionsrelated to sate obligation to protect Fundamental Right: How are the boundaries for Fundamental Right protected by state decided?; What are the means and methods in order to protect Fundamental Right assured by state, along with public and private laws?; and How can constitutional court control them? In short, with respect to Article 10, paragraph 2, of Korean Constitution, this paper is to systematically interpret it.
  • 15.

    A Study on the Tendency of the Legal System for Cultural Property Protection:through the Comparison among the East Asian Countries

    CHONG SANGWOO | 2011, 53() | pp.355~378 | number of Cited : 10
    The cultural property protection law of Korea was enacted in 1962 and has become effectuated as a ‘single-law’ system. In recent years, this Act has been revised by dividing it into 「Protection of Cultural Property Act」, 「Act on the Protection and Survey of Buried Cultural Properties」 and 「Act on Cultural Properties Renovation」, and is effectuated in 2011. In view of the situation that the legal system became complex based on the expansion of the cultural property type and changes in the cultural property policy, there is now a well-organized law system. However, there still remains a settlement of disagreement between the law and policy, a reflection of a new legislation demand and demand for legislation on division by features of cultural property. To seek for such revision of legal system, in this study, the cultural property protection laws of the East Asian countries that have similar features to Korea's cultural property law were compared and considered. As a result, the study presented legislative tasks such as concept and type of cultural property, legislation on division by cultural property type and the maintenance of system integrity.
  • 16.

    A Study on the Legislative Policies on Media Rating System Reform in Korea

    Kwon, Hun-Yeong | 2011, 53() | pp.379~405 | number of Cited : 7
    The rating system on media has to reflect the social consensus. Therefore, the rating system functions as the core mechanism to realize the integration of the value of a society or a nation. Several times in the process of democratization, the constitutional court ruled the intervention of state power as unconstitutional. The Korean society is right now at the middle of building up community values between state power and citizens and consensus on how to carry out these built constitutional values. Within the constitution and current legal system and considering the Korean social maturity and the conflict among social values, KMRB(Korea Media Rating Board) functions to guarantee the right of information choice for customers in order to minimize the adverse effects of information delivered in the form of audiovisual to the minor. For this sake, the legislations on the media rating system need to adopt diverse policies: the rating denial system, improvement of the subcommittee system for the reinforcement of professionalism and scientific approach, introduction of the jury system and the hearing system for the security of democracy, and introduction of the integrated rating system. These policies will help change KMRB to become a more public trusted organization institutionally and actually.
  • 17.

    Eine Studie über rechtlichen Streitspunkt der Vereinigungund Abschaffung von shi, gun, gu durch den Staat

    김소남 | 2011, 53() | pp.407~424 | number of Cited : 1
    Bei der Vereinigung und Abschaffung der grundkommunale Selbstverwaltungskörperschaften, die aufgrund des Kommunalselbstverwaltungsgesetzes zwecks der Gemeinwohlerhöhung ausgeführt werden, nimmt der Staat sein Ermessen wahr. Dennoch muss es bei solcher Entscheidung kein Verfahrensfehler vorliegen. Wenn die Ermessensausübung des Staates das Gemeinwohleinigung oder den Grundsatz der Verhältnismäßigkeit verletzt, oder wenn dabei eine heterogene Abwägung zugrunde liegt, handelt es sich um die Rechtswidrigkeit. Hinsichtlich der Gebietsreform von shi, gun und gu, die die Gebietsänderung und die Abschaffung einer grundkommunalen Selbstverwaltungskörperschaft voraussetzt, verlangt es eine sorgfältige Prüfung des Staates. Es ist dem Staat nicht erlaubt, mit politische Abwägung und Gründen die Gebietsreform vorzunehmen. Vielmehr ist der Staat verpflichtet, innerhalb des verfassungsrechtlich garantierten kommunalen Selbstverwaltungsrechts die Gebietsreform vornehmen. Ferner muss die Gebietsreform das Gemeinwohl der Einwohner erfüllen, und das Verfahren zur Gebietsreform muss beachtet werden. Gleichzeitig muss der Staat die kulturelle und historische Gemeinschaftsverbindung in der betreffenden Region und die Einwohneridentität schwerpunktmäßig berüsichtigen.