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2011, Vol.55, No.

  • 1.

    Study on legal issues and improvement measure concerning city redevelopment project

    이재삼 | 2011, 55() | pp.1~34 | number of Cited : 3
    City redevelopment project can be considered the process of realizing social welfare by facilitating functions of cities through improving inferior residential environment and providing housing of good quality to the low-income classes. However, as the project has been executed regardless of the economic capability of residents or urban structure for investment resources assurance, convenience of project execution, or efficiency of land use, it is currently exposed to residential uncertainty from the low-income classes that comprise most of the residents. There is a problem with the city redevelopment project: the meaning of publicity is fading due to excessive focus on the project itself. This is because the redevelopment is being executed without investment of public resources. Thus, in order to activate city redevelopment project, residential participation must be activated. Also, joint redevelopment method and improvement on circular maintenance method should be considered in the city redevelopment. Firstly, active participation of residents is required in city redevelopment project. At the inception of the project planning, the public organization should encourage maximum participation from residents, provide information, and open every possibility for them to get access to the information. In other words, the public organization should take the role as a coordinator that tunes interests of residents, the public, and construction companies in order to successfully execute the redevelopment project and assure publicity. And, in case of moved complex of circular maintenance method of city redevelopment, a method other than allotting ordinary rent should be applied. In other words, in order to aim for residential stability of poor residents and increase the rate of resettlement, the rent should be adjusted to take account of the present situation. Since the entry rate of the complex is low due to high rent, it is better to lower the price of rental apartment and stay with the original intention of the introduction of circular maintenance method. Especially, in order to increase the resettlement rate of residents, the following methods are considered: providing floor area ratio incentive with the public organization as the main body, and providing rental apartments and allowing residents to pay the cost of entry monthly. Also, there is an aspect of the expansion of public functions. Public functions should induce and support smooth flow of redevelopment according to its planned schedule while adjusting various interests. In order to take the main role in the city redevelopment as a public organization, it is important to assure and operate sufficient funds. Supports from sufficient financial funds, public funds, and tax privilege are essential. In addition, joint redevelopment project is necessary. In traditional joint development, association or owner who provides land and rights and investors who take the responsibility of operational cost and technical supports execute the project jointly. In this project, this is the method where residents who provide the land and construction companies that pay the entire operational cost are jointly developing. This method may be able to solve the development financial problem that has been the core obstacle to the redevelopment project. Since residents do not have to pay for the operational cost and construction companies may accommodate residents, this method assures business profitability through general lotting-out on the remaining families other than houses.
  • 2.

    Legal Systematic Improvement Measures through the Behavioral Analysis of Inhabitants Migration Measures

    Kim,Jong Ha | 2011, 55() | pp.35~58 | number of Cited : 3
    Inhabitants migration measures are playing the role of adjustment device between the public and private interest. However, since the regulation related to the inhabitants migration measures stated in Act on Acquisition and Compensation of Land and Forth for Public Utilities, which is insufficient and composed unsystematically. The special provision program should be directly regulated by the Act on Acquisition and Compensation of Land and Forth for Public Utilities as a methods of inhabitants migration measures. The council in regards to inhabitants migration measures with local government should regulate to be conducted at the compensation council, which is the current legal organization. However, the time for the inhabitants migration measures plan about each development project should be unified and regulated clearly in order to discuss with the apprase for compensation at the compensation council. Therefore, it is judged that it would be at the same time of establishing the development plan. Such improvement measure seems advisable not only from the aspect of “Planing of Inhabitants Migration Measures in ahead, after Compensation and Migration” but also from the fact that the discretion of promoter can be properly controlled. And that it could increase the ratio of re-settlement. On the other hand, it seems that if inhabitants migration measures are included in the subject for judgment, relief of right in regards to inhabitants migration measures could progress a step further.
  • 3.

    A Study on proper Compensation Resulted by Urban Redevelopment on Commercial Tenants

    임영인 | Lee,Joo-Hyung | 2011, 55() | pp.59~76 | number of Cited : 0
    This study has committed an analysis on the proper compensation requirements for commercial tenants in urban redevelopment. For this, the requirements and social perception of the commercial tenants to current business compensation were analysed. After the cognition analysis on proper compensation for commercial tenants, 90.2% of the commercial tenants replied that the loss compensation with the standard of compensating only maximum 4 months according to initial 3 years of average profit is unreasonable and needs improvement. Through the analysis to find out what other factors can be reflected for proper compensation on business compensation, it was realized that most commercial tenants had made a judgement that compensation of the premium and priority of moving, things that insure the right to move in again were needed. Based on above analysis results, the implication for the proper compensation of commercial tenants are as following: First, the premium money must be compensated. The major discontent for not having a migration alternative was the underestimation of the compensation money without the acknowledgement of premium money. Second, negotiation beforehand with the tenant and priority of moving needs to be ensured after the completion of urban redevelopment. Third, a public leased commercial district on inexpensive rent should be run in order to enhance the rate of resettlement of small-scale commercial tenants.
  • 4.

    Legal Issues concerning Ten-Year Public Rental Housing Programin West Pangyo Area

    Sunbae Lee | 김재광 | 2011, 55() | pp.77~102 | number of Cited : 6
    ‘Participatory Government’ made a start in 2003 emphasized on improving housing security for less privileged Koreans in terms of the housing supply policies. This change of direction was reflected in the ‘road map for housing welfare’ published in May 2003, the focus of which was on actual demanders of housing units. In accordance with this road map, if the Government provides assistance to the income group (income level 5 to 6) to which owner-occupied housing is affordable, tenants belong to the group are allowed to convert their rented housing units for purchasing after the termination of a mandatory compliance period, and that is the sort of the concept of the ten-year public rental housing program. The analysis from a legal point of view and legal interpretation on how efficiently this type of ‘rental housing - owner occupation’ functions are as follows: legal issues exist regarding public notifications relating to the Enforcement Decree of the Housing Act; all relevant institutions biased in their business-friendly interpretations on standards for appraisal prices relating to the conversion of rental housing for sale; the range of repair and maintenance cost component on standard rent payment varied depending on which institute interpreted and when it was interpreted More serious issue is that the existence of the Rental Housing Act is threatened due to reasons, such as ambiguous and unsystematic description of the Act, provisions of the Enforcement Decree which held unconstitutional, too many delegation provisions against the purposes and intent of the Act in public notifications and business-friendly tendency of institutions interpreting laws. I suggest alternatives, such as to clarify provisions on the level of normal profits for rental business operators, to prescribe even clearer rental terms and conditions and more definite criteria for appraisal prices relating to conversion of rental housing for sale to tenants, to establish separate mandatory provisions which legally nullify the offering of unfavorable rental terms and conditions to tenants who are generally from less privileged social backgrounds and to provide compensation provisions concerning loss accrued to tenants when any violation against the Act occurs.
  • 5.

    A Study about Necessity for Diversification of the National Housing Size

    김재운 | 2011, 55() | pp.103~126 | number of Cited : 2
    The Standard of the National Housing Size(85㎡) has not changed since ‘The Housing Construction Expediting Law’ in 1973, now changed ‘The Housing Law’ in spite of the GNI growth and Population increase etc. Now it is the time to change the standard! According to ‘2010 The National Survey of population and housing’, the number of household decreased from 3.2 people in 2000 to 2.67 people in 2010 and the ratio of single-person household has increased from 15.5% in 2000 to 23.9% in 2010. By those changes, I recommend to change the standard and to diverse it. For example, I suggest 40㎡ for low income people, 60㎡ for middle income people, 85㎡ for high income people.
  • 6.

    Das System zur Entschädigung und Unterstützung des Umkreises vom Übertragungs- und Verteilersnetz in Korea, mit Gesetzes-Novelle

    Shin, Bong-Ki | 2011, 55() | pp.127~156 | number of Cited : 5
    Es handelt sich bei dieser Untersuchung um das System zur Entschädigung und Unterstützung des Umkreises vom Übertragungs- und Verteilersnetz in Korea, inklusive vom Gesetzes-Novelle. Ausserhalb der Einführung(Ⅰ) und des Schlusses(Ⅶ) wird diese Abhandlung von fünf Kapitel gebildet. Im Ⅱ. und Ⅲ. Kapitel werden die Begriffe von Untergebiete vom Übertragungs- und Verteilersnetz usw., die Rechtssysteme deren betroffenen Entschädigung und Unterstützung, sowie die Rechtssysteme der Netz- Liegen (Genehmigung des Einführungsplans, Vereinbarung mit betroffenen Ministeriums, Enteignung, Einkaufsanspruch usw.) u.a. untersucht. Im Ⅳ. Kapitel werden die Rechtssysteme der Entschädigung von Untergebiete vom Übertragungs- und Verteilersnetz, insbesondere im Bereich des Elektrizitätsbetriebs- esetzes, der Bewertungs-Verwaltungsverordnung zur Entschädigung von Untergebiete vom Übertragungs- und Verteilersnetz, der Verwaltungsverordnung zur Entschädigungs- ewertung von Bau- und Boden, der Verwaltungsanordnung zur Entschädigungs von Bau- und Boden u.a. untersucht. Im Ⅴ. Kapitel wird die Unterstützung-Rechtssysteme des Umkreises vom Übertragungs- und Verteilersnetz, also die Novellierungs-Empfehlung von dem ‘Anti-Corruption & Civil Rights Commision’ und die Bewertung der sog. ‘Gesetzesnovelle von ChoHaeJin’ u.a. untersucht. Im Ⅵ. Kapitel wird das 「Gesetz zur Entschädigung und Unterstützung des Umkreises vom Übertragungs- und Verteilersnetz」 empfohlen. Manche hier hingewiesene, für den Bürgern daneben wichtige Regelungen sollen so schnell wie möglich legislativ positiv eingeflußt werden.
  • 7.

    Eine verfahrensrechtlcihe Betrachtung auf der Enteignung und Entschädigung von Hochspannungsfreileitungen in Deutschland

    Kil Joon Kyu | 2011, 55() | pp.157~186 | number of Cited : 3
    In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland handelt es sich neben der Entschädigung wegen der Errichtung der Hochspannungsleitungen um die Bewertungen von Maststandplätze. Um die Hochspannungsleitungen neu zu errichten, soll die Absicht zu deren neuen Errichtungen von Betreiber von Übertragungsnetzen zuerst durch die Bedarfssplan nach dem Gesetz (Energiewirtschaftsgesetz, EnWG) angenommen werden. Danach können Übertragungsnetzbetreiber die Enteignungen im Zusammenhang mit deren Errichtingen zum Enteignungsbehörde des betroffenen Landes schriftlich antragen. Haben die Eigentümer in bestimmten Gebieten nach dem Erlassung der Enteignung von der Behörde gemeldet, können sie als “Betroffene” betrachtet werden. Beim Planfeststellungsverfahren haben Übertragungsnetzbetreiber mit diesen Betroffene und deren Verein duch mehren Anhörungen zusammengearbeitet. Wenn sie voneinander nicht vereinbart sind, soll die Landesbehörde darüber entscheiden. Zur Entschädigung sollen Übertragungsnetzbetreiber und Betroffene auch vereinabren. In der Deutschland gibt es die konkrete Vereinbarungen (sog. Rahmenregelungen) mit Tabellen zwischen Übertragungsnetzbetreiber und Landwirtschafts-Verbände. In der Praxis wird die Hochspannungsmast-Entschädigung aufgrund der Vereinbarungen ganz einfach verfahensrechtlich entschädigt.
  • 8.

    Just Compensation for Right-of-Way in U.S.

    김성배 | 2011, 55() | pp.187~212 | number of Cited : 3
    The electric power industry is one of the most heavily regulated industries in the United States. the federal government and the fifty state governments exercise oversight in virtually every aspect of electric power generation, transmission and distribution, forming a web of regulation. Local government, however, exercise zoning power. Therefore, to understand mechanism of just compensation for Right-of-way, it is needed to pay attention not only federal cases but also state cases. The courts have applied the concept of fair market value to determine the value of the property being acquired. Compare to Korean compensation process, there are democratic involvement such as using jury system in decision of property value, developed intensive evidence collecting process and examination of expert witnesses. Furthermore, Rational negotiation between land owner and power company has developed because of burden of jury system and legal cost. Some states have modified common law rule through new statues and regulation.
  • 9.

    Compensation system for land under power lines in Japan

    조연팔 | 2011, 55() | pp.213~242 | number of Cited : 1
    본 연구에서는 우리와 궤를 같이 하여 달려오면서도 여러 가지 점에서 차이를 보이고 있는 일본에 있어서의 손실보상의 이론과 실무, 그중에서도 특히 송변전시설의 건설 또는 설치를 목적으로 토지가 수용 또는 사용되는 경우에 있어서의 손실보상에 관한 이론적 근거와 실무를 고찰한다. 송ㆍ변전설비를 가설하거나 건설할 경우에 보상 문제는 철탑과 변전소부지와 같이 당해 토지가 직접 수용되는 경우 또는 선하지와 같이 공용 사용되는 경우에 있어서의 보상 문제와 직접 수용 또는 사용되지는 않지만 공익사업에 의하여 간접적인 침해가 있는 경우에 있어서의 보상 문제로 나누어 살펴볼 수 있다. 먼저 일본에서는 수용되는 토지의 감정평가의 경우에는 복수의 수법을 사용하고 있는데 먼저 표준지를 산정하고 그 표준획지를 거래사례비교법에 따라 비교기준하여 산정한 단가와 개발법에 의하여 산정한 단가, 표준공시지가에 의하여 산정한 단가(3수법이라 한다)를 산출한 후, 규범성의 높은 쪽에 중점을 두어 표준지의 단가를 결정한다. 이점에서 공시지가에 의한 산정을 원칙적인 방법으로 채택하고 있는 우리와는 차이가 있어 보인다. 다음으로 일본에서 토지를 공공목적으로 사용하는 경우 권원확보방법으로서는 지역권을 설정하고 사용하는 경우(물권)와 채권계약으로서 사용대차계약을 체결하여 사용하는 경우로 나누어 볼 수 있는데, 지역권설정의 경우에 토지소유자에 대한 대가는 일괄지불이 많지만, 연할부 지불의 케이스도 있는데 연할부 지불시에는 거의 2년째마다 개정되는 케이스가 많다. 우리나라에서는 일본처럼 일시불로 지급할 수 있다는 규정은 없으나 실무에서는 구분 지상권을 설정하여 일시불로 지불하고 있다. 그러나 구분지상권 등기가 행하여지고 그 대가가 일괄지불 되었을 때에는 계약상 토지 소유자가 불리해지므로 구분지상권 등기에 의하더라도 연할부식으로 지불될 필요성이 있다. 세 번째로 이격거리에 관한 문제로서 우리나라 전기설비기술기준 제36조에서는 전압이 170kV 이상부터 400kV미만 사이에는 특고압가공전선이 건조물, 도로, 보도교 그 밖의 시설물의 아래족에 시설될 때에만 3m이상의 이격거리를 두도록 하고 있고, 화재예방과 관련하여서는 전압이 400kV 이상(제2차 접근 상태)인 경우에만 3m의 이격거리를 두도록 하고 있다. 이 이격거리에 따라서 보상여부가 달라지게 된다. 하지만 일본의 경우에는 17만V이상의 경우에는 건조물의 화재로 인한 전선의 손상을 방지하기 위한 경우이든 건조물, 도로, 보도교 그 밖의 시설물의 아래족에 시설된 경우이든 불문하고 3m이상의 수평이격거리를 두도록 하고 있고 여기에 대하여 보상이 이루어지고 있다. 특별한 목적이 있어서 일본과 큰 차이를 두고 있는지는 정확히 알 수 없지만 특별한 이유가 있다고 하더라도 너무나 현격한 차이가 있어서 전기안정상의 지장은 없는지 살펴보아야 하고, 이것이 단지 보상을 피하기 위한 것이라면 이는 시정되어야 할 것이다. 네 번째로 일본에서는 경관이나 송전선 통과에 의한 심리적 압박감, 소음, 전자파 등의 영향에 의한 감가는 물리적 감가와 같은 정량적 분석이 곤란하다는 이유에서 특별히 감가율에 대하여 규정하고 있는 근거 규정은 없어 보인다. 이것에 대하여 감가율을 근거지우려면 많은 선하지의 거래사례의 축적과 송전선의 각종 요인의 속성 데이터가 데이타베이스화 되어 이를 분석하여 그 속성과 감가와의 상관관계가 통계적수법 등에 의하여 해석되는 등의 조치가 필요할 것이다. 향후 이와 같은 통계적 수법 등이 감가율에 적용될 것이 예상된다. 다섯 번째로 인근주민에 대한 간접보상 또는 사업보상과 관련하여서이지만, 일본에 있어서 손실보상의 원형은 토지소유권의 박탈과 그 대가의 부여였다. 하지만 현재에는 보상의 대상도 토지소유권에서 재산권일반으로 확대되었고, 게다가 예방접종사건에 보여지는 것처럼 신체적침해의 문제에까지 헌법 제29조 제3항을 근거로 하여 보상청구가 가능하게 되었다. 이른바 고전적 수용개념의 확대화현상이 생긴 것이다. 그러나 일본에서의 사업 손실 보상은 일찍이 공해피해의 구제를 기본으로 하여 불법행위 분야에서 손해배상으로 해결하는 것으로 이해되어 왔고, 현재 일본 정부가 취하고 있는 견해도 손해배상설에 입각하고 있다. 협의에 의한 공공용지의 취득에 따른 손실보상에 관하여는 「공공용지의 취득에 따른 손실보상기준요강」에 의하여 보상이 행하여지고 있는데, 여기에서는 사업 시행에 의해 발생하는 일조침해, 악취, 소음 그 밖에 이것들과 유사한 것에 의한 불이익 또는 손실에 대해서는 보상하지 않는 것으로 한다고 규정하고 있다.(동 요강 41조). 그러나 동 요강의 시행에 관하여 규정하고 있는 각의 요해 「공공용지의 취득에 따른 손실보상기준요강의 시행에 관하여」제3에서는 이것들의 손해 등이 사회생활상 수인하여야 할 범위를 넘는 경우에는 별도로 손해배상의 청구가 인정되는 경우도 있을 수 있기 때문에 이것들의 손해 등의 발생이 확실하게 예견되어지는 경우에는 미리 이것들에 관하여 배상하는 것에 아무런 장애를 받지 않는다고 하고 있고, 이것에 근거하여 현재 사업 손실에 대하여서는 「손해가 확실하게 예상되는 경우로서 ① 일조침해에 의해 주택에 생기는 손해, ② 텔레비전전파수신장애에 의한 손해, ③ 공사에 기인하는 水枯渴 등에 의한 손해, ④ 공사에 기인하는 지반변동에 의한 건물 그 밖의 공작물의 손해에 대하여서는 비용부담을 수반하는 행정조치가 수차례 취하여지고 여기에 따라 사전보상도 행하여지고 있다. 이것과 관련하여 전기설비에 관한 기술 기준을 정하는 성령 제19조에서는 공해 등의 방지조치에 대하여 규정하고 있는데, 이와 같은 규정이 있음으로 인하여 이 규정을 위배하였을 경우에는 손해배상의 요건중의 하나인 위법성 요건을 충족하게 될 것이고, 손해가 확실히 예견되는 경우에는 사전의 손실보상도 가능할 것이다. 우리나라의 전기사업법 제5조에서는 공해 등의 방지조치에 대한 포괄적인 규정을 두고 있지만 일본에 준하는 공해방지조항이 전기사업사업법은 물론 하위법령에도 없는 것으로 보인다. 일본과 같이 구체적인 조항을 신설할 필요가 있다고 생각된다. 또 이와 관련하여 일본 전기사업법 제1조 목적규정에서는 「환경보전의 도모」를 전기사업법의 목적으로 하고 있으나 우리나라 전기사업법이나 전원개발촉진법 어디에도 환경배려규정이나 환경보전을 도모한다는 규정을 찾아볼 수 없다. 따라서 환경보전을 위하여 서나 차후의 환경피해자에 대한 권리 구제를 도모하기 위해서라도 전기사업법 등에 「환경보전의 도모」라는 문구를 둘 필요성이 있다. 그리고 현재 일본에서는 우리나라보다 먼저 발달되어 오랜 역사를 가지고 있는 환경보전협정에 의해서 환경피해 등에 대한 대처를 하고 있는 것으로 보인다. 일본에 있어서 환경보전협정은 실정법상의 근거규정은 없으나 오랜 실무의 관행으로서 환경보전협정이 체결되지 않으면 당해 사업인정을 해주지 않는 관행이 존재한다고 한다. 그리고 이 환경보전협정에서는 사업자에게 일정한 환경보전기금을 관할 지방자치단체에 기탁하게 하고 이러한 기금을 통하여 환경정비 사업을 행한다. 물론 일본에서 도 변전소건설이나 송전선 설치와 관계하여서는 환경보전협정의 체결 사례가 없는 것으로 보이나 앞으로 변전소건설이나 고압선 설치 시에도 환경보전협정이론을 도입하여 문제해결을 도모하는 것도 하나의 방법으로 보이고, 이에 대한 깊이 있는 연구를 통하여 우리나라에 도입할 필요성도 있어 보인다. 그리고 마지막으로 地産地消의 원칙에 입각하여 서울에서 소비하는 전력은 서울인근에서 생산하도록 하여 타 지역에 환경피해를 주지 말아야 할 것이지만 부득불 타 지역으로부터 전기를 공급받는 수밖에 없는 경우에는 개인은 대한 보상은 차지하고서라도 당해 지역전체를 위하여 환경보전기금을 부담하게 하여 송전선의 설치로 인하여 파괴되는 경관침해 등의 환경파괴를 방지하기 위하여 투자를 해야 할 것이며, 이는 결국 ,변전소나 송전선 인근지가의 하락을 막는 요인으로 작용할 수도 있을 것이다.
  • 10.

    L'indemnité sur le préjudice causé par l'établissement des équipements de lignes électriques en France

    CHAE Hyung Bok | 2011, 55() | pp.243~268 | number of Cited : 0
    L'expropriation pour cause d'utilité publique est une acte administrative permettant à l’acquéreur(l’État) de forcer un possesseur à céder son bien contre son gré dans le droit français. L’expropriation administrative comporte une structure qui cause les disputes entre les propriétaires du terrain mê̂me si l'acauéreur s'engage en avance à donner une juste indemnité. La base juridique de l'expropriation pour cause d'utilité publique est posée sur l'article 17 de la Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen du 26 aoû̂t 1789 par rapport à laquelle la Constitution française ne le remarque pas en directe. Cet article garantie le droit de propriété en disposant que “La propriété étant un droit inviolable et sacrée, nul ne peut en ê̂tre privée, si ce n'est lorsque la nécessité publique, légalement constatée, l'exige évidemment, et sous la condition d'une juste et préalable indemnité.” En se basant sur cet article, le Code de l'expropriation pour cause d'utilité publique a été établie. Les relations juridiques sur l'établissement des équipements de lignes électriques en France sont divisées par les deux types des droits comme suit: les servitudes de passage de lignes électriques et les servitudes d'utilité publique. Mais l'indemnité est en réalité payée par un accord amiable entre les parties concernées selon les Protocoles Passages de Lignes Electriques. L'indemnité pour l'expropriation directe causée par l'établissement des équipements de lignes électriques est en principe payée par l'argent liquid. Mais il est possible de payer en nature si les parties font un accord amiable. Pour l'expropriation indirecte, elle est remboursée par l’acquéreur(l’État) en offrant comme une indemnité de déménagement et une indemnité compensatrice de privation de jouissance.
  • 11.

    Legal Study on Livestock Burial Sites Resulting from the Epidemic

    김동련 | 김환목 | 2011, 55() | pp.269~290 | number of Cited : 3
    2010 was a difficult year for Korea’s livestock industry; in fact, it can be called a calamity. Livestock raisers still suffer from ordeals and pains. This is because of issues related to the burial of livestock in addition to the economic aspect. What has become a social issue as a result of burying livestock is the environmental part. Note, however, that there are many other problems aside from the environment. Therefore, this paper has examined the problems excluding the environmental ones. First, there should be cooperation between administrative agencies. A separate management system is not only ineffective for subordinate administrative organizations; it also discourages cooperation from norm addressees. Therefore, there is a need to build an integrated network or integrated organizations. Second, we need to enact a compensation system specifically for land owners. Third, we must recognize the claims for buying of the land owners. Fourth, the Ministry of Land, Transportation, and Maritime Affairs(MLTM) is an agency that supervises the use and management of land; note, however, that its current utilization can be said to be insufficient as far as livestock burial sites are concerned. Accordingly, if cooperation from related ministries is added to the aggressive activities of the Ministry of Land, Transportation, and Maritime Affairs, effective management of livestock burial sites can be realized.
  • 12.

    A Study on the problem of the evidence photographing in the assembly and demonstration

    김창휘 | 2011, 55() | pp.291~318 | number of Cited : 5
    The freedom of assembly and demonstration holds a special meaning in the modern history of our country. Considering that fact that our democracy was established and developed from authoritative political military-power government through the freedom of assembly and demonstration, only adds to its importance. However, much has changed since then and, according to the constitution (37-2), the freedom of assembly is limited for public safety measures, maintenance of order, and public welfare. Yet, considering the facts that the freedom of assembly paved the way for democracy and plays a huge role in development of democracy, It is without a doubt that the freedom of assembly should be thoroughly guaranteed by the government prior to any other fundamental human rights. Despite the political value of the freedom of assembly and demonstration, we have witnessed its negative impact in reality, that is, the illegal and violent forms of assembly and demonstration. It had a great negative impact on the basic human rights, safety guarantee of the nation, and social order. This report will examine the necessity of the evidence photographing and/or filming of the assembly and demonstration actions including the illegality and violence, and the necessity of basic legislative regulations, while guaranteeing the freedom of assembly and demonstration. It deals with both the importance of the freedom of assembly and demonstration in a democratic government and the protection of the fundamental human rights in evidence photographing. Above all else, the report emphasizes the vulnerability of the fundamental human rights in indiscriminate evidence photographing. The reason behind the necessity of evidence photographing in a assembly and demonstration is that it is indispensable to the police administration in preventing danger and maintaining public order. The task regulation (the office regulation) and authority regulation (the authorized regulation) must be classified and regulated. However, no authorized regulation for the evidence photographing in an assembly and demonstration can be found in the law and regulations relating to the assembly and demonstration. Therefore, the basic requirements of legal basis for the evidence photographing without substantive enactment must be considered. The principle of evidence photographing should limit the subject of evidence photographing to illegal and violent demonstrations and in a case of a real risk, it should be restricted as possible, observing the principle of the proportion. In addition, photo/film evidence should be discarded immediately except for the ones used for the danger prevention and criminal prosecution. Also, although the photo should not be of a certain individual, it would be proper to have a legal basis about it because it may cause the problem of revealing of identity. All photographing and filming should be public because secret photographing and filming is restricted for the rights of the irrelevant 3rd person and the right to decide for the self information of the person concerned. Along with the legal reasons for photography and filming, photography and filming method, management and termination of photography and film evidence, these contents should be the basis for the regulations. The evidence photographing and filming is certainly being used extensively in the present era and it will be used in various areas by the police administration in the future along with the development of photography devices and technology. This will bring about new discussions. I am expecting no more exhaustive arguments over this topic and a legislative solution for the prevention of overstraining evidence photographing in the near future.
  • 13.

    A Study of an Evaluation and Tasks of 「Welfare and Support for the independence on the Homelessness Act」

    Lee,Heon-Seok | Gyeongsu Yeo | 2011, 55() | pp.319~338 | number of Cited : 9
    The proposed research will examine the impacts of the Homelessness Act 2011 on homelessness policy and practice throughout the Korea. Everyone shares the right to a decent standard of living. Essential to the achievement of this standard and therefore to the fulfillment of human lie beyond simple survival is access to adequate housing. Homelessness is the condition and social category of people without a regular house or dwelling because they cannot afford or are otherwise unable to maintain regular, safe, and adequate housing. The government open shelters for homeless people, but the programs of rehabilitation, management and housing program were not fit for them. Because these are not concern with housing and social exclusion. First and foremost, homeless is the problem of poverty and resident poverty above all. So the government have to supply many public houses for them with welfare services. The purpose of this paper is to punctuate an evaluation and tasks of 「Welfare and Support for the independence on the Homelessness Act」
  • 14.

    An Examination on the Unconstitutionality of Credit Cards through Public Law - Focusing on the unconstitutionality of credit card merchant discount fee -

    Kim, Sang-Kyum | 류기철 | 2011, 55() | pp.339~362 | number of Cited : 2
    The US financial crisis broke out in the late 2000s, and its aftermath is causing a worldwide recession. As an export-oriented economy, Korea has been under significant influence of the global economic crisis. As for now, thanks to the efforts of the state and people, Korea is coping well with the crisis. However, decline in domestic demand and aggravation of the world economy are increasing the economic pressure and burden on people. Under these economic circumstances credit card merchants are especially going through a difficult time, due to a relatively high discount fee. Credit card companies and credit card merchants have bred discord during the last ten years because of this fee. However since the 「Credit Specialty Finance Company Law」contains provisions unilaterally in favor of the credit-specialized financial companies, there is not much room for maneuver for the credit card merchants in law and institutions. It has been about 30years that the credit card system was introduced and established in Korea. The use of credit card enhances the transparency of transactions, and thereby contributing to tax policies of the state. It also offers financial benefits by enabling people making transactions without carrying cash. Against the backdrop of these benefits, the government has pushed the enhancing policy of credit card use forward in earnest since the 1990s. As a result, credit card companies were granted favor, while credit card members or credit card merchants, became disadvantage in related provisions. Moreover, it is provided as compulsory in the law that credit card merchants should base their transactions on credit cards and that they should not make excessive demands on credit card members. Due to these provisions, credit card companies make unilateral decision on the discount fee that the merchants receive, and enforce it. The current 「Credit Specialty Finance Company Law」 imposes a unilateral duty of credit card uses to the credit card merchants through provision 1 of article 19. The imposition of such duty should be balanced by legal policies that grant credit card merchants corresponding rights. Therefore, our State should straighten out the current unfair discount fee by amending the law. And strengthening the right of credit card merchants would be the ultimate solution to the problem.
  • 15.

    Legal Issues about Regulation of Broadcasting Advertisement

    KIM, MIN HO | 2011, 55() | pp.363~382 | number of Cited : 9
    It is enacted in the current Broadcast Law that the types of broadcasting advertising are divided into program advertising, commercial breaks, brief advertising, subtitle advertising, and time signal advertising. Since 2010, virtual advertising has been allowed only in sports programs, and indirect advertisements have been allowed only in entertainment and cultural programs. In the case of brief advertising, it had been allowed 4 pieces at a time, but effective October 1, 2010, the limitation of the number of advertisements was abolished, so diverse methods of advertising have been made possible. The detailed scope, frequency, and time applicable to those advertisements are differently applied depending on media in accordance with the enforcement ordinance of the same law. The terrestrial broadcasting companies are allowed to broadcast advertisements up to 10% of a program but commercial breaks are prohibited. Cable TV, satellite cable network, terrestrial DMB, and satellite DMB network are allowed to do various forms of broadcast advertisements for up to 10 minutes per hour. Although they cannot exceed 12 minutes, these media can do commercial breaks, unlike terrestrial broadcasting companies. Meanwhile, it is enacted in the Broadcast Law, Article 74 that broadcasting companies can do sponsorship notices within the scope stipulated by the Presidential degree, and Article 60 of the enforcement ordinance of the same Law lists the cases, in which sponsorship notices are allowed, such as “sponsoring the public campaigns conducted by broadcasting companies,” “sponsoring the public events such as cultural art and sports events managed by broadcasting companies,” “sponsoring the broadcasting programs produced by those who produce broadcasting programs who have no special relationship with the applicable broadcasting company.” According to this regulation, the terrestrial broadcasting companies’ sponsorship notices are not allowed in the case of sponsoring the production of programs, but only in the case of large-scale special programs with the public utility nature, they are exceptionally allowed. Currently, the only kind of program that belongs to the category of the “large-scale special programs with the public utility nature” is a documentary program. Nevertheless, the terrestrial broadcasting companies classify traffic information, securities information, economic trends, weather information, one minute news, etc. into public campaigns and are actually doing sponsorship notices by directly receiving sponsorships from enterprises Civil groups criticize these practices as an expediency violating the enforcement ordinance of the Broadcast Law, and in the 2009 parliamentary inspection of the administration, it was recommended that the practices of the terrestrial broadcasting companies’ receiving the programs like stock quotations and receiving sponsorship of production cost separately be improved. Despite the fact that the broadcast advertisements and sponsorship notices are very similar in the aspect of effectiveness, the current laws are not adequately established with regard to sponsorship notices, compared with the broadcast advertisements. And the current laws do not stipulate any action regulation or contents regulation with regard to the action called ‘sponsorship,’ but stipulate only the formal regulation called ‘sponsorship notice’, so they contain the problems that the three-dimensional regulation system associated with the sponsorship, which is contents, and the sponsorship notice, which is formality, are hard to work. In other words, since there are no laws regulating the action of sponsorship, it is impossible to regulate expedient or illegal sponsorships. Accordingly, this article examined diverse pending issues and problems related to sponsorship notices, and presented rational ways to regulate and remedy inadequate aspects of the current broadcast laws.