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2012, Vol.57, No.

  • 1.

    New Town Policy for Coexistence and Mutual Contribution

    Kwang-soo Kim | 2012, 57() | pp.1~18 | number of Cited : 6
    The Special Law for Promotion of Renewal of Town was enacted in early July, 2006 as the applicable law for the new town projects, lays its purpose on “seeking balanced development of the town and contributing to improvement of the quality of national life”. It shows that mutual contribution was not a direct purpose of creating this law, but rather to find the balanced development of the town was an essential. In the year 2002 when the New Town Project was initiated, the housing price was fought out the financial crisis and steadily creasing. At that time, the mayor of Seoul focused on to the difference between the southern and the northern area of the river, and mapped out a new town as a basic project for development of the North. It was a concept for improvement of residential environment of the North as well as inducement in searching for the even-handed Seoul city, by development of the North where much less benefitted compared to the prospering South due to continuous investment in infrastructures there. Having said this, the new town project was staged actively across the country including Seoul. However, the existing new town projects now faced its limitation. Civil petition demanding to stop or to cancel the whole project proves that the project has not met their expectation of the coexistence nor facilitating for the mutual benefit. New town is an unavoidable project considering changes in public function and population. To push it forward safely, we need to search for the new town project which is appropriate for the given situation. If a civil enterprise involves with the project and has a way to provide houses while creating profit as an example, nothing would get in the way. Apart from this, another type of new town project may need to be promoted based on public support, for revival of the areas lagging behind. It means the area-development through financial support of the government and municipality. For development of a regional community, cooperative relationship has to be established between the administrational and the civil organizations as well as the related authorities. To achieve this, we could learn from the similar cases of the foreign countries. Particularly, the community new deal project of U.K. is very alerting since new town project of Seoul is considered failure for the past 10 years.
  • 2.

    Residential Rent Policy for Coexistence and Win-Win between Landlord and Tenant - Focusing on Recent Korean Government Measures and U.S. Rent Control -

    YUN, SUNG-SEUNG | 2012, 57() | pp.19~40 | number of Cited : 2
    In 2011, Korean Government announced residential rent and lease measures three times (on Jan. 13, Feb. 11, Aug.18) to deal with the crisis of the residential housing rental market. Such measures were introduced since the rapid increase of rent and unbalance between supply and demand in rental housing would have brought the rent crisis in the metropolitan cities as well as nation wide. Though the scope and details are not the same among the three measures, the Government tried to increase the supply of the rental housing and to decrease the demand of rental housing. For the purpose, the Government provided incentives of tax and financing to the suppliers and demanders of the rental housing. The supply and demand adjustment measures may be effective for the temporary unbalance in the residental rental housing market, but such measures can not solve the problem caused by the housing ownership structure in the big cities, in which the ownership ratio of the housing is very low while the rental ratio of the housing is very high. Rent control in the United States was introduced against ‘the rent crisis’, to control rapid increase of rent caused by the low ownership ratio of housing in the heavily populated big cities. It is still used in many big cities, in which ownership ratio is very low compared with other cities. The U.S. rental control allows landlord to increase rent within part of the consumer price index and to charge the capital improvements and increased taxes or utilities of real property to the tenants. Some cities even give right to renew the rental contracts to the tenants and prohibit terminating rental contacts by the landlords if the tenants regularly pay the rent in good faith and do not refuse to renew the contracts within the limit of rent increase in rent control. In Korea, since it is difficult to prevent the rapid increase of rent by supply and demand policy alone, it needs to be considered to introduce rent control as well. Rent control is an alternative to achieve the coexistence and win-win between landlord and tenant by allowing reasonable rental income to the landlord while preventing speculative rental profit.
  • 3.

    Study for the urban redevelopment business - Mainly about the urban redevelopment business for Sungnam-si -

    lee jae sam | 2012, 57() | pp.41~82 | number of Cited : 2
    The redevelopment business for Sungnam-si, which was the redevelopment of old urban area of Sungnam-si, was planned to have three steps from 2006. After two steps, however, the redevelopment business was stopped because of the declaration of the Land and Housing Corporation’s suspension of the business in 2010. The reasons were that systemic and operating problems are increasing, such problem that housing payment could not cover the business cost since local market value for trade, which is the standard for housing payment, was lower than the original cost of construction; this was resulted by the extended period of real estate recession. Thus, in order for efficient redevelopment business such as aiming the rationality of redevelopment system, consistency of the business, and reduction of cost, it is required to solve the problem about the business and to have alternatives. First, citizens’ active participation is required. For the business of redevelopment, public offices should motivate citizens to participate, provide information, and build close relationship with them from the beginning of planning to the end of the business. Second, proper rental fees for rental housing should be set up. For the case of subdivision areas made for moving resulted by circulating maintenance system, proper rental fees should be set up which consider the level of citizens’ living status. In other words, to achieve high level of resettlement ratio by aiming settlement for small residents, the rental fees should be adjusted properly. Third, tenants should be secured. For high resettlement ratio of tenants, it could be considered as the method that public offices as the main agent should provide incentives regarding floor area ratio, expand and supply rental housing obligatorily, and lower the burden of move-in by paying the shares monthly. In addition, they should allow unqualified tenants to move-in to circulation housing, and there should be enough commission to general tenants and shopping district tenants. Fourth, public functions should be expanded. In order for a public organization to take the main role in public development, enough level of financing system should be established. Governmental support, such as enough finance, public funds and tax favor, is vital. Fifth, lower residents’ share for the cost of development. Today, as a result of real estate recession and Land and Housing Corporation’s financial status, the residents’ share for the cost of development is expected to be 20 billion won; therefore, the first step to make is to lower the burden of residents by raising funds for housing renewal. In other words, evaluation system of wealth level favorable to residents is considered as a detailed plan to reduce burdens and accelerate redevelopment. Sixth, cooperated redevelopment plan can be considered. Now, for the solution of real estate recession and Land and Housing Corporation’s financial problem, it is required to have the alternative plan of cooperated redevelopment of the public and the private in order to accelerate the business. This is, Land and Housing Corporation needs to keep the position of business performer, and private companies participate as the actual main performers of the business with the condition of financing through lump work, responsibility of completion and responsibility of selling in lots; the Land and Housing Corporation can focus on the publicness of the business without worrying about financing, and the private can be guaranteed with comprehensive and creative autonomy. Conclusively, the reason of delay of urban development in Sungnam-si is the complexity of interest from the redevelopment business and the problem of raising a lot of funds. It is hard to accelerate the redevelopment of Sungnam-si only with cooperating plan. Thus, achieving publicness through active participation of the public and the private is the key to solve the problem of interest and accelerate the business.
  • 4.

    Die Freigabe der US-Militärbasen und Eine Untersuchung über die Möglichkeit der Verfassungsbeschwerde

    Kim Do-Hyub | 2012, 57() | pp.83~100 | number of Cited : 2
    Das Verfassungsgerichtssystem verwirklicht die verfassungsrechtliche Wertordnung, indem es die höchste Normativität einhält und sich gleichzeitig als Schutz der Verfassung für die Erfüllung der Sicherheit des verfassungsrechtlichen und politischen Lebens entwickelt. Das oben genannte Verfassungsgerichtssystem ist das effektivste Mittel des Verfassungsschutzes, das die immer größer werdende Kluft zwischen der Verfassungsnorm und der Realität der Verfassung überbrückt, indem es den Verfassungsstreitigkeiten über Verfassungsprobleme verfassungsgemäss löst. Auch wenn die Gewichtung der Werte und Bedeutungen der Verfassungsgerichtssysteme anderer Länder heutzutage aufgrund ihres jeweils eigenen politischen und sozialen Hintergründen unterschiedlich sind, besteht kein Zweifel an dem eigentlichen Wert der Verfassungsgerichtsbarkeit. Sie stellt nämlich das höchste Gewaltenkontrollsystem dar, das Schäden an den verfassungsrechtlichen Werten durch die falsche Ausübung der Exekutive, der Legislative und der Judikative vorbeugt bzw. sie ergänzt. Unter dieser Voraussetzung habe ich über die Möglichkeit der Verfassungsbeschwerde in Bezug auf die Freigabe der US-Militärbasen betrachtet.
  • 5.

    A Study of an Evaluation and Tasks of 「Act on Support for Underprivileged Group, Disabled Persons and Age, etc.」

    Lee,Heon-Seok | Gyeongsu Yeo | 2012, 57() | pp.101~122 | number of Cited : 7
    The proposed research will examine the impacts of the Act on Support for Underprivileged Group, Disabled Persons and Age, etc. The ‘right to housing’ in Korea implies that disadvantaged people suffering poverty or housing difficulty enjoy priority access to public housing. Everyone shares the right to a decent standard of living. Essential to the achievement of this standard and therefore to the fulfillment of human Housing rights is main fundamental rights to existence, comfortable environmental rights and cultural fundamental rights. Especially adequate housing for handicapped people is essential to live independently. Handicapped and non-handicapped people should be able to live together anywhere in the country. The reality, however, is that most handicapped individuals do not have opportunities for employment and housing because of insufficient support by government and social discrimination. National policy should be focus on the handicapped to overcome discrimination substantially, cooperation between the private and public sectors in the course of implementing that policy is importance. The status of the aged has changed by their functions and social structure in the industrial society. Weakness of productivity, property, family traditional link, mutual dependence, and public relationship caused by urbanization makes the position of the aged attenuate. To enable the elder to continue to stay in their own home and community, a universal design approach is widely adopted in designing housing units. The purpose of this paper is to study an evaluation and tasks of 「Act on Support for Underprivileged Group, Disabled Persons and Age, ETC.」
  • 6.

    Study on the Taking Clause in Constitution and the Theory Formed by Constitutional Court.

    Pyo, Myoung-Hwan | 2012, 57() | pp.123~146 | number of Cited : 5
    This paper investigates about the problem of leading case of constitutional court on taking in art. 23 sec. 3 and presents its new direction of interpretation. Investigation about taking clause starts from the problem on which theory interpretation on property right clause is base, that is, ‘separate theory’ or ‘boundary theory’. Korean constitutional court is base on ‘separate theory’ in several leading cases regarding property right in art. 23 sec. 3. Korean constitutional court is forming the system of interpretation on taking which start from separating of the ‘content clause’ and the ‘taking clause’ in property right clause. According to this protection system of property right, important to discuss regarding art. 23 sec. 3 is the requisite of taking against the property right formed by the clause of art. 23. sec. 1 and sec. 2 To investigate requisite of taking means the essentially purpose of protection of property right put on the protection of continued existence of property right in art. 23. sec. 1. Therefore, the requisite of taking against existence of property right is strictly asked. If the requisite of taking is fullfilled, the protection of the existence of property right is transfer to the protection of a value of property right, which constitutionmaker is considering as other form of protection of property right. To become a problem regarding the requisite of taking is very important, how forms of restriction of property right in art. 23 sec. 3 constitution of korea is interpreted. Constitutional court don't clear it. In this paper it is considered as the same with taking in art. 14 sec. 3 of germany constitution. From the result of this interpretation this paper has solved the problem of connection clause about art. 23 sec. 3. About the concept of public necessity this paper has defined as narrower concept than public welfare in art. 37 sec. 2. The criterion of judge about what the public necessity is, or not, is base on the principle of excess prohibition. This paper presents against the leading case of constitutional court which don't clear compensation between the content clause asking compensation and taking, just compensation applies on the taking and fair compensation on the content clause asking duty of compensation.
  • 7.

    Parcelling-out Non-contractor’s Legal Position in Housing Redevelopment Project and Measures for Improvement

    Kim, Jong Ha | Jae-Ho Kim | 2012, 57() | pp.147~170 | number of Cited : 3
    The Urban and Residential Environment Improvement Act regulates a cash liquidation system for association members against housing redevelopment. And it includes procedural standards used to understand the availability of a project approval on an application for parcelling-out, such as denying and cancelling applications for parcelling-out. On the other hand, those who have not signed parcelling-out contracts that do not exist in the law are made to apply correspondingly to the regulations concerning those who have cancelled an application for parcelling-out due to the articles of association. Such measure results in the indirect interpretation of a public legal effect by the availability of a civil agreement. Here, firstly, since an association’s obligatory cash liquidation issuance is clearly stated as a day next to an expiration date for a parcelling-out application period due to recently revised Urban and Residential Environment Improvement Act, a parcelling-out application cancellation period must be regarded as an application expiration date. Also, when the cancellation of a parcelling-out application is indirectly acknowledged through the articles of association, disposition for a management and disposition plan established based on an parcelling-out application denied according to a civil agreement. Therefore, such articles of association regulation are nullified. Secondly, the articles of association must state items necessary to operate an association, while it is appropriate to carry forward a project’s main procedure through disposition. Therefore, disposition procedures and the collection and procedures of a disposition amount, both of which are stated in the items of the current articles of association, must be specifically stated by law. If the Urban and Residential Environment Improvement Act is revised in this manner, civil and administrative lawsuits, both of which are mixed together and related to housing redevelopment, will be categorized. Thirdly, when a person denies a parcelling-out application, the current urban and residential environment improvement act categorizes the person as a cash liquidation subject due to a sign of important opposition against a project. However, it is understood that first categorizing cash liquidation subjects through the approval of a management and disposition plan first and finalizing a cash liquidation subject through the approval of a management and disposition plan including cash liquidation subjects and description of right next does not only endow a procedural effect, but also allows for the classification of judicial and public effects. Lastly, a revision is necessary to clearly state a decision subject and to regard a cash liquidation agreement as an agreement in a public project law by explicitly stating that a decision may be registered when a cash liquidation agreement is not met. In this way, a cash liquidation subject becomes a subject for compensation for loss, migration settlement funds are included in inhabitants migration measures to be combined as fair compensation.
  • 8.

    The Essence of District Unit Planning and Reconsideration of Related Regal System

    Min, Tae-Wook | 2012, 57() | pp.171~192 | number of Cited : 3
    Zoning system has been adopted as fundamental means of controlling land use in korea. But zoning has been facing the problem that it is difficult to form urban area positively as desirable city, because many area of korea are formed with no planning. To solve this problem, law introduced District Unit Planning which is a kind of Detailed Planning. District Unit Planning is an integrated system that controls building, land which building is located, road, infrastructure together. District Unit Planning is applied to not only newly developing area but also redevelopment area, and the range of applications is expected to extend farther. However law runs District Unit Planning parallel with zoning system in same area although both are different system each other. And District Unit Planning is applied only in some parts of urban area without systematic connection with total urban planning formulated by the authorities. Imbalance occurs between District Unit Planning area and neighboring area that bas no District Unit Planning, between District Unit Planning area and the whole urban area. Realistically, District Unit Planning is used the means of high-rise and high-density development by developer, that guarantees high profit to him. Theoretically, the main purpose of Detailed Planning is to form urban area totally balanced. Therefore there is need to reform District Unit Planning. It is desirable that District Unit Planning is extended to all urban area and zoning is abolished. If an overall change will not be possible in a short period of time, at least District Unit Planning should be planned in accord with total area plan that includes well-balanced planning over the area and prepared in advance.
  • 9.

    Judicial Interpretation of Administrative Statute in American Administrative Law

    Dongsoo Lee | 2012, 57() | pp.193~212 | number of Cited : 0
    The conventional theories of statutory interpretation are organized by legislature intent, objective meaning and notion that preexisting law influences the legal meaning and legal consequences of legislative action. Over the last twenty years or so, more and more federal judges have adopted an objective approach to interpretive questions. But ① sometimes the intended meaning of relevant text is too unclear to provide solid ground for case-specific interpretation, ② sometimes the objective meaning of the text is intractably ambiguous, ③ sometimes the underlying legislative policies and purposes are too diffuse or contradictory to support persuasive, case-specific inferences, ④ sometimes the ambient law and the traditional rules of interpretation have nothing definitive to say about the precise issue the court must decide. When the courts, in their discretion, resolve uncertainty concerning the meaning of statutory texts, they are in some respects in a better position than the legislature itself to make judgments about what the law ought to be. Courts have institutional strengths that can and should be brought to bear to improve statutory law. Five of these judicial virtues are ① hindsight, ② particularity, ③ detachment, ④ rational explanation and ⑤ consistency and justice. In most cases it is realistic to suppose that statutes have a fairly precise, judicially determinable meaning and that the courts are in a position to discover and declare that meaning through a process of legal reasoning.
  • 10.

    Das neue ntergrierte Datenschutzgesetzes und dessen effektiven Datenschutz

    Kil Joon Kyu | 2012, 57() | pp.213~234 | number of Cited : 18
    Im Jahr 2011 wird in Republik Korea das Datenschutzgesetz als ein übereinstimmemdes Gesetz im Datenschutzrecht endlich neulich erlassen, das nicht nur auf dem Bereich der öffentlcieh Stelle, sondern auch der nicht-öffentliche Stelle zusammen anwenden kann. Bisher wird die öffentliche Stelle, getrennt von nicht-öffentliche Stelle, durch das Gesetz über den Datenschutz der öffetntliche Stelle geregelt, während der Datenschutz der nicht-öffentliche Stelle durch das Gesetz über das Nutzen und die Förderungen der Telekommunikationsnetze und das Datenschutz. Aber war und ist es umstritten, welches Charakter das Gesetz im Datenschutzrecht rechtssytematisch hat. Einerseits ist es formell nur ein Telekommunikationsdatenschutzgesetz, kann es andererseits materiell als das Rahmengesetz (Grundsätzliches Gesetz) auf dem Bereich der nicht-öffentliche Stelle gelten. Trotz der tatsächliche Abgrenzung hat neues Gesetz trifft nciht sachliche unterschiedliche Regelungen für die öffentliche und nicht öffentliche Bereich, ist es ziemlich ander als die deutschen Gesetzgebung. Aus diesem Grunde wird in vorliegender Arbeit aufgrund der Abgrenzung der Regelungen und der Dogmatik der öffentliche und nicht-öffentliche Bereich das neue Datenschutz anlaysiert und ein kritischen Vorschlag gemacht. Schließlich werden Rechtsinstrumente für effektiven Datschutz, z. B. die Verbandklage, ‘class action’, ‘punitive damage’ betrachtet und neue Regelungen des neuen Gesetzes kritisiert.
  • 11.

    A study on the Appeals System - focused on equity -

    Lee, Dong-Chan | 2012, 57() | pp.235~252 | number of Cited : 5
    Appeals System was established in the Government officials Act and the Local Officials Act in 1963. From that time, it has been changed a lot for 50 years. Government officials's appeals are controlled by Central Appeals Commission which is installed in Ministry of Public Administration and Security, and Local Government officials's appeals are controlled by Local Appeals Commissions which are installed in the Province or City. However, current appeals system has a problem that they can't establish the same standard in scrutiny and decision, because Central Appeals Commission and Local Appeals Commissions are composed and managed separately. As a result, current appeals system has problems as follows. First, there are huge difference in the rate of relief, so it makes a problem of equity. The rate of relief in nation has great deviation between Central Appeals Commission and 16 Local Appeals Commissions. Moreover, the rates are very different even among 16 Local Appeals Commissions. In other words, there are many different decisions about similar irregularities. Second, there is a problem in the composition of Appeals Commission. To solve such problems, ① Appeals System should be managed by the same standards of scrutiny and decision, ② For equity, information about decisions between agencies should be shared, ③ The composition of Appeals Commission should be studied for fairness and effectiveness in Appeals System. In conclusion, Appeals Judgement law applied identically between Central Appeals Commission and Local Appeals Commissions of containing 16 provinces and cities, I think, should be made.
  • 12.

    Zu den Beziehungen zwischen der Theorie von der Selbstbindung der Verwaltung und den Wirkungen der Verwaltungsvorschriften

    양충모 | 2012, 57() | pp.253~268 | number of Cited : 2
    Der Grundsatz ueber die Selbstbindung der Verwaltung tritt durch eine laengere, gleichmaessige, allgemein geuebte Verwaltungspraxis ein, so dass keine generelle Praxisaenderung ohne Sachgruenden eingeleitet werden darf. Gesprochen ist von ihm hauptsaechlich bei den verhaltenslenkenden Verwaltungsvorschriften namentlich den Ermessenrichtlinien. In Bezug darauf stellten sich die folgende Fragen auf. Erstens ist die Verwaltungsvorschrift kein Rechtssatz, ohne den sie zu einer von Rechtsquellen des Verwaltungsrechts eingestuft werden kann. Dabei sollte man auch den Begriff des Rechtssatzes unter die Lupe nehmen, der dem Rechtsquellentheorie zu vorausgesetzen ist. Bei den Wirkungen der Verwaltungsvorschriften ist gleichzeitig von einer mittelbaren Aussenwirkung. Welche Bedeutung hat die Mittelbarkeit in diesem Kontext? In anderen Woertern kann dabei erstens der Gleichheitssatz aus Art. 3 I GG oder zweitens der Grundsatz der Selbstbindung der Verwaltung selbst die dogmatische Bruecke bauen, ueber die sich die Verwaltungsgerichte Zugang zu dem inneren Bereich der Verwaltungs verschaffen. Drittens vertritt eine Mindermeinung und die entsprchenden Rechtsprechungen die tatsaechliche “Unmittelbare Außenwirkung” aufgrund des sog. antizipierten Verwaltungspraxis. Nimmt man einmal dieser mittelbaren Aussenwirkungen der Verwaltungsvorschriften an, soll man ihre Nebenwirkungen noch einmal ueberpruefen, ob sie in Bezug auf das Gewaltenteilungsprinzip auf verfassungsrechtliche Ebene positiv oder negativ zu bewerten ist. Hier werden diese Probleme mit Hilfe der rechtsverglichende oder Topische Betrachtungsweise noch einmal analysiert und gleichzeitig dementsprechend die Beziehungen zwischen der Theorie der Selbstbindung der Verwaltung und den Wirkungen der Verwaltungsvorschriften
  • 13.

    Study on concept of the illegality in the State Redress Act - Focusing on theory and case law in Japan -

    Shin, Bong-Ki | YeonPal Cho | 2012, 57() | pp.269~298 | number of Cited : 6
    국가배상법상의 위법성에 관하여 우리나라와 일본의 학설은 먼저 법령위반의 의미와 관련해서 이를 엄격한 의미에서의 법률․명령에의 위반으로 보는 견해도 있으나, 다수 견해는 국가배상법상의 법령위반을 「엄격한 의미의 법령」위반뿐만이 아니라, 인권존중․권력남용금지․신의성실․공서양속 등의 위반도 포함하고, 이때의 위법성이란 이러한 법령에 비추어서 그 행위가 널리 객관적으로 부정당함(불합리함)을 의미하는 것으로 이해하고 있다. 이처럼 다수의 견해는 국가배상법에서의 위법개념을 민법상의 불법행위법에서의 위법개념과 유사한 정도로 상당히 넓게 파악하고 있는데, 여기에서 말하는 「객관적 부정당함」이 구체적으로 무엇을 의미하는지 분명하지 않다는 문제가 제기된다. 이러한 의문에 답하기 위해서는 먼저, 국가배상법상 위법성판단의 대상을 무엇으로 볼 것이냐가 전제되어야 할 것인데, 이와 관련하여서 우리나라 학설은 결과불법설, 행위위법설, 위법성 상대설이 주장되고 있고, 여기에서 행위불법설은 다시 협의의 행위불법설과 광의의 행위불법설로 나누어, 협의의 행위위법설은 피해자구제에 충실하지 못할뿐더러, 항고소송제도와 국가배상제도 사이의 차이를 간과한 면이 있어 타당하지 못하다고 하면서 광의의 행위불법설을 지지하고 있는 견해가 있고, 이러한 견해는 우리 학계에 많은 영향을 미쳐 각종 문헌에서 인용되고 있으며, 거의 통설화 되다시피 한 것처럼 보인다. 이것에 대하여 일본의 학설에서는 국가배상법상의 위법개념에 대한 기초학설로서는 민법에서와 마찬가지로 결과불법설, 행위불법설 및 절충적 견해인 상관관계설이 주장되고 있는데, 학설․판례상으로서는 행위불법설이 지배적이다. 행위불법설은 다시 법률요건결여설과 직무행위기준설로 견해가 나뉘는데 법률요건결여설은 우리나라의 학설 중 협의의 행위불법설과 유사하며, 직무행위기준설은 광의의 행위불법설과 유사한 면이 있다고 보이는데 우리나라와는 달리 법률요건결여설이 일본의 통설적 견해이다. 한편 국가배상법에 있어서의 위법은 객관적인 법규범에의 위반이며 그것 또한 항고소송에 있어서의 위법과 동일하여 항고소송에서 취소판결이 나왔을 경우에 그 기판력은 국가배상청구에 미쳐 국가배상소송에서도 위법하다고 하여야 한다는 주장이 있는데 이것이 「위법성 동일설」로서 위의 기초학설에서의 법률요건결여설과 동일하나 위법성 상대설과 구별한다는 의미에서 위법성 동일설이란 명칭을 붙인 것으로 보인다. 그러나 한편으로 국가배상법상의 위법은 사후에 발생한 손해를 누구에게 부담시키는 것이 적당한가라는 의미로서의 위법 판단이며, 행정처분의 효과의 발생요건에 하자가 있는지 아닌지라는 의미로의 항고소송에서의 위법판단과는 다르다는 견지에서 위법성 상대설이 주장되고 있다. 이 설을 채용하게 되면 소송 제도상의 목적의 상이 등의 이유로 국가배상법상의 위법과 항고소송에 있어서의 위법은 별개로 판단되게 된다. 위법성 상대설은 논자에 의해서 약간의 뉘앙스의 차이가 있어 종류도 여러 가지이지만 대표적인 것 중의 하나는 직무행위기준설이다. 직무행위기준설은 원래 검찰관의 공소제기 후에 재판에서 무죄판결이 나왔을 때 검찰관의 공소제기 등이 소급하여 위법하게 된다는 결과위법설에 대응하기 위하여 나온 이론이다. 이 학설에 의하면 위법은 결과의 위법이 아니라 직무상의 의무에 위반되었는가라는 기준을 통하여 위법을 판단해야 된다는 것이었으나 이러한 이론이 나중에 행정처분에까지 확대된 상황에서 이것을 행정처분과 관련하여 본 경우에 항고소송의 위법과 국가배상소송에서의 위법이 서로 다르다는 의미에서 상대적 위법성설 또는 위법성 상대설로 명명된 것으로 보인다. 그러나 국가배상소송에서의 위법의 문제는 오로지 행정처분에만 국한되어 문제시되는 것이 아니라 그 밖의 행정작용인 재판작용이나 입법 작용에서도 문제시 될 수 있기 때문에 이 경우에도 직무행위라는 기준을 통하여 위법성을 판단한다는 의미에서 이들 모두를 직무행위기준설이라고 부르고, 직무행위기준설 전체를 위법성 상대설이라 부르게 되었다고 생각한다. 그 밖에 경찰차추적사건에서 보이는 것처럼 피추적자가 아닌 제3자가 피해를 당했을 경우에 추적행위자체는 위법하지 않으나 제3피해자의 관계에서는 위법하다는 의미에서의 위법성 상대설도 주장되고 있다. 초기의 위법성 상대설은 항고소송에서 위법성을 인정받지 못하였더라도 국가배상소송에서는 위법성을 인정하여야 한다는 국민의 권리구제의 확대를 이유로 주장되었지만 이 주장은 반대로 취소소송의 청구 기각판결의 경우뿐만 아니라 청구인용 판결의 경우에도 그 기판력은 당연히 국가배상 청구에 미치지 않게 되는 판례의 잉태를 가능하게 할 위험성도 내포하고 있었다고 할 수 있다. 실제로 1985년 이후의 일본 판례에서는 위법성 상대설이 점차 힘을 얻어 왔지만, 이것은 피해자 구제의 확대를 도모하기 위한 초기의 위법성 상대설이 아니라 오히려 피해자 구제를 축소하는 행위불법설중의 직무행위기준설에 의한 위법성 상대설이라는 점에 특색이 있다. 직무행위기준설은 본래 형사사건의 특수성을 고려해 설명된 것이었기 때문에, 그것을 다른 행위에까지 미치는 것에는 신중하지 않으면 안 됨에도 불구하고 그 후의 일본 판례의 전개를 보면, 직무행위기준설의 적용영역이 행정처분에 까지 미치는 등 확대 경향이 현저하다. 여기에 대하여서는 많은 비판도 제기되고 있다. 다만 입법권, 사법권의 활동에 대하여서는 활동에 대한 명확한 요건규정이 없는 경우가 많으므로 이 경우에는 위법성의 내용에 변용이 가해져 광의의 행위불법설(직무행위기준설)을 채용하는 것도 사안의 성질상 부득이하다고 할 수 밖에 없다. 따라서 광의의 행위위법설에 의해서 판단되는 것이 타당한 분야가 있다는 것을 부정해야 하는 것은 아니지만, 그렇다고 하여 이것을 모든 국가 활동에 일률적으로 적용시키는 것은 타당해 보이지 않는다. 결론적으로 위법성 판단의 대상에 대하여서는 일반적으로 행위불법설이 타당하고 그 중에서도 행정처분분야에서는 기판력이론, 국민의 권리구제적 측면 및 위법의 개념에 대하여서 일관성이 유지되어야 한다는 측면에서 법률요건결여설이 타당해 보인다. 다만 이것을 고집하여 수익적 행정행위가 발급된 이후에 후행행의가 거부된 경우에 협의의 행위불법설에 서서 선행행위의 위법성을 판단하게 되면 많은 문제점이 나타날 수 있는데, 이러한 경우에는 주로 이후에 나타나게 되는 후행행위가 문제시 되므로, 선행행위의 신뢰보호를 근거로 후행행위를 다투고 법원도 이에 대하여 판단함으로서 문제를 해결하는 것이 타당해 보인다. 그 밖의 국가배상법상의 공권력 행사의 범위를 권력적 작용뿐만이 아니라 학교사고와 같은 비권력적 작용까지 확대되게 되면 그 확대된 부분에 대해서는 민사상의 불법행위법에서 주장된 이른바 상관관계설에 의해서 대처하는 분야도 인정하여야 할 것이다. 따라서 행정처분과 같이 협의의 행위불법설이 타당한 분야도 있고, 입법작용이나 재판작용과 같이 광의의 행위불법설이 타당한 분야도 있으며, 학교사고와 같은 경우에는 일반의 민법상의 불법행위법과 별다른 차이가 없으므로 상관관계설을 취해도 무리가 없는 분야가 있는 등 각각 개별적․구체적으로 고찰하여 그 타당성을 논하여야 할 것이라고 생각된다.
  • 14.

    A legal study on economic activities of the local autonomous entity socalled Gemeinde in germany

    KANG, HYUN HO | 2012, 57() | pp.299~328 | number of Cited : 3
    The local autonomous entity socalled Gemeinde is a basic legal entity to perform the local work for the benefit of the local citizen. The size of population of the Gemeinde varies in general from 1,000 to 10,000, while the size of population of the korean local autonomous entity reaches from 40,000 to 700,000. It is clear that the size and area of the german Gemeinde is much smaller than that of Korea. The german Gemeide does correspond rather to the ‘Eup⋅Myun⋅Dong’ of the korean administrative organization. In proportion to the size and area of the korean local autonomous entity its economic capability is considerably high. Even though the german local autonomous entity socalled Gemeinde is relatively smaller than that of Korea, the german Gemeindeordnung stipulates very concrete rules regarding the admissibility of the economic activities of Gemeinde. In contrast to the german Gemeindeordnung the korean local government law or the korean local public enterprise law does not regulate to the full extent the admissibility of the local public enterpise which is established and run by the korean local autonomous entity. The prerequisite for the establishment of the local public enterprise including its admissibility is delegated to the municipal ordinance of the local autonomous entity. The municipal ordinanace of the local autonomous entity does not contain any further concrete regulations for the admissibility of the economic activities of the local autonomous entity. Out of these reasons the local autonomous entities which have economic crises are increasing as we find such stories nowadays in the newspapers. Thus far we can accept it as a symptom for the economic development of the local autonomous entity, but from now on we do need to equip a proper legal regulations. For such countermeasures we can learn from the german Gemeindeordnung.
  • 15.

    Study on the Legal Characteristics of the distinction of a fishery Right

    So,Jae-Seon | Yim, Jong-Sun | 2012, 57() | pp.329~362 | number of Cited : 3
    Entering the 21st century, the interest in the ocean and its resources from countries all over the world have been increasing and the reason for such increased interest is due to sea farming which is considered to be a fishery right that is a common part of coastal fishing. Under the Fisheries Act, the term “fishery right” means a right to exclusively operate a certain fishery business within certain ocean surfaces by obtaining a license from the relevant administrative office. There are competing views as to whether the legal characteristic of a fishery right should be considered to be a private right or a public right. However, the nature of fishery rights grants the exclusive right to catch and gather marine animals and plants in specific waters and excluding third parties from enjoying such right, and is intended to legally protect the private economic interest derived from the specific water surface invested in by the particular person having such license. Such legal protection is afforded when a legal relationship is created between the licensee and a trespasser when the licensee enforces its claim of real right or claim for damages against such trespasser. Therefore, fishery rights should be considered to be a private right rather than a public right. Within the popular view that fishery rights should be treated as a private right, there are divides as to whether it should be viewed as a property right or a real right. However, as the transferability of fishery rights and provision thereof as security are limited and the Fisheries Act treats it as a real right, the legal characteristic of a fishery right should be viewed as a real right. Also, with respect to the view of the fishery right as a real right, although the theory of denial of a simple real right, the theory of real right ownership, absolute theory of acts of fishery business and the fishing ground dominance theory are at odds with each other, fishery right is a real right and, as the object of a fishery right is the fishing grounds and the marine animals and plants, the fishing ground dominance theory is relatively more reasonable than the other theories. Thus, Article 16(2) of the Fisheries Act states that a fishery right is a real right, to which provisions of the Civil Act governing land will apply mutatis mutandis, except as provided otherwise in the Fisheries Act. The Fisheries Act, as a special law, considers the fishery right as a real right.
  • 16.

    A Study on constitutional challenge of Article 7. to The Military pension Law

    Lee Young Woo | 2012, 57() | pp.363~376 | number of Cited : 1
    The legislative purpose of the military pension is to promote stable life of retired military person who served for a long time. The pension of veteran must not be foreclosed in order to protect pensioners. The opinion which argues that not to protect creditors is not restriction on the basic right of the people has validity. Since soldiers completed their special service as public servants, public service must be acknowledged. Thus, the military pension is different from ordinary pensions. The prohibition of the property distraint is to secure human-like lives of all people as the constitution specifies. But it may be flawed because all people have equality before the law. But it may be flawed because all the people are equal before the law. I think that it is desirable to prohibit the property distraint as the dimension of social welfare if the court confirms that there is no property after the court ordered the defendant to specify property.
  • 17.

    Das Gesetz zur Schlichtung der medizinischen Streitigkeiten aus öffentlich-rechtlicher Sicht

    김봉철 | 2012, 57() | pp.377~402 | number of Cited : 6
    Das Gesetz zur Schlichtung der medizinischen Streitigkeiten wird am 8. 4. 2012 in Kraft gesetzt, um einen ärztlichen Behandlungsschaden zügig und gerechterweise abzuhelfen und zugleich ein stabiles Behandlungsatmosphäre der Ärzteschaft zu schaffen. Um den Gesetzeszweck zu erreichen, hat der Gesetzgeber in dieses Gesetz das Schlichtungssystem, das die schnellzügige und einfache medizinische Konfliktlösung verfolgt, eingeführt. Ferner hat der Gesetzgeber die Beweislast zuungusten der koreanischen Schlichtungszentrale für die ärztlichen Streitigkeiten umgekehrt, indem er die spezielle Untersuchungsfähigkeit der Schlichtungszentrale im ärztlichen Streitigkeitsbereich gewährleistet. Dennoch ist es bezüglich des Kompensationssystems bei einem unwiderstehlichen ärztlichen Behandlungsfehler(Art. 46), des freiwilligen Vorverfahrens(Art. 40), des Ersatzzahlungssystems(Art. 47) sowie des relativen Antragsdelikts(Art. 51) heftig streitig. Es liegt die Gefahr, dass das Gesetz zur Schlichtung der medizinischen Streitigkeiten zum toten Buchstaben wird, weil der Ärztkammer insbesondere aufgrund des Kompensationssystems und des Ersatzzahlungssystems am Schlichtungssystem nicht beteiligen wollte. Daher ist es das Ziel des Aufsatzes, die oben genannten vier Rechtssystem (insbesondere hinsichtlich des Kompensationssystems und des Ersatzzahlungssystems) aus Sicht des öffentlich-rechtlichen Rechts zu analysieren und zugleich Alternative stellen. Im öffentlich-rechtlichen Bereich ist das Schlichtungssystem für die medizinischen Streitigkeiten noch fremd. Daher leuchtet in diesem Aufsatz den Begriff der ärztlichen Behandlung und der medizinischen Streitigkeiten sowie die Eigenschaft und den Begriff des Schlichtungssystems für die medizinischen Streitigkeiten ein.
  • 18.

    The Constitutional Debates of the Treatment with Medication for Sexual Drive(Chemical Castration)

    Soon Chul Huh | 2012, 57() | pp.403~424 | number of Cited : 14
    「The Treatment with Medication for Sex Offenders(Chemical Castration) Act」provides that any person with paraphilia guilty of a conviction of any sexual offense specified in the Act, where the victim has not attained 16 years of age, may undergo treatment with medication for sexual drive(chemical castration) by an order of a court. Under the Act, there are three different treatments, which are an order of a court to the accused, to the inmate and to the parolee. Meanwhile, the Act requires three prerequisites to be met. First, the treatment must be a medically well-known treatment for restraining or decreasing abnormally excessive sexual drives or desires. Second, the treatment must not result in any excessive bodily side effects. Third, the treatment must be undergone by medically well-known ways. However, with regard to the second requisite, it is not easy to determine whether the treatment causes any bodily ‘excessive’ side effects to the patient. Because all kinds of medications cause side effects to some extent, it ends up with the problem of proportionality. However, the constitutional debates of the treatment are as follows; (1) the treatment has the legal characters of both security measure and medical treatment (2) among the treatments, an order of a court to ‘the accused’ and an order of a court to ‘the parolee’ limit the right to self-determination of them since the orders need no prior consents from them (3) the treatment limits the right to refuse medical treatment derived from the self-determination right of the patient (4) an order of a court to ‘the accused’ and an order of a court to ‘the parolee’ limit the right to bodily integrity because the orders need no prior consents from them (5) the treatment seems not to violate the rule against double jeopardy as long as the legal characters of the treatment are regarded as a criminal punishment (6) it seems exceedingly likely that there would be no equal protection challenges even if almost all of treatments were undergone to male offenders because it reasonably relates to its goal (7) since the Act guarantees the right to access to an administrative appeals commission, it is likely that the infringement of the right to access to the court does not occur. Lastly, regarding the principle against over-inclusive, the treatment seems difficult to pass the second requirement, which needs the appropriateness of the methods. Because the treatment does not render the patient impotent, not only it seems inappropriate to achieve the goal of prevention of recidivism but also it may cause the excessive side effects to the patient.
  • 19.

    The study of legal issue for life-long education

    이복희 | 2012, 57() | pp.425~458 | number of Cited : 4
    To the current law of life-long education, first of all, it is desirable to focus on effective life-long education by offering improvements such as establishing the concept of laws, unifying the legal structures, establishing institutes for life-long education, supporting institutes actively, setting up the education city and activating it, managing staffs, informatizing life-long education, participating to the education, expanding the education to the weak. The detailed plans are following. First, it is to establish the concepts. The current law of life-long education needs to establish the status on the concept of education which people are getting for their whole lives, so the law related to the life-long education should be unified with other laws. Thus, in order to secure the right of life-long education for citizens under the federal law, it is proper way to unify related laws of social education that are spread out to other laws. Second, it needs to establish institutes of life-long education. Systemic regulations, such as acquiring corporate capacity to establish institutes, being non-profit for education, developing and varying programs with high quality, operating the history of life-long education, applying know-hows like supply and demand for professionals, and re-checking supports like active, general, human resource, and scientific technique education, and supervising thoroughly to improve the quality fo education and competition. Third, set up and supervision of the institute for life-long education, Since the mainly focused homework for development of life-long education is on supplying professional leaders who have the characteristics that are required to the educational environment, it is necessary to enhance school=centered life-long education through improvement of professionality and local structure by establishing institutes in organizations. Fourth, the support for the life-long education. It needs to be offered the life-long education by establishing supportive structure between government and local organization. Fifth, expansion of life-long education city. It is important to make life-long education trend or environment to individuals, organizations, and local society through expansion of life-long education and festivals because the city will be leading and enhancing education system based on local society by enhancing participation and authority of local societies on education. Sixth, improvement on participation of adult education. For the Korean life-long education to be activated, the participating rate of adult-students should be higher up to 40% - which is 8 times higher as today’s rate. Thus, attractive programs to activate life-long education as well as to expanding institutes of life-long education. Seventh, informatization of education structure. the results of knowledge, information, and technical development for quality improvement of education and training program operated by life-long education organization should be playable as web contents. In addition to that, all the information about life-long education should be saved, maintained, and played as web contents so that it can be added and used as new information. Eighth, expansion of life-long education to the weak. Korean education should be activated based on high quality and high-leveled development, not on quantity-wise. This is that the expansion of life-long education to the weak that are discussed for educational welfare has to be pursued as a goal of life-long education development. In addition, various educational activities should be supervised with life-long education account system through cooperation between the department of social welfare and the department of labors, like the original purpose of the system.
  • 20.

    Wirtschaftlichkeitsprinzip als Verfassungsprinzip

    Jung Young Chul | 2012, 57() | pp.459~488 | number of Cited : 9
    Bezieht man den Grundsatz der Wirtschaftlichkeit aber nur auf bestimmte Größen, insbesondere nur auf ökonomische, nicht auch auf ‘politische, soziale, kulturelle, medizinische Gesichtspunkte’, so ist Effizienz, die keine solche Begrenzung kennt, sondern sich auf alle Staatsziel bezieht, der weitere Begriff. Also dient Wirtschaftlichkeit zwar als Konkretisierungselement der Effizienz bei der Erfüllung der staatlichen Aufgaben. Der Wirtschaftlichkeitsgrundsatz erhält seine Bedeutung dadurch, dass ein möglichst günstiges Zweck-Mittel-Verhältnis auf zwei Wegen erreichbar ist. Er hat daher zwei Varianten und kann so auf zweierlei Weise formuliert werden, nämlich als Maximalprinzip und als Minimalprinizip. Das Gebot der Wirtschaftlichkeit ist insofern ein formales, inhalts- und konturenarmes, offenes Gebot zur Optimierung einer Relation von Mittel und Zweck. Versteht man die Wirtschaftlichkeit als Frage nach Angemessenheit des Verhältnisses von Zweck und Mittel, so lässt sich an eine finale Programmierung denken, die die Zwecke vorgibt und es dem Normanwender überlässt, die Mittel und Wege zur optimalen Realisierung der vorgegebenen Zwecke zu finden. Da gesetzliche Zwecksetzungen einer potentiellen Wirtschaftlichkeitskontrolle unterliegen, da die finale Programmierung das Anwendungsfeld von Wirtschaftlichkeitserwägungen darstellt, so wird sich die Festsetzung von Zwecken auf finale Programmierungen beschränkt. Das Wirtschaftlichkeitsprinzip ist in einer Vielzahl des Grundgesetzes verankert, d.h. gestützt auf Art. 114 Abs. 2 GG und auf andere Verfassungnormen, insbesondere die Eigentumsgarantie des Art. 14 GG, Menschenwürde und Rechtsstaatsprinzip. Die koreanische Verfassung hat keine unmittelbare Bestimmung über den Wirtschaftlichkeitsgrundsatz. Als verfassungsrechtliche Grundlage des Wirtschaftlichkeitsprinzips kommen das Rechtsstaatsprinzip, Art. 10 KV, Art. 23 KV und Art. 119 KV in Betracht. Also besitzt das Wirtschaftlichkeitsprinzip zwar Verfassungsrang. Dieses Wirtschaftlichkeitsgebot als ein die Verwaltung bindender Rechtsgrundsatz, das sowohl das Finanzgebaren wie auch alle Verwaltungshandeln zutrifft, somit Effizienz sämtlicher staatlicher Aktivitäten erfordert, wird sich zwar auf ein Verfassungsprinzip ausgedehnt.
  • 21.

    A Study on Employees of Senior Welfare Facilities - Focusing on social workers and care helpers -

    seon eun ae | 2012, 57() | pp.489~508 | number of Cited : 2
    Senior welfare facilities refer to establishments that are run by the national government, local governments or private organizations to improve the quality of life of the elderly and provide them with a wide variety of social welfare service. Our country's senior welfare law doesn't include any definition of senior welfare facilities, and the social welfare service act that is the parent law of social welfare service involving senior welfare service defines social welfare facilities as “facilities that are installed to perform social work.”There are neither established hiring regulations nor evaluation for employees of senior welfare facilities, which comes into question. Anybody who is certified just for form's sake can be hired, or each welfare center hires employees according to its own hiring specifications. Lately, the number of senior welfare centers is rapidly on the rise along with the growing elderly population, and there are various problems with the qualifications and qualities of their employees, which results in detracting from welfare service that must be provided for users. It denotes that the rights of users aren't properly be protected, and the matter of the qualifications and qualities of employees should consequently be taken seriously. In order to provide users with better service, there must be strict qualification requirements for employees. In terms of their qualities, not only those who have committed a sexual crime in social welfare centers but those who have done the same outside social welfare centers and who have infringed on elderly people's rights must not be allowed to get a position with those facilities as well. Thus, how to prevent the quality of service from declining should carefully be considered from diverse angles.