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2013, Vol.62, No.

  • 1.

    Institutionelle Überprüfung der Entschädigung für öffentliche Nutzung unterirdischer Grundflächen in Deutschland - in Fokus auf Ermittlung des Entschädigungsausmaßes

    Seung Pil Choi | 2013, 62() | pp.1~24 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Während die Grundflächen endliche Rohstoffe sind, steigt der Bedarf an Grundflächen für Bereitstellung von öffentlichen Anlagen sowie soziale Infrastrukturen wie Strom, Gas, Telekommunikation, U-Bahn oder unterirdische Schnellstraßen. Vor diesem Hintergrund steigt auch die Nutzung unterirdischer Grundflächen zum öffentlichen Zweck rasant. Aber im Vergleich zu steigender öffentlicher Nutzung wird über das entsprechende Entschädigungssystem relativ wenig diskutiert. In Deutschland wurde die Nutzung unterirdischer Grundflächen relativ früh begonnen, weshalb Deutschland im Vergleich zu Korea über ein besser entwickeltes Entschädigungssystem verfügt. § 905 Abs. 2 BGB besagt, dass der Eigentümer des Grundstücks Einwirkungen nicht verbieten kann, die in solcher Höhe oder Tiefe vorgenommen werden, dass er an der Ausschließung kein Interesse hat. So wird dem Staat die rechtliche Grundlage bereitgestellt, für die Nutzung der Flächen unter der Tiefe oder Höhe, die ein Privater erreichen kann, keine Entschädigung vorzusehen. Im koreanischen Privatrecht (§212) wird dasselbe geregelt. Nur die Frage über diese Höhe und Tiefe ist sehr umstritten, weil aufgrund der Technologieentwicklung die geltenden Höhe und Tiefe nicht klar definiert werden können. Bei Nutzung unterirdischer Grundflächen in Deutschland wird zuerst die beschränkte Dienstbarkeit geregelt und die Nutzung kommt auf Basis dieses Anspruches zustande. Dieser Anspruch auf Nutzung von Grundflächen wird laut GBBerG im Grundbuch eingetragen. Wenn der Geltungsraum der beschränkten Dienstbarkeit bestimmt wird, wird eine entsprechende Entschädigung vonnöten. Das Ausmaß der Entschädigung ist proportional zu der eingetretenen Beeinträchtigung. Zum Hauptprinzip der Entschädigungsermittlung gelten drei Kriterien: Entschädigung nach Marktwert, Entschädigung nach Ausmaß der Beeinträchtigung der Grundflächennutzung und Entschädigung auf Basis von Situationen ähnlicher Grundflächen. Außerdem können andere Faktoren wie temporäre Verluste oder Erhöhung des Entschädigungsbetrags nach der Größe der in die Ermittlung des Entschädigungsausmaßes einbezogen werden. Auch die Form der Gaspipeline oder Stromnetze kann ein Kriterium für die Entschädigungsermittlung sein. Den Rechtsprechungen zufolge kann die Entschädigung für das zweite Netz nicht größer als die für das erste Netz auf dem selben Grundstück sein. Entschädigungen können durch Enteignungen, aber auch durch Vereinbarungen der beteiligten Parteien zustande kommen. Ein Beispiel dazu wäre die Vereinbarung zwischen Versorgungsunternehmen und Landwirtschaftsvereinen. Bei einer solchen Vereinbarung kann auch über eine nachträgliche Entschädigung geregelt werden, nach der die zum Zeitpunkt des Vertragsabschlusses nicht einbezogenen bzw. geregelten Punkte nach einem bestimmten Zeitraum wieder in Betracht gezogen werden müssen. Dies zählt auch zu einem der Vorteile, weil zwischen den Parteien ein Konsens relativ leicht erreicht werden kann. In der Praxis wird in Deutschland bei Entschädigung für Nutzung unterirdischer Grundflächen grob drei Faktoren berücksichtigt: Erstens gibt es die Entschädigung für Nutzungsbeeinträchtigung, was am häufigsten vorkommt. Ca. 50% der Fälle fallen in diese Kategorie. Der zweite Faktor ist die Entschädigung für die Beeinträchtigung von nebensächlichen Nutzungsmöglichkeiten, was ca. 30% aller Fälle zutrifft. Bei den restlichen 20% handelt es sich jeweils um verschiedene Sachverhalte. Die prozentuelle Beeinträchtigungsrate wird berechnet, indem diese Faktoren mit dem jeweiligen Parameter multipliziert werden. Diese Beeinträchtigungsrate wird wieder mit dem Marktwert multipliziert, was sich schließlich den Entschädigungsbetrag ergibt. Den Kern der öffentlichen Nutzung unterirdischer Grundflächen bilden die entsprechende Entschädigung und die Einschränkung bei Beeinträchtigungen zum öffentlichen Zwecke. Was den ersten Punkt anbelangt, werden in Zukunft bei der Ermittlung des Entschädigungsausmaßes unterschiedlichere Faktoren berücksichtigt werden müssen. Um die nicht unendlich mögliche Beeinträchtigung durch Enteignung wird es noch heiße Diskussionen geben: Über die zwei Möglichkeiten, nämlich die Gewährleistung des Vermögensrechts für den Grundflächeneigentümer und gar keine Gewährleistung von Entschädigung. Hier wird in vielen Kreisen ein Konsens erreicht werden müssen.
  • 2.

    A legal review on cancellation of the city redevelopment project

    Lee,Heon-Seok | 2013, 62() | pp.25~47 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    The purpose of redevelopment and reconstruction business is to allow the residents to inhabit in an improved environment even after the housing redevelopment project is completed by improving the districts where the residential environment is inadequate and infrastructure is faulty. Nevertheless, there is a problem with the city redevelopment project: the meaning of publicity is fading due to excessive focus on the project itself in korea. This is because the redevelopment is being executed without investment of public resources. In result, The Act on the Maintenance and Improvement of Urban Areas and Dwelling Conditions for Residents was revised in February 2012. The revision is expected to make positive contributions to settling down the situation where land owners, etc. are still being restricted in exercising their property right despite a continuous failure in the promotion of redevelopment projects due to deteriorated profitability and to changing them into new types of projects and therefore to promoting improvement and development of urban residential environments. However, the most important element in the revision is lifting of the redevelopment district designation where project development is being delayed. The designation is lifted in case of a delay in project development, such as a delay in application for permit by the project promotion committee and union, or in case project promotion causes excessive burden on residents. Furthermore, the lifting of designation is not through resolution by the promotion committee or union and therefore, it leads to an issue of sharing expenses previously spent in the course of promoting a project. In conclusion, this is the method where residents who provide the land and construction companies that pay the entire operational cost are jointly developing. Moreover, in order to activate city redevelopment project, residential participation must be activated. Also, joint redevelopment method and improvement on circular maintenance method should be considered in the city redevelopment.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Improvement of the Authorization & Permission System

    Jang Kyo-Sik | 2013, 62() | pp.49~68 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The current authorization & permission system adopts a positive system in which everything is basically inhibited with some exceptional clauses. This kind of system can hinder freedom and creativity. To keep pace with the change of the times, acts that are necessary to achieve the goal of law should be stipulated while the demand of the new legislation is frequent. Otherwise, the legal system could become rigid. The authorization & permission system should also meet the related regulations (the legitimacy of purpose, appropriateness of measures, minimization of damage and the balancing of interests) stipulated in Paragraph 2 of Article 37 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce and expand the negative system so that it can protect the basic rights of people by giving them a chance to enjoy autonomy and creativity, except for the prohibited clauses. The negative system can promote the advancement of the authorization & permission system by abolishing and amending the irrational authorization & permission system, rationalizing the standards for authorization & permission, and simplifying the related administrative procedures. For the negative system settle in, it is required to clarify the intention to improve the system and establish a collaborative system with related bureaus. Furthermore, practical measures such as simplification of authorization & permission procedure, reduction of economic burden as well as improvement of related laws and ordinances should follow.
  • 4.

    Verbesserung des Rechtssystems fuer Nutzung von untererdischen Raum

    Hae-Ryoung Kim | 2013, 62() | pp.69~84 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Bei dieser Abhandlung handelt es sich um die Entschaedigungsprobleme bei der Nutzungen von untererden Raum, die den oeffentlichen Einrichtungen zu schaffen sind. Da nach jetzigen rechtlichen Grundlagen die Untererde zum Eigentumsrecht des Bodensinhabers gehoert, ist es erforderlich, um die Nutzung mit oeffentlichen Zwecken eine Enteignung von bezweken Boden. In Korea sind die rechtlichen Grundlage fuer diese Enteignung nicht einheitlich. Obwohl die Regelungen von Stadtsbahngesetz ueber die Schaetzungskriterien der Entschaedigung bei der Enteignung fuer Untererdische Raum verhaeltnissigmaessig klar und praessize sind, sind sie nicht ausreichend fuer verschiedene Beispielen der oeffentlichen Einrichtungen. Aus diesem Grund wurde in dieser Untersuchung verschidesener Aspekten bei der Entschaedigung von Enteigung der unererdichen Raum. Nicht zuletzt wurde auch die Einfuehung des Rechtssystems fuer Oeffentlichen Sachen von tieffen untererdischen Raeumen disskutiert.
  • 5.

    A study on the Conflict Resolutions in Metropolitan transportation facility projects

    Soon-Tak Suh | 김진아 | 2013, 62() | pp.85~108 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This study aims to analyze the conflicts of metropolitan transportation facility projects and the mediating mechanisms for public conflicts, and provide policy suggestions to solve the problems. To accomplish these aims, this study attempts to categorize the types of conflicts based on the key stakeholder, the main causes, and the method of solution. Furthermore, this study includes in-depth case analysis to find effective conflict management and mediation method. Based on the results of the analysis, the study found that a conflict management approach should be changed to a prevention approach and key actors should make a social consensus at early stage of policy making process. Also this study suggests that city planning commission should have regulatory function for conflicts mediation and consultant.
  • 6.

    Legal Issues for the Effective Provision of Urban Infrastructure System

    Han, Sang Hoon | 2013, 62() | pp.109~132 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    In general, most of urban rearrangement projects are implemented within the decaying inner city areas for urban renewal. However, since these projects are implemented based on individual project area they cause serious shortage of public facilities such as schools, roads, parks and others as well as disintegration of existing communities in the metropolitan areas. One of the causes for these problems is derived from the regulation of urban rearrangement project which requires kinds of urban infrastructures based on the scale of the project. For this reason the quality of housing status within the project area is improved considerably, but the quality of urban environment as a whole is retrogressed. Another cause of the problems are the private finance initiative which pursues development profits in the process of providing urban infrastructure. Therefore, the project compels the original residents, who do not have adequate financial abilities, to move out of the area, therefore, induces disintegration of existing communities. Thus, to resolve these problems it is necessary to review problems related to the automatic condemnation of urban infrastructure after the completion of urban rearrangement project and find possible alternatives for the private finance initiatives. Following are the results of these reviews:The social necessity of the automatic condemnation of urban infrastructure is well recognized by the public because of its social role and function which need to be managed by pubic authorities. But it causes apparent financial burden for project promoters in providing urban infrastructure. Despite of these circumstances, current statutes related to automatic condemnation of urban infrastructure is not well organized and still cause various field problems. Since private finance initiative utilizes private funds in the provision of urban infrastructure, it ultimately distinguishes people who can use the urban infrastructure and people cannot use the urban infrastructure based on the individual financial ability. Therefore, it is the right time to extend further studies for the promotion of publicness in the provision of urban infrastructure using the private finance initiatives.
  • 7.

    The Legal Improvements of the Officially Announced Land Price System

    안영진 | 2013, 62() | pp.133~155 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The Officially Announced Land Price System has played a central axis in the nation’s real estate market, been used as standard of most of real estate-related fields including real estate evaluation, taxation, administration and systems. Due to the fact that the officially assessed reference land price and the officially assessed individual land price yearly assessed based on the officially assessed reference land price have been used as a standard of assessment for the people’s property tax and etc. and a huge source of securing the stable tax revenue, the officially announced land price has a great force in the aspect of fair taxation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the actual condition and the problems of the officially announced land price, and to suggest the legal improvements of the Officially Announced Land Price System.
  • 8.

    The Investor-state disputes and litigation relating to takings

    JEONG, HA MYOUNG | 2013, 62() | pp.157~174 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The protection of an alien’s property in a host country against direct expropriation has long existed in the international law, such physical takings are no longer common practice, however. The form of “indirect expropriation” is much more common in the international disputes: the measures taken by host governments which interfere with the right to the investments or diminish the value of the investments of foreign investors. The phenomenon of indirect expropriation got a fame in the international context with the BIT-like provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of 1993. Foreign investors began to rely on these provisions to file high-profile lawsuits against the governments on grounds of indirect expropriation. Kor-US FTA also has the same indirect expropriation provision and investor-state dispute provisions to protect the investment from host government's illegal regulation. The Korean judiciary and government already recognized the concepts of indirect expropriation and investor-state disputes in the specific cases and enactments. It is time to reconsider Korean public takings claim and American regulatory takings claim to understand the realities of indirect expropriation of FTA and to cope with. indirect expropriation claims.
  • 9.

    Ein Plädoyer für die vorbeugende Unterlassungsklage in der Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit - Die aktuelle Novellierung des VwProzG soll die vorbeugende Unterlassungsklage umfassen -

    Kim, Hyun Joon | 2013, 62() | pp.175~200 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Unsere Regierung bereitet die Novellierung des Verwaltungsprozessgesetzes vor. Der Entwurf des Gesetzes wurde am 20. März 2013 veröffentlicht. Bemerkenswert ist, dass im Entwurf die vorbeugende Unterlassungsklage nicht gefunden wird, die eine erstmals drohende Beeinträchtigung abwehren kann. Das koreanische Verwaltungsprozessgesetz(VwProzG) kennt keine vorbeugende Unterlassungsklage und die Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit ist nur für die nachträgliche und repressive Klage reserviert. Auch unsere Rechtsprechung erkennt keine zukunftsgerichtete Klage an. Die Gerichte zielen somit auf die Aufhebung des Verwaltungsaktes ab. Dies ist darauf zurückzuführen, dass die Verwaltung das Erstentscheidungsrecht hat und die Gerichte nur auf nachträglicher Weise die Verwaltungshandlungen kontrollieren können. Es ist aber nicht zuverkennen, dass diese Tradition heute nicht mehr durchgesetzt werden kann. Die vorbeugende Unterlassungsklage ist in Deutschland ohne Zweifel anerkannt, obwohl die deutsche VwGO keine Vorschriften dafür hat. Die Klage ist seit 2004 in Japan eingeführt worden und spielt eine Rolle beim Rechtsschutz für Bürger. Vorbeugender Rechtsschutz gegen drohende Rechtsbeeinträchtigungen ist auch hierzulande notwendig für effektiven Rechtsschutz. Anwendungsbeispiele für vorbeugenden Rechtsschutz sind in japanischen Rechtsprechungen zu finden; Abwehrklage gegen drohende Umsetzung eines Beamten, Abwehrklage der Nachbarn gegen künftige Umweltbeeinträchtigung usw. Eine solche Klage kann durch die Anfechtungsklage und den vorläufigen Rechtsschutz nicht (immer) ersetzt werden. Aus diesen verschidenen Gründen soll die vorbeugende Unterlassungsklage durch die Novellierung des VwProzG eingeführt werden.
  • 10.

    Comparative study of Korea and Japan landscape law - Mainly Suggestion through the analysis of the Japanese landscape Act -

    Shin, Bong-Ki | YeonPal Cho | 2013, 62() | pp.201~237 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    일본에서는 2004년 6월에 경관법이 제정되었고, 우리나라에서도 2007년 5월에 경관법이 제정되어 2007년 11월 18일부터 시행되기에 이르렀다. 이렇게 제정된 우리 경관법이지만 앞으로 해결해야 할 과제들도 산적하여 있다고 생각된다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 경관법이나 경관조례의 제정사에서 우리보다 긴 역사를 가진 일본의 경관법제를 검토한 후 우리법과 비교하여 우리에게 주는 시사점 및 과제를 찾아보았다. 일본의 경관법제가 우리에게 가져다주는 시사점 및 과제는 다음과 같이 요약하여 볼 수 있다. 첫째, 국토계획법상의 경관지구에 대한 시사점 및 과제이다. 우리 경관법에서는 경관지구에 대하여 별다른 규정을 두고 있지 않지만 국토계획법에서는 경관지구에 대하여 규정하고 있는데, 우리의 경관지구에 대한 행위제한은 일본과 비교하여 볼 때 현저하게 강한 수법을 사용하고 있으며, 조례에의 위임범위에 있어서도 일본보다는 넓고, 위임방식에 있어서도 일본과는 달리 주로 포괄적인 위임방법을 택하고 있다. 일반적으로는 포괄적 위임방식이 지방자치단체의 조례제정의 활성화를 위하여 필요한 경우도 있으나, 경우에 따라서는 구체적인 기준을 정하여 위임하는 것도 필요하다고 생각된다. 왜냐하면 경관조례의 역사가 우리보다 긴 일본에서조차 지방자치단체에서 어떤 내용을 경관계획에 담아야 할지 어떠한 내용을 경관조례에서 규정해야 할지 주저하고 염려하는 것을 미연에 방지하기 위하여서 각종 기준을 정령에서 정하여 조례에 위임하고 있기 때문이다. 이는 지방자치단체의 조례제정권을 위축시키고자 하는 것이 아니라 오히려 조례제정권을 활성화시키기 위한 배려차원에서 행하여지는 조치인 것으로 보인다. 그리고 강한 행위수법을 사용하는 것은 좋지만, 일본에서처럼 사전에 이행명령 등의 조치를 취한 후에 벌칙규정을 적용하는 것도 나름대로 일리가 있어 보인다. 한편, 경관지구나 미관지구에 대한 내용을 현행처럼 국토계획법에서 전부 규정할 것이 아니라, 일본과 같이 국토계획법에서는 지구에 대한 일반적인 사항만 규정하고 나머지 개별적인 행위제한에 대한 내용 등은 따로 떼어내어서, 모처럼 국민의 합의를 모아 제정된 경관법에서 규정하는 규율방식이 타당할 것이다. 둘째, 개발행위에 대한 행위제한규정의 흠결에 대한 시사점 및 과제이다. 우리 경관법은 경관계획부분에서는 개발행위제한에 대하여 함구하고 있으나 국토계획법상의 경관지구에 있어서는 개발행위에 대한 제한규정을 일부 두고는 있지만, 매우 추상적인 규정만 담고 있을 뿐이고 구체적인 행위제한에 대한 내용은 없으며, 이것에 대한 조례에의 위임도 행하고 있지 않다. 이것에 비하여 일본의 경관 관련 법제에서는 경관지구에서는 물론 경관계획구역에서조차도 일반의 개발행위제한보다 가중된 제한내용을 정령에서 그 기준을 정하여 조례에 위임하도록 하고 있다. 우리도 경관보호를 위하여 일반의 개발행위 보다 강화된 제한규정을 둘 필요가 있어 보인다. 이때 일정한 기준은 대통령령에서 규정하되, 구체적인 행위제한의 내용에 대하여서는 지방자치단체의 조례나 경관계획 등에 위임하는 방식이 옳을 것이다. 셋째, 건축물 등의 형태의장에 대한 제한 규정의 흠결과 기존건축물의 특례제도에 대한 시사점 및 과제이다. 우리의 경관법은 형태의장에 대한 행위제한규정은 물론 형태규모에 대한 행위제한 규정마저도 두고 있지 않으며, 경관지구에 대하여 규정하고 있는 국토계획법에서도 형태의장에 대한 제한규정은 찾아보기 어렵다. 경관의 형성이나 유지에 있어서 건축물의 색체나 디자인 등 형태의장이 중요한 역할을 수행하는 것에 비추어 보면 단지 형태 규모의 제한 만으로서는 역부족이라고 생각된다. 따라서 형태의장에 대한 제한규정을 둘 필요가 있다고 생각된다. 이 때 형태의장에 대한 제한 규정은 경관법에서 직접 규정하는 방식이 바람직하겠지만 부득불 현행 경관법처럼 행위제한 규정이 전혀 없어, 행태 의장에 대한 행위제한 규정만을 따로 두기가 어렵다면 국토계획법에서라도 형태의장에 대한 행위제한 규정을 두고 차후에 경관법으로 이전을 하여야 할 것이다. 그리고 기존건축물의 특례제도에 대하여 살펴보건대, 건폐율이나 용적률과 같이 형태 규모 제한에 있어서는 재산권에 대한 제한이 클 수도 있기 때문에 사안의 성질상 재축에 한하여서는 기존 건축물의 특례를 인정할 필요가 있다고도 생각되지만, 형태의장의 제한에 있어서는 새롭게 재축 등을 하면서 지붕 색이나 각종 디자인 부분에 있어서 다른 주변 건물과의 조화를 이루도록 하는 것이 바람직하다고 생각되고, 그 재산권에 대한 제한도 건폐율이나 용적률에 비하여 크지 않다고 생각되기 때문에 건축물이나 공작물에 대한 형태의장에 대한 제한규정을 새롭게 마련하는 경우에는 경관지구에 대한 도시계획수립이후에 행하여지는 증축이나 개축 등은 물론 재축에 있어서도 기존건축물의 특례를 인정해서는 안 될 것이다.
  • 11.

    Examination on the Legalistic & Realistic of the Public Oldage Income Security System

    Kim Hun | 2013, 62() | pp.239~271 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Korea was already to enter into an low birth and aging society in 2000, to the aging population accounted for 11.8% of the total population in 2012(birth rate 1.30%). The nation is duty to ensure guaranteed the lowest income to should not basically infringement to the respect for the dignity as human beings and the right to the pursuit of happiness and to live by social solidarity liability spirits for the this problem of elderly. Guaranted Minimum Income for the elderly as long as it is very important because it is directly connected other social problems. This research is about in reviews for Establishing of Basic Retirement Income Security System. In addition, it is a general theoretical study to aware of the importance of Income Security System of the Elderly as a social security's type and the strengthening of elderly welfare. also, In Comparison & review, Low-income elderly peoples be to secure basic income security and welfare, I Want to look into advanced classic system of the OECD 7 countries of the basic pension system and supplemental of the pension system, Achievement-based income guarantee inclusive of social benefits. With this study is to encourage the legal improvements and development of a variety policy in retirement income security(particularly, Basic Income Security).
  • 12.

    Review by a permanent reduction in the government's acquisition of the Legislative Study on improving tax reform

    신평우 | 임숙녀 | 2013, 62() | pp.271~288 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Government to make use of the real estate market real estate acquisition tax rate to a permanent reduction in the detailed plan by the end of this month, would have established. Which has been temporarily breaks the July acquisition As the reduction in the market as the original ‘deal cliff’ appears attributable. The government announced the local government for the “acquisition, which accounts for 40% of local tax cuts one that shook the foundation of local government,” said went strongly resisting. In September the National Assembly in the market after passing the tax cut retroactive deal more severe if not all saying the cliff is concerned. However, a permanent reduction in the government's review of acquisition that has been repeated tinkering with the customary reduction policy is not an expression of long-term housing of a detergent-wide review and reorganization will be concurrent with discussions. In this study, house cleaner paper analyzes the status and problems of social factors on tax reform and tax reform legislation of scrutiny the house was to show the direction. Consequently, in the short term, the basic principles of the reorganization of the acquisition tax rate transaction tax cuts will have to take into disuse during and MultiHousing Owner. Acquisition tax rate revised to 4% of the market did not meet in 2005 eight years later once the basic tax rate that does not apply to the laws of this era is prove a dead letter have occurred. MultiHousing Owner during and five years with primary progressive tax system also maintains the private rental market, and the emerging importance of the proper direction at this point because there will be abolished. In the long run, the flow of the times “self-support reserve, secure residential mobility” and the holding tax, turnover tax all require some adjustments and cuts are expected. However, the absolute reduction in revenue expenditure and a wide range of dimensions than the welfare of the changes in your account should be considered. Achieve a balanced budget, local taxes, and enacted the difficulties of the high proportion of real estate, and given the “self-support reserve, secure residential mobility” is a very difficult goal is evident in the legislative. However, as in the past for real estate tax revenue that can be obtained through the appropriate market conditions to decrease transaction tax because it is not held in a way that holding taxes, or vice versa, and in the adjustment of the real estate tax revenue is expected to be difficult.
  • 13.

    A Study of law and Legislation on the Public Sector Information - Focusing on legislative landscape of Promotion of the use of Public Data Act -

    박세진 | 김경열 | Kwon, Hun-Yeong | 2013, 62() | pp.289~313 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    Information and communication technology in today develops swiftly as never before. Development of every kind of high-tech information technology equipment such as smart phone takes the lead in qualitative changes in the basis of our information life in that they make higher level of service for actual life easier and faster using information or database. Accordingly, the role and related policy of government for the problems directly connected to people’s lives and the people’s consciousness are required to convert into new paradigm different from the old one. It is supported by the fact that the people of information society presents significantly positive attitude towards those problems related to their rights and interests and requires comprehensive and high-leveled service in quality to their government. The value of public sector information resurfaces afresh in that the various information policies progressed focusing on smooth generation and effective management of information ponder how to use the information timely according to continuous development of information and technology. It means that fundamental changes are also required for the policy of information disclosure to the nation which has been recognized for guaranteeing the people’s right to know or monitoring the administrative power or information policy to implement the information basic right in terms of strengthening public service and promoting civil business. Therefore, as the first step to set up institutional platform in relation to the provision and use of public sector information, the present study tried to get a clear conceptual understanding of public sector information as well as looks into the timely implications for public sector information and what demands for the information are in essence. It also drew problems for the current legal system and policy applied to the field of administration and suggested legislative and political alternatives which can effectively solve related social problems surrounding public sector information.
  • 14.

    Problems and development methods in realizing Autonomy Administration in terms of current Local Autonomy Law

    lee jae sam | 2013, 62() | pp.315~346 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    It is a rising issue in terms of realizing autonomy administration within the current Local Autonomy Law, where moderate integration, business distribution, residence ontrol, active relief system, ways of developing regulation establishment in local organizations and excluding political party interference to local autonomy administration, regulating abuse of authority power of leaders in autonomy organization, means to make transparent local finance, means of cooperation among nation and local autonomy organizations are desired. Therefore, following systematic supplementation and its political researches are required, in order to solve the above mentioned issues. First, Autonomy organizations need to have a concrete process regulation within local autonomy law, in order to have moderate merger and regulation. Second, policy supplementation shall be made not only to have accurate business distribution, but also sufficient and moderate distribution in resource. Third, Activation of residents' vote, audit request, recall system and etc as resident regulation method, and resident lawsuit policy as a relief system shall be required as a means of regulating residents to local autonomy policy. first, In order to activate residents' voting, policy supplementation in guaranteeing residents' participation shall be present, and increase in administrative service and continuous promotion and campaign in residents' participation shall follow through. Also, illegal․unjust act shall be strictly punished as fair and transparent voting results are considered mandatory. and In terms of audit request, expand the subject and the boundary of requests, and non-financial issues shall be dealt as much as financial issues, as requirements of audit request. Policy supplementation shall be initiated in order to expand the common benefit prize to not only investigations, but also to personal life boundaries. or In order to activate residents' recall system, residents' decision making power shall be strengthened through policy supplementations such as relieving requirements, boundaries and procedures of recall. and In order to activate residents' lawsuit policy, the extent shall be expanded, and policy supplementation shall be made by changing audit transposition to selective audit transposition, so direct lawsuit can be made. Also, securing the effectiveness of residents' lawsuit due to disclosure of information is important. Fourth, In case of establishing regulations at an Assembly, sublate the law's subordinate tendency, and policy supplementation shall be made to support self-controlled finance and developing and supporting assembly members' expert knowledge. Fifth, In order to exclude political party interference to local autonomy administration, policy supplementation shall be made to have local elections publicly managed, and leaders of local autonomy organization, local assembly members to be non-party members of any sort. Sixth, In order to prevent corruption, the abuse of authoritarian power in autonomy organization leaders, in and outside regulations shall be strengthened, especially policy supplementation shall be made to establish fairness in the installment and the actions made in independent audit organizations Seventh, In order to promote transparency in local finance, searching for an effective means to expand a nation's dependent and independent finance is recommended. policy supplementation shall be made in regards to the redistribution of national tax, support in state subsidy business, expansion in local tax and income. Eighth, sublate authoritarian leading and directing in order to promote nation to local autonomy organizations' cooperation and increase advises and supporting systems. As a result, revise actual problems arising from local autonomy law, and apply such improvement measures to realize desirable local autonomy. Therefore, true regional development and residents' well-being shall be realized through the above mentioned policy supplementations.
  • 15.

    Review for Legal System relating Housing Welfare

    Min, Tae-Wook | 2013, 62() | pp.347~369 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Recently one research which attempted to evaluate our legal system about seven points relating housing welfare concluded that there were no system or inadequate in five points of seven. But housing welfare depends nations‘ financial abilities because it needs enormous money. And legal system should make balance between public interest and private interest, or between private interest and private interest. In this regard, regal system relating housing welfare is reviewed and concluded that regal systems, which relating regal security of tenant․availability of infrastructures․accessibility․location․cultural adequacy have been prepared relatively well. Regal system for habitability is needed to improve because there is some contradictions in law. Regal system relating affordability that is core in housing welfare needs systemic improvement. Though law adopts public rental housing and housing voucher together that are typical systems pursuing affordability, there are many problems. Considerable amount money needed for constructing public rental housing is financed by finance company or private which pay interest. Using loan for public rental housing is to defer present generations' burden to future generation'. To prevent isolation and slumism of public rental housing, various social mixing programs and self -suffort program should be prepared. Housing voucher is very expensive and complicate system. If it comes into effect, enormous sum of money is needed every year. And many sub -systems such as, system to secure qualitative house, system to escape low- income groups are needed. So It is unreasonable that there is only one clause for housing voucher, and details are delegated to executive orders.
  • 16.

    Public Employees’ Freedom of Expression and Its Limitations - Especially on the Discussion about Teachers’ Use of Social Networking Service(SNS) in the U.S. -

    Soon Chul Huh | 2013, 62() | pp.371~395 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Unlike in the past, due to the development of the social networking service such as Facebook, MySpace and Twitter, recently, there are new cases that public employees, especially teachers, were forced to resign because of their expressions, for example, posting some photos of herself holding a glass of beer or commenting on his abhorrence for same-sex marriage. In general, a Social Networking Service(SNS) or Social Networking Sites means “a platform to build social networks or social relations among people who, for example, share interests, activities, backgrounds, or real-life connections.” Even though, until now, there is no case about whether SNS, such as Facebook, is a private or a public sphere, under the so-called “Third Party Doctrine,” we can reach a conclusion that an user can not be protected because he or she voluntarily disclose his or her information to the site. Furthermore, the pertinent part of Facebook’s privacy policy indicates that they may access, preserve and share an user’s information if there is a legal request from the government or if they have a good faith belief that they should do so. In the mean time, under the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986(ECPA), which consists of three relevant parts - the Wiretap Act, the Stored Communications Act(SCA) and the Pen Register Act(PRA) - it seems that SCA would be applied to Social Networking Sites like Facebook. However, SCA has an important exceptions that communications stored for 180 days or more only require a trial subpoena supported by reasonable suspicion other than probable cause. Then, despite of many educational benefits such as making students more focusing on their study with the help of their teachers on the SNS, the concern that teachers may use it to engage in sexual relations with their students made some states, including Missouri, attempt to regulate the use of social media sites between them. Under the U.S. Supreme Court case, Garcetti v. Ceballos, if a public employee such as a teacher is not expressing his/her opinion as a citizen, but as an employee of the government, the expression will not be protected. And if he or she is speaking as a citizen, then a court will decide whether his or her speech is a matter of public concern. Furthermore, his or her statement fits a matter of public concern, then, under the Pickering test, the court will weigh the interests between the state as an employer and the teacher as a citizen. The U.S. cases and ideas regarding speech of public employees have some suggestions, because, unlike the U.S., the Korean public employees are prohibited from making a political statement since the Korean laws including, but not limited to, the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, require their political neutrality.
  • 17.

    The Guarantee Obligation for Fundamental Right of Legislator and the Judging Criteria for the Implementation of Obligation

    Pyo, Myoung-Hwan | 2013, 62() | pp.397~419 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    This paper investigates about the guarantee obligation for fundamental right of legislator in article 10 sentence 2 and the level for the implementation of obligation. This paper starts from the different viewpoint from the viewpoint of constitutional court about the judging criteria and types, whether law made by legislator for fundamental right is just or not. This paper investigates first about the leading case of constitutional court. According to the leading case of constitutional court, it is to be confirmed that constitutional court has applied ‘the principle of excessive restriction prohibition’ for fundamental restriction law and ‘the principle of minimum protection’ or constitutional limit on the freedom of lawmaking for fundamental making law. These viewpoint of constitutional court is not reasonable, because it doesn't consider the character of fundamental right and maximum guarantee of fundamental right. According to the character of fundamental right, the fundamental right has its content or not. The fundamental right of which content is made by legislator, has its concrete content from lawmaking of legislator. Therefore, ‘the principle excessive restriction prohibition’ has to be applied as judging criteria for the restriction law for fundamental right and ‘the principle minimum protection prohibition’ has to be applied as judging criteria for the making law for fundamental right. Considering the natural of fundamnetal right, I think the method of this interpretation is the most reasonable for the guarantee for fundamental right in korean constitutional law.
  • 18.

    A study on the British Parliamentary System

    Lee Young Woo | 2013, 62() | pp.421~438 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The government system may be roughly divided into two : one is the presidential system originated from the United States and the other is the parliamentary system based on England. This research is a study on the British Parliamentary System. And the British Parliamentary System shall be the original form of the other country's Parliamentary System. This British Parliamentary System and parliamentarism have been grown along with the development of English history. Cabinet dates from privyc council had started as King's counsellor, Afterwards, the power of cabinet having strengthened more and more than that of Parliament, So the original parliamentary system have transformed into the Cabinet Government. and now the “Cabinet Government” transform into the “Prime Minister Government”. Korea still reproduces disputes on power structure. It seems of much significance that any system should apply itself by respecting its essential factors. When talung account into the political, economic, and social circumstances, discussing a constitutional amendment and thereupon more thorough inquiry into and review of it are thought to be conducted.
  • 19.

    Meaning and Limitation of Government Intervention for the Mass Environmental Disaster, Ideas for Mediative Compensation System - Focusing on BP and Hebei Spirit Oil Spill cases -

    Kim, Jae Sun | 2013, 62() | pp.439~465 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    How much government should interfere regarding the private disputes? If it is about the mass environmental disaster, government should act more actively to recover damages of individuals and corporations?This article studies two oil spill cases in U.S.A. and South Korea. Both cases incurred serious economic and environmental damages for the people around the shore by oil spills. After the accident, U.S. government made a new mediative compensation system and Korea government created a new law to recover the people. Although there were legislations for the unexpected accidents, the recovery in the legal process takes a lot of time which might make useless for the victims. In this situation, governments' action to force the recovery worked to facilitate the process. However, it also accompanied of uncertainty because it was in the middle of a political and legal action. In USA, mediative compensation system was created to recover 9.11 victims. The new system which added court’s overseeing and multiple administrative venders put more emphasis on justice in the process. This efforts made quite advanced process than the former oil spill case(Exxon Valdez case) which took 20 years to compensate for the victims. Therefore, we need to consider more systemetic approach to make a legal system for the oil spills which compromise mediative compensation system etc.
  • 20.

    Human Rights Decisions on Protection of Personal Information and Case management in the Field of Social-welfare - Based on decisions recommended by National Human Rights Commission of Korea -

    이발래 | 2013, 62() | pp.467~490 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Recently, in the field of social-welfare practice, social-welfare case managers have difficulties in protecting personal information of social-welfare clients, sharing information and discovering and managing resources on the process of their performance. Considering these problems, this paper reviewed on rights to personal information and information privacy, and analyzed application problems on case management in the field of the social welfare practice, while demonstrating some of the examples related to social-welfare among the examples of decisions recommended by National Human Rights Commission of Korea. In particular, we searched for the solution concluding that information privacy and the right to receive social-welfare service are not in conflict relation each other but in competitive relation existing in social-welfare clients. In addition, we suggested that comprehensive consent or compulsory consent should be prohibited when personal information of social-welfare clients is collected, offered and utilized. Finally, we insisted that case management system should be created to share personal information of social -welfare clients even with private sector, while personal information not being violated to protect social-welfare clients.
  • 21.

    Study on the professionalization and substantial method of the specialized management business system of rearrangement projects

    조필규 | Sung, Jin-Uk | 2013, 62() | pp.491~517 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This work is intended to analyze the states of annual registration cancellation and manpower of the specialized management businessmen of rearrangement projects that were registered in Seoul Metropolitan Government and civil appeals for the firms, and thereby propose a plan to improve relevant laws in order to make the overall operation system of the specialized management businessmen of rearrangement projects professional and substantial. The conclusions of this work are presented as follows: 1) unification of the specialized management businessmen associations, 2) the enhancement of regulations about registration cancellation of the specialized management businessmen of rearrangement projects and the relaxation of qualifications, 3) preparation of reasonable labor cost for those working in the rearrangement business, 4) Obligatory education of those working in the rearrangement business, 5) reorganization of work scope of rearrangement firms, 6) introduction of national qualification system for those working in the rearrangement business.