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2014, Vol.65, No.

  • 1.

    Eine rechtsthoriesche Untersuchung über die Entschädigung und Preisschätzung in den Fluss versetzten Grundstücks

    Jonghyun Seok | 김원보 | 2014, 65() | pp.1~28 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Das Flussgesetz vom 30. Dezember 1961 schreibt vor, dass der Fluss dem Staat angehört. Also der Fluss ist Staatseigentum. Dieser Grundsatz gelten bis zum Änderungsgessetz des Flusses vom 6. Juni 2007, wobei die Flussverstaatlichung aufgehoben worden ist. In diesem Flussgesetz wurde das Fluss-Gebiet eingeführt. Die Verstaatlichung des Flusses bedeutet gesetzliche Enteignung. Daher müsste die enteigneten Grundstücks entschädigt werden. Das Flussgesetz vom 1961 ist diese Entschädigung nicht vorgesehen. Das Änderungsgesetz des Flussgesetzes vom 31. Dezember 1984 hat gesetzliche Grundlage für die gesetzlichen Enteigung hinsichtlich des privat Grundstücks im Flussgebiet geschafft. Nähre Bestimmungen hat das Flussgesetz der präsidialen Verordnung überlassen. Danach wurde die präsidialen Verordnung(Nr. 11919) erlassen. Diese Verordnung schreibt keine Bestimmungen über Abstimmungs-und Bescheidunsverfahren hinsichtlich der Entschädigung bei der gestzlichen Enteignungen. Nach dieser Verordnung hatte die Verwaltungsbehörde das Enschädingsverfahren durchgeführt und die Entscädigungsgeld festgesetzt. Als die Enteigneter das Entschädigunggeld nicht angenommen wurden, hat die Behörde das Geld hintergelegt. Einigen Enteigneter haben doch hintergelegten Geld mit der Vorbehalt des Widerspruchs erhalten. Dieser Entschädigungsverfahren erfolgte nach der Bestimmungen vom präsidialen Verordnung, wobei sie keine Abstimmungs- und Bescheidungsverfahren vorgeschrieben ist. Daher tauchte die Frage auf, ob die Hinterlegung des Entschädingungsgeldes rechtsmässig oder rechtswidlich ist. Der Verfasser vertritt der Meinung, dass die Hinterlegung als rechtwidlich und nichtig zu verstehen ist.
  • 2.

    Regelungen zur Lösung der offenen Vermögensfragen in Nordkorea nach der staatlichen Einheit Koreas

    BYUNG KI KIM | 2014, 65() | pp.29~67 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Die offenen Vermögensfragen werden ein zentrales Thema in der politischen Auseinandersetzung um die Schwierigkeiten bei der Überwindung der wirtschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Probleme darstellen, die mit der Vereinigung der beiden koreanischen Staaten verbunden sind. Dabei ist auf einige Lösungsansätze einzugehen, nämlich Theorie von Gesamtkorea, Lehre von der Staatensukzession, Selbstbestimmungsrecht und inter-se Beziehung zwischen den beiden koreanischen Staaten. Die Aufgabe der rechtlichen Umgestaltung der durch den Sozalismus geprägten Eigentumsverhältnisse umfaßt drei Teilaufgaben, die in der Gesetzgebungspolitik wie in der praktischen Durchführung begrifflich scharf unterschieden werden müßten, auch wenn sie ineinander greifen. Darunter fällt zunächst die rechtstechnische Einfügung der sozailistischen Eigentumsverhältnisse in die allgemeine Privatrechtsordnung. In Bezug auf die vermögensrechtlichen Regelungen in Nordkorea dient, rein theoretisch gesehen, das Prinzip von Schadenausgleich in natura zu der Aufrechterhaltung verfassungsrechtlicher Garantien für Eigentumsrechtspositionen. Dem Anwendungsbereich des Grundprinzips der Restitution würden unter anderem die Konfiskationen in der SBZ/Nordkorea und die diese begleitenden entschädigungslosen Enteignungen, die Vermögensverluste aufgrund unlauterer Machenschaften und die Vermögensentziehungen durch rechtsstaatswidrige Einzelentscheidungen unterfallen. Hinsichtlich des sozialen Ausgleichs ist aber dem Interesse am Bestand der Eigentumslage zum Zeitpunkt der koreanischen Vereinigung Rechnung zu tragen. Dies wird dann dadurch umzusetzen sein, daß zum einen das Interesse am ungestörten Fortbestehen der Nutzung des Eigentums, das dem Gemeinwohl dient, weitgehend geschützt wird und zum anderen zur Aufrechterhaltung der Rechtspositionen nordkoreanischer Bürger der redliche Eigentumserwerb nicht rückgängig gemacht wird. Zu berücksichtigen sind auch diejenigen, denen nach DVRK-ZGB Nutzungsrechte an Grundstücken und Gebäuden verliehen wurden. Daraus folgt, daß das Prinzip ‘Entschädigung vor Rückgabe’ Vorzug gewinnt. Das zentrale Problem des Entschädigungsregelungen ist das Verhältnis des Wirtschaftlichen – also tätsachlichen – Wertes der Wiedergutmachung in Natur durch Restitution oder Aufhebung der staatlichen Zwangsverwaltung und der Wiedergutmachung in Geld durch Entschädigung, die sog. Wertschere. Durch die vorliegende Arbeit könnte schließlich aufgeklärt werden, daß bei der Lösung der Vermögensfragen im vereinigten Koreas die gesellschaftlichen und rechtlichen Besonderheiten Koreas aber immer berücksichtigt werden müssen . Hinzu kommt, daß die Frage, ob bzw. inwieweit die vermögensrechtlichen Regelungen in Deutschland auf die Lösung der Vermögensfragen für einen gesamtkoreanischen Staat Einfluß nehmen können, zu beantworten ist.
  • 3.

    Rechtliche Betrachtungen auf der deuschen Maritimen Raumordnungsplan

    Kil Joon Kyu | 2014, 65() | pp.69~95 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Seit der Globalisierung gibt es weltweite zunehmende Auseinandersetzungen zwischen nachbaren Küstenstaaten um deren Meer. Neben den traditionellen Nutzungen steigern heutigentags die wirtschaftliche Nutzungen und Ausbeutungen der Meere wegen dem technischen Fortschritt viele Nutzungsanföderungen ansteigender Rohstoffbedarf, z. B. Offschore-Windpark auf der Meere. Dabei gibt es viele Nutzungskonflikte, beispielsweise zwischen dem Windpark und der Fischerei in der Nordsee. Daher soll der Staat diese Nutzungsinteressen unbedingt koordiniert. Traditionell können Bundesländer in dem Küstenmeer einen Landesraumordnungsplan ohne Einwirkungen des nachbaren Küstenstaates aufstellen, weil das Küstenmeer aufgrund Art. 55. und 57. UN-Seerechtsübereinkommen (SRÜ) zum Hoheitsgebiet des Küstenstaat gehört. Aber in der deutschen Ausschließliche Wirtschaftszone (AWZ) ist es ziemlich anders als im Küstenmeer, weil sie aufgrund Art. 55 SRÜ durch eine besonden Rechtsordnung konstituiert ist. Ferner ist AWZ seit der Einrichtungen des Wind-Parks zu einem neuem Entwicklungs-Raum geworden und sensible marine Ökosysteme belastet. Aus der Erarbeitung von europäischen und deutschen Strategien und Agenden für nachhaltige Entwicklung und den Umweltschutz (vor allem der Meere) in AWZ entsteht die Ansätze einer Meeresraumplannung in Zusammenhang mit der Raumordnung, ein Raumordnungsregime auf dem Meer zu etabilieren. Aus diesem Grund hat der Bund endlich aufgrund der Änderung des Raumordnungsgesetzs (ROG) Entwicklungspläne Meer im Rahmen einer integrierten deuschten Meerespolitik und die maritime Raumordnungspläne im Bereich der deutschen ausschließlichen Wirtschaftszone von Nord- und Ostsee aufgestellt. In maritimen Raumordnungspläne gab es Festlegungen für Schifffahrt, Rohrletungen, Seekabel, Forschung und Energie sowie Nachrichtliche Darstellungen für Schifffahrt, Rohstoff, Seekabel, Energie, Naturschutz, Militär und Sonstige.
  • 4.

    Die Raumplanung im wiedervereinigten Korea- zugleich eine rechtsvergleichende Betrachtung zwischen deutschem und koreanischem Planungsrecht -

    Chung, Nam-Chul | 2014, 65() | pp.97~118 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Die koreanische Wiedervereinigung hat nicht nur in der Koreanischen Halbinsel wie auch in den Nachbarländern eine wesentliche Bedeutung. Unbestreitbar ist auch, dass sie zukünftig einen großen Einfluss auf die Politik, Wirtschaft und Kultur nimmt. Für die Wiederherstellung der staatlichen Einheit Koreas ist vor allem eine neue Verfassung erforderlich. Des weiteren sind auch einfache Gesetze in einzelnen Gebieten in Ordnung zu bringen. Das Rechtssystem im wiedervereinigten Korea hängt von den Formen und Art der Einheit Koreas ab. Im wiedervereinigten Korea ist die Raumplanung, die sich auf Nutzung und Regulierung von Boden und Aufbau der Infrastruktur bezieht, sehr wichtig. Dabei ist auch fraglich, ob das Raumplanungsrecht nach der Wiedervereinigung durch neue Gesetze geregelt wird oder das geltende südkoreanische Recht auf das Gebiet von Nordkorea erstreckt wird. Da der Grund in Nordkorea zurzeit verstaatlicht ist, ist individuelles Eigentum an Grund und Boden grundsätzlich nicht zulässig. Nach der Wiedervereinigung Koreas kommt es zu heftigen Auseinandersetzungen über das Besitzrecht an Boden auf dem Gebiet Nordkoreas. Darüber hinaus kommt es darauf an, wie ein neues System des Raumplanungsrechts im wiedervereinigten Korea aufzubauen ist. Dabei können umbezogene Gesetze, die allein auf dem nordkoreanische Gebiet anwendbar sind, vorläufig als Spezialgesetze erlassen werden. Doch ist auch einheitliches Rechtssystem in Betracht zu kommen. Es ist zwar wünschenswert, allmählich neue Gesetzentwürfe im Bereich des Raumplan- ungsrechts auszuarbeiten, aber es kann eine lange Zeit dauern. Diesbezüglich denke ich, dass das System des geltenden südkoreanischen Raumplanungsrechts zunächst auszuarbeiten und zu verbessern ist. Dafür ist eine Übergangsregelung notwendig. Außerdem muss man auch Aufstellungsverfahren der projektbezogenen Pläne, z.B. Planfeststellungsverfahren in Deutschland, zur Errichtung konkreter Anlagen wie Straßen, Eisenbahnen oder Flugplätzen usw. berücksichtigen.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Real Condition and Improvement of Financing for the Urban Redevelopment Project

    Pilkyu Cho | 2014, 65() | pp.119~139 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Recently Seoul city introduced 「The Public Management System」in order to prevent corruption between the association and constructor in advance and to support smooth progress by making the head of a gu participate as a public manager in associational establishment of urban redevelopment project and selection project of constructor. Since the role of constructor that played a variety of parts until now has been limited to simple construction, there is a difficulty in the method of financing focusing on current constructor. As the results, there have been many changes in the method of financing of urban redevelopment project focusing on constructor till now, and as per these change of environment, the plan of financing system of urban redevelopment project applicable to reality is needed. Thus this study was conducted focusing on finding improvement for smooth pushing ahead with urban redevelopment project through fund financing of urban redevelopment project and private funds loan facilitation which were suitable for the environment change of financing of urban redevelopment project and applicable to reality.
  • 6.

    Legal Theory of E-Rulemaking in American Administrative Law

    Dongsoo Lee | 2014, 65() | pp.141~161 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Through the rulemaking process, government agencies set standards that affect every major aspect of economic and social life in the United States. The volume and impact of government regulations have grown significantly over the past half century, making rulemaking one of the most important vehicles for government policymaking today. As a result, any proposal that promises to improve the rulemaking process by making it more efficient, less burdensome, or more accountable merits careful attention by both regulatory officials and policy researchers. E-rulemaking is one such proposal. The term e-rulemaking actually encompasses a broad range of applications of information technology to the rulemaking process. While some agencies are beginning to make rulemaking documents available on the Internet, information technology could play a still more significant role. As participants in the Regulatory Policy Program’s e-rulemaking workshops suggested, the potential for using IT in the rulemaking process is considerable. Agencies may be able to use new technologies to communicate more effectively with the public, conduct more informed regulatory analyses, and implement rules more quickly and efficiently. This article has identified numerous ways that information technology can be used to try to solve some of the problems associated with rulemaking. It has also highlighted key avenues for future research on e-rulemaking. Through coordinated efforts over the next decade, researchers should be able to answer many of the significant questions posed in this article and help bring about the development of more effective IT applications for rulemaking. The e-rulemaking efforts made so far by OMB and a core group of leading regulatory agencies represent important first steps, but sustained cooperation between these regulatory agencies and research community will be essential to take e-rulemaking into its next generation.
  • 7.

    A Study on Effective Regulatory Reform Plan of Local Authorities

    Jang Kyo-Sik | 2014, 65() | pp.163~183 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    For the real success of a regulatory reform, field regulations by local authorities as well as by central government should be improved to aggressively promote a user-centric regulatory reform. For the regulatory reform, of course, it is required to understand that citizens are the economic subject and carry out the reform which could influence them. Although economic growth and global competitiveness have become more important, a reform which ignores citizens would never succeed. Even if the reform ends in success, there might be a problem of figuring out for whom the reform was tended. In addition, a regulatory reform should facilitate sectors which are closely related with citizens’ daily lives and boost local economy. The reason why people don’t feel much about the local authority’s regulatory reform, and the assessment results aren’t much satisfying is because regulation-related duties are handled by several departments. Therefore, it is meaningful to organize ‘Regulatory Reform Promotion Unit for Local Government’ in Ministry of Security and public Administration and establish a close cooperative system between the government bureau and local authorities to cope with regulatory reform-related duties for improvement of citizens’ satisfaction. In order for the local authority to carry out the regulatory reform, there should be adjustment on irrational local laws and regulations through the publication and distribution of a regulatory reform manual for local authorities and development of a standard regulation model. In addition, it is required to find and amend local laws which haven’t reflected the revision of higher laws, enact new laws if necessary and take care of any delay in permit and approval process due to government employees’ passive attitude. Furthermore, there should be a regulation rationalization plan through regulation impact assessment for the rationalization of local regulatory reform. Local authorities also need to take diverse actions to reform conventional regulations in connection with central government. Moreover, there has to be a plan to build local government employees’ expertise and competence. To spread the regulatory reform for local authorities across the nation, there should be administrative and financial incentives such as advantage in performance rating and differential grant by evaluating and rewarding local authorities for their reform performances.
  • 8.

    Studie zur Verbesserung des Rechtssystems für Greengroth im Gewährleistungsstaat

    Jae-Ho Kim | 2014, 65() | pp.185~209 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Jetzt wird vernachlässigt der Strategie von Ex-Government, „Low Co2, Greengroth„. Aber angesichts dessen Diskussions und Entwicklung soll sich der Grund nicht auf eine Wertänderung zurückführen lassen, sondern der Strategie entwickelt werden. Trotzdem erscheint mehr Grenze wegen der Govenment-Ändeurng, der Denkensänderung und Defizit der Spezialität in bezug auf monopolisierende Verwaltung für „Low Co2, Greengroth„. So soll der Methode der Gewährleistungsverwaltung gefragt werden, nach welcher Bürger die Verwaltung ausüben und der Staat diese Ausübung kontrolliert. Insbesondere angesichts einiger Regelungen vom „Gesetz zu Low Co2, Greengroth„ könnte der Greengroth ausreichend durch die Gewährleistungsverwaltung und Public Private Partnership (PPP) sein. Trotzdem könnte dessen Grenze noch sein, welche durch Verbesserung de lege ferenda beseitigt werden kann. Dann könnte es de lege lata möglich sein, dass das Ziel der Politik von Greengroth durch Gewährleistungsverwaltung erreicht wird. Umweltschutz und Wirtschaftswachstum könnte dann durch Greengroth bzw. neue Art von Verwaltungshandeln, also die Gewährleistungverwaltung und das PPP, erreicht werden, wenn das aktuelles Basisgesetz zur „Low Co2, Greengroth„ in Bezug auf Entscheidung des öffentlichen Interesses mit mehrer staatlichen Verantwortung der Gewährleistung geändert würde.
  • 9.

    The Regal Concept of Officetel and Issues

    Min, Tae-Wook | 2014, 65() | pp.211~231 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Officetel means building that can be used as office, residental, or mixed the both. There is significant difference between house and business facility in structure and location. Building code classify house and business facility, so each should be used by legally allowed use. Meanwhile, building code describes officetel as business facility and admits residence in it. Based the legal concept of officetel, many officetel that is used for residental has been constructed in commercial area. The legal concept of officetel is obscure and absurd. It confines officetel as business facility, but there is no criterion about it, officetel can be used only for residental. And the legal concept of officetel conflicts with public legal systems. The constitution and the house law pursuit a comfortable residental life, so there is minimun housing standard and other standards for house. But these standards are not applied to officetel because it is not housing but business facility by law. Zoning system, which our country adopts as fundmental method for land control, divides residental area and commercial area. The legal concept of officetel makes zoning system meaninglessly because it admits a massive housing complex in commercial area. So it is need to modify the legal concept of officetel in accordance with public legal systems. Residence function should be separated from business function, especially so called ‘residential officetel’ should be integrated into one-room house that is belong to multi-unit dwelling.
  • 10.

    A review on compensation responsibility on illegalities of U.S Armed Forces based on Facilities and Areas and the Status of U.S Armed Forces in Korea

    Won Jung Kim | Cheol Ho Yang | 2014, 65() | pp.233~254 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    It goes on increasing in heinous crimes such like sexual crimes, robberies and murders committed by American army soldiers in Korea. In addition, they keep bring about negative problems such like outrageous behaviors in drunken and arrest of korean by U.S. military police. SOFA offenses from 2003 to 2012 account to 4,214, have been showing a rise since 1991 in which the article of criminal jurisdiction abandonment was removed in the second SOFA reform. The reason why the crimes committed by U.S. soldiers in Korea increase results from constructive problems of SOFA Agreement between Korea and U.S. That is one of the reasons that make difficult Korea to cope properly with illegalities of American army soldiers. Two korean girls, Hyo-soon and Mi-sun, for example, were killed by American tank in 2002. Although that was obviously illegal, korean government, not U.S., had a liability for damage compensation. It could be regarded as one of the most serious problems in administrative law of SOFA Agreement. SOFA Agreement stipulates that the two nations should divide their responsibilities related with damage compensations that took place during public duties. In spit of that, Korean government, not the U.S., compensated for private behaviors of American militaries done after public work. In this case, it is reasonable that the U.S. should have a responsibility for those. It is against the administration principles of self-responsibility and equity. Thus, the study analyses problems in damage compensation for Korea and U.S. SOFA Agreement and suggested ideas to solve those problems.
  • 11.

    A Study of the notion and legal position of Independent Regulatory Agency in U.S.A.

    황의관 | 2014, 65() | pp.255~292 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    There are many volumes to have been written-both by commentators and courts-about the so-called independent regulatory agencies. The most of these articles have regarded the independent regulatory agencies as distinct from executive agencies and constitutionally insulated from presidential influence. However few have taken the time to ask even the most basic question: What features make an agencies independent as opposed to executive? This article is to review the notion and feature of independent regulatory agencies by applying positive verification methodology. In order to verify the notion and characteristics of the so-called independent regulatory agencies, this article is to systematically survey the administrative agencies for a broad set of indicia of independence-“removal protection provision”, “multi-member structure”, “partisan balance requirement”, “budget and congressional communication authority”, “litigation authority”, and “adjudication authority”-to review that issues. It also examines functional differences between independent and executive agencies. As systematical analysis turns out, there is no single feature, structural characteristics that every agency commonly thought of as independent shares, not even the for-cause removal protection provision commonly associated with independency. Therefore, this article reject the binary distinction between independent and executive agencies. Instead all agencies should be regarded as executive agencies and seen as falling on a spectrum from more independent to less independent. From this new view and understanding of independent regulatory agency, this article is to research the legal position of commonly independent agency and review the issues associated with that agencies.
  • 12.

    A Study on Application of Minimum Cost Support for Financial Re-structuralization of Act on Private Participation in Infrastructure

    이재오 | Hwang, Taik Jean | KANG JEONG GYU | 2014, 65() | pp.293~310 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Korea government introduced MRG (Minimum Revenue Guarantee) which minimizes risk of private participation in infrastructure (PPI). However, This policy has been criticized for heavy burden of government. Subsequently, This system gradually decreased and finally MRG was abolished in October, 2009. Since then, Investment Risk Sharing replaced MRG and It is only for government announced PPI. Currently, Therefore BTO Project is declining substantially. In this study, in order to explore the ways in which improve feasibility of financial structure for PPI Project, 3 PPI Projects that are constructed under the MRG are analyzed. Furthermore, MCS (Minimum Cost Support) that allows minimum cost of private participation in infrastructure is proposed upon development of SCS (Standard Cost Support) which is widely being used for re-structuralization of PPI Project by centering on Investment Risk Bearing, Investment Risk Management System in domestic PPI Projects. Lastly, Re-structuralization measurements are analyzed and proposed effects.
  • 13.

    Conflict Resolutions in Relation to Renewable Energy Sources : Focusing on Hydropower Generation

    Lee Soonja | 2014, 65() | pp.311~340 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Water-power generation is one of ways to reduce green house gas to improve global warming. It is a sort of CDM (Clean Development Mechanism), green house gas-reducing project which is executed by advanced country and emerging country together. However, water-power generation which is one of recycled energy to improve environment has many merits but affect negatively in terms of environmental, social, cultural aspects as dams are constructed for water-power generation. Due to this negative impact, a lot of conflict is generated while building dams. However, dam construction can’t be stopped because of such conflicts entirely. Therefore, the methods to solve such conflict were searched. The greatest conflictive subjects are citizens and operator. As a method to solve fundamental conflict with citizens, suggestion to guarantee citizens’ participation procedure and necessity to change the subjects for public hearing into the subjects who can secure fairness and objectivity were explained. Most of all, as reviewed the cases, it was suggested to build consultative body comprised of diverse concerned parties and make the body decide for different issues. And as FIT has been changed into RPS and recycling energy production proceeds in a big scale, environment could be damaged more. New method to compensate is required, which was mentioned. In addition, citizens who reside around dams have many inconveniences rather than benefits by building dams. For these citizens, effort to facilitate citizens’ economy around dams is required and flexible moving policy needs to be executed. Additionally, dispute related to recycling energy will continuously happen. To solve this kind of dispute, dispute resolution bodies were mentioned. Finally, methods to apply previous dams as a method not to build new ones were suggested.
  • 14.

    A study on the efficient operation of leisure and welfare facilities for the elderly in the senior welfare law

    seon eun ae | 2014, 65() | pp.341~359 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    There is a growing concern for how elderly people can live a life worthy of human dignity, along with the growing population of the elderly. Specifically, leisure is of great importance for them as they have a lot of free time after they retire from their lifelong jobs. When it comes to elderly people's leisure, there are constitutional grounds for their human dignity and value, for their right to pursue happiness and for their right to live a life worthy of human dignity. The Elderly Welfare Act includes regulations on leisure and welfare facilities for senior citizens, providing legal grounds for their leisure lives. According to the Elderly Welfare Act, leisure and welfare facilities for the elderly are largely categorized into three: senior welfare centers, senior centers and senior community programs. And there are more than 64,000 leisure and welfare facilities for senior citizens across the nation. Unlike the leisure of the younger generations, that of the elderly has quite diverse characteristics, but the problem is that leisure programs available for them aren't diverse enough yet. Another problem is that there aren't sufficient professional human resources who can be responsible for the management of their leisure lives in spite of the importance of their leisure. Furthermore, lots of existing leisure and welfare facilities just serve as places of gathering or places of rest, failing to perform their original functions. The regulations on the installation of elderly leisure and welfare facilities should be put in order and be strengthened, and a wide variety of leisure programs should be prepared. Especially, customized leisure programs should be introduced in consideration of the unique characteristics of the elderly population, and experts who can manage their leisure lives in a systematic way should be nurtured as well.
  • 15.

    The Study on safety culture legal improvement of Framework Act on Disaster and Safety Management

    나채준 | 2014, 65() | pp.361~383 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    Recently Large-scale natural disasters occur frequently due to environmental changes such as climate change. Specifically, Because of recent change of the economic and social environment and climate change, safety from catastrophic disaster is an important national policy and increase in the needs of the people. Framework Act on Disaster and Safety Management is to protect citizens from the various disasters, including natural disasters and is revised Significantly in August 2013 in order to cope with Changed disasters environment. However, an improvement on the safety management system is still needed. In particular, on April 16, the sinking of the Sewol, in southwest sea of Jeollanamdo Jindogun jodomyeon, appeared safety management system is still poor and the cause of the sinking is still not disclosed. Because of the tragic accident the disaster management system is need for a full-scale review. What is more needed is enhance people's safety awareness and more effort to settle safety culture is need. Safety management system is important, but social conditions is more important to practice the system. No matter which system maintenance it is meaningless because it does not operate properly. Therefore in this paper, for the safety culture improvement of the Framework Act on Disaster and Safety Management which amended in 2013, review the contents and propose improvement. Review the provisions of the Act which is the regulations of safety training for people(sec.66-5) and regulations of professional manpower expansion for safety training(sec.66-6), regulations of Integration and utilization of safety information Management System, propose safety culture improvement.
  • 16.

    Evaluations and Problems of Conversion A Legal Consideration on Professionally Qualified Valuers of a Fair Value according to the Introduction of International Financial Reporting Standards

    Chung, Ji Sun | Yoon, Sung Man | 2014, 65() | pp.385~405 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    In the end of 2013, government amended the Income Tax Act, conversion from deduction method into tax credit method, in order to secure tax revenue and to enhance the equity of tax burden per income size. Major gists are as follow; the additional child eduction of personal exemption deduction is changed into child tax credit, pension savings, education, medical expenses, related insurance premium and donation deduction of special deduction are changed into the tax credit system. The aims of this study are to evaluate and derive problems for the amendment of the Income Tax Act that a comprehensive tax-deductible way is switched to a tax credit scheme. And the problems are as follow;First, conversion into the tax credit system has not been able to present clear criteria. Taxpayer, the actual cost of the work related insurance premium expenses, educational expenses and medical expenses can reduce substantial ability to pay tax, so it is proper tax deduction system. In addition to pension savings deduction as well as the transition to the more complex and detergent, upon receipt of the pension structure is difficult to properly taxed her/him. If this switch pension savings tax credit, small business, small business deductions that are similar in nature purpose will have to be changed. And basically deductible donations tax-deductible in the way conventional manner is converted to a tax credit, this character is similar to the previous ESOP contributions are tax-deductible applies equally to receive and to be. Second, this amendment is opposed to the current policy of encouraging birth. Previously, as a child-related deduction system more basic deduction and deductions had been additional child deduction, This allows taxpayers to burden more the tax than conventional deduction system. Eventually the current child tax credit is opposed to conventional encouraging birth policy. Third, the criteria of the tax credit rate is not clear. Tax credit rate on pension savings and related insurance premium is 12%, and tax credit rate for medical and educational expenses, and donations is 15%. The purpose of Income Tax Act amendment is to reduce tax burden of low-income taxpayers and to increase tax burden of high-income taxpayers. However, tax credit rate is even at the same level. Fourth, the comprehensive income deduction credit system became more complex. a prior comprehensive income tax credit system was very complex, even here. The way of tax deduction or tax credit scheme is added to the complex system. The income derived by the above amendments to the law on these issues the government would have to be extra detergent action.
  • 17.

    the National Emergency Power in the France

    BAEK YUN CHUL | 2014, 65() | pp.407~429 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Three main dispositions concern various kind of "state of emergency" in France: article 16 of the Constitution of 1958 allows, in time of crisis, "extraordinary powers" to the president. Article 36 of the same constitution regulates "state of siege" (état de siège). Finally, the April 3, 1955 Act allows the proclamation, by the Council of Ministers, of the "state of emergency" (état d'urgence).[20] The distinction between article 16 and the 1955 Act concerns mainly the distribution of powers: whereas in article 16, the executive power basically suspend the regular procedures of the Republic, the 1955 Act permits a twelve-day state of emergency, after which a new law extending the emergency must be voted by the Parliament. These dispositions have been used at various times, in 1955, 1958, 1961, 1988 and 2005. In 1972 the Common Program of the Left (issued from an alliance between the Socialist Party and the Communist Party) proposed to repeal article 16. François Mitterrand's program in 1981 did not include this proposition. The Socialist government of Pierre Bérégovoy included a reform of this article in its project of Constitutional reform in 1992, but the project was not implemented. Also in 1992, the Vedel Commission created by François Mitterrand proposed to give to the Conseil Constitutionnel (Constitutional Council), on the concerted initiative of the President of the Republic and the presidents of the Assemblies, the mission to determine that the conditions required for the use of article 16 were in fact met. On July 23, 2008 a constitutional act was passed which, among other amendments, added a paragraph to article 16 of the Constitution[26] which stated that after 30 days the Constitutional Council can be requested to determine whether the conditions that justified the use of article 16 are still current; the ruling is public. At any time beyond 60 days the Council rules on this issue without the need for a referral
  • 18.

    Research on the report system of actual real estate transaction price

    lee jae sam | 양지웅 | 2014, 65() | pp.431~460 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    As for this research, enforcing report system of real estate transaction is appropriate in terms of meeting fundamental legislative purposes and approves as relevant means, as it verifies the relevancy of real estate transaction price and checks the precise origin of taxation. However, there is arising confusion, as real estate transaction report is diversified to respective laws and under overlapping regulations, and granting the duty to report to a third party, who is not the transacting party, is likely to be burdensome. Moreover, it seems too much to apply administrative sanctions to mediators, for their report violation acts. Also, real estate, residence transaction report and licensing system have different regulations, and real estate transaction report certificate delivery and approval policy of real estate registration special measures overlap, and systematization of publicly assessed value of the real estate and establishment of real estate transaction management system have confusing policies and duplicating burdens to one another. Additionally, there seems to be a feeble practicality in terms of administratively detecting false reporting of real estate transactions. Therefore, this research requires unification of individual laws related to real estate transaction report system, which are currently decentralized. Also, it is necessary to have the grounds to tax the transacting party by granting the party to report directly and precisely on its own, and the reporting period shall be sufficient enough to do so. As real estate transaction report is a mandatory regulation in terms of rights and duty relations of the real estate, delivery of report certificate may be omitted. Moreover, as real estate transaction price verification system is often seen as a mere formality, it is necessary to execute this as an administrative verification requirement. Adding to that, in terms of real estate transaction, it is necessary to enforce administrative sanctions to real estate transaction report violators. Real estate actual transaction price report system, first of all, needs unification of real estate transaction related laws, in order to unify real estate transaction report system. Then we can reduce the burdens of the reporting parties. Secondly, real estate transaction report shall be made directly by the transacting party. In order to implement this, it is necessary to omit mediators' report system. Thirdly, settling publicly assessed value of real estate and simplifying administrative processes such as report, verification system is necessary. Fourth, as real estate transactions' crucial purpose is to prevent illegal acts such as speculation in real estate and tax evasion, it is strongly necessary to implement more strict sanctions for these matter. Regarding the above mentioned issues, necessity of legislative repletion or revision of related laws is highlighted.
  • 19.

    Die Untersuchung über die Anwendung des Produkthaftungsgesetzes im Konflikt mit dem GM-Samen

    So,Jae-Seon | 이혜은 | 2014, 65() | pp.461~483 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Der GM-Samen ist zwar zur Zeit als die wichtigen Ernten anzusehen, die zukunftiges Essensproblem lösen können, aber das ist mit den heftigen Streitfragen zusammenzuliegen. Denn die Sicherheit bezüglich des GM-Samens ist noch nicht gewährzuleisten. Das koreanische Produkthaftungsgesetz Art. 4. Satz 1 schreibt den Grund für die Befreiung von der Verantwortung einer Produkthaftung vor. Vor allem ist der Entwicklungsrisikoprotest gemäß Abs. 2. als am wichtigsten behandelt zu werden. Ein Entwicklungsrisiko ist allgemein danach anzuerkennen, dass ein Risiko erscheint bzw. aufgetreten wird, erst wenn der Hersteller das nach dem heutigen wissenschaftlichen Niveau aber risikoenthaltende Produkt entwickelt und der Defekt des Produkts erst zum sekundären Markt aufgetreten wird. Aber das Hauptproblem ist der Punkt, dass die Vorstellung eines heutigen wissenschaftlichen Niveaus nicht eindeutig definiert werden kann. Diese Problemstendenz wird auch im Bereich vom GM-Samen und dessen verarbeiteten Güter eindeutig aufgetreten. Ein Schadensersatz wegen der defekten Produkten nach dem Produkthaftungsgesetz ist auf den Schaden schwer anzuwenden, der durch den GM-Samen und dessen verarbeitete Güter verursacht wird. Außer dem den GM-Samen und dessen verarbeiteten Güter benuzten Essen konnte es nicht in den Anwendungsbereich von Produkthaftungsgesetz gehen. Obwohl es um den Anwendungsbereich von Produkthaftungsgesetz geht, ist es fast unmöglich, die Kausalität zwischen einem Defekt und einem Schaden zu beweisen. Während die Verteidigung des Entwicklungsrisikos dem Hersteller vorhanden ist, konnte der Hersteller von der Produkthaftung befreien werden, wenn die Kausalität zwischen dem Defekt und dem Schaden nicht bewiesen werden kann. Ferner konnte der Hersteller eine Privilegierung des Haftungsausschlusses genießen, wenn er nach der geltenden Vorordnung bzw. dem Gesetz seine Produkte produzierte. Daher kann man dadurch schwierig die Lösung bzw. den Ansatz finden, dass das geltende Produkthaftungsgesetz revidiert werden oder ein Sondergesetz zum GM-Samen bzw. dessen verarbeiteten Gütern eingeführt werden sollte.