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2014, Vol.66, No.

  • 1.

    Regulierungsreform des Systems der Quasi-Industriesiedlungsgelände zur schöpferischen industriellen Orts-Paradigm

    Shin, Bong-Ki | 2014, 66() | pp.1~26 | number of Cited : 3
    Es handelt sich bei dieser Untersuchung um die Regulierungsreform des Systems der Quasi-Industriesiedlungsgelände zur schöpferischen industriellen Orts-Paradigm. Ausserhalb der Einführung(Ⅰ) und des Schlusses(Ⅴ) wird diese Abhandlung von drei Kapitel gebildet. Im Ⅱ. Kapitel werden die Erforderlichkeit des Systems der Quasi-Industriesiedlungsgelände(also das vorhandene Industriesiedlungsgelände-System: Folge der gedankenlosen Entwicklung, nidrige Industrie-Effektivität wegen der Abwesenheit der fundamentalen Einrichtungen, Angst vor Umweltschäden) und deren Entwicklungsgeschichte(insb. § 8-3 Industriesiedlungsgelände-Gesetz) u.a. untersucht. Im Ⅲ. Kapitel werden die Besonderheiten des Systems der Quasi-Industriesiedlungsgelände, sowie die Bestimmungs- u. Entwicklungsverfahren der Quasi-Industriesiedlungsgelände u.a. untersucht. Im Ⅳ. Kapitel wird die Umwandlung des Regulierungsparadigms in der Quasi-Industriesiedlungsgelände u.a. untersucht.
  • 2.

    Development Impact Fee and Takings in the U.S.

    JEONG, HA MYOUNG | 2014, 66() | pp.27~42 | number of Cited : 6
    The concept of exaction is allowed in the U.S. It is a condition for development, which is imposed on a parcel of land that requires the developer to mitigate anticipated negative impacts of the development. One of forms of exactions is impact fees, which are direct payments to local governments instead of conditions on development. The Supreme Court of the United States has identified several criteria for identifying when an exaction becomes a taking that requires compensation under the Fifth Amendment. The Court ruled that an exaction is legitimate if it shares an “essential nexus” with the reasons that would allow rejection of the permit altogether in Nollan v. California Coastal Commission. The Court ruled that an exaction is legitimate only if the public benefit from the exaction is roughly proportional to the burden imposed on the public by allowing the proposed land use in Dolan v. City of Tigard. In 2013, the Court ruled that conditions imposed upon the issuance of a land-use permit must conform to the requirements of Nollan and, if applicable, Dolan even when the challenged condition amounts to a requirement to pay money, rather than to give up an easement over the property in Koontz v. St. Johns River Water Management District. The Court expanded takings doctrine from exaction to impact fee even though there was no direct physical invasion to developers at impact fee to protect property rights. Korean jurists might have some reference from this ruling to protect property rights at management of many development-related-duties.
  • 3.

    A Legal Study on the Adoption and Utilization of Transfer of Development Rights

    LEE SANG HOON | Seok, Ho Young | 2014, 66() | pp.43~66 | number of Cited : 2
    As a method to reduce an excessive regulatory loss and to preserve a land owner's loss resulted from the land use regulation without a governmental financial support, a review on the adoption of a Transfer of Development Rights System(hereinafter, 'the TDR system') based on the concept of the American TDR System has recently been implemented by experts and scholars, especially in the field of urban engineering. The TDR system differs from the principle of compensation because it is only applicable to the case that the land use regulation does not exceed the limit of endurance. The TDR system is expected to reduce the land owner's excessive loss resulted from the urban development plan by the floor transaction, and it is also anticipated to preserve the cultural heritage, the land for public use, etc and to develop the existing downtown areas simultaneously. Moreover, in the situation that the needs for the maintenance plans such as redevelopment project, urban renewal project, new town project, and refurbishing project for the existing downtown areas have extremely been increased. The TDR system also can be expected to maximize the land utilization and development suitable to the topographic characteristics of Seoul city by combining the hills hard to be developed due to several land use regulations with the developable station influence areas. From the expectations above, it seems that the necessity for adopting the TDR system is admittable, and Seoul city now carries forward the refurnishing project by using the conjoint renewal system to which the concept of TDR system is applied. Thus, this study helps with understanding the basic concept of the TDR system through the overview of the American TDR system, and to present a legal validity for the adoption of the TDR system and to utilize the system by reviewing and evaluating the legal issues pointed out in the preceding studies.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Amendment to the Management and Supervision System of the Rental Housing Law - Focused on the Five and Ten-year Public Rental Housing -

    Sunbae Lee | 2014, 66() | pp.67~91 | number of Cited : 6
    Comprehensively analyzing the framework of Rental Housing Act divided into sub-systems, namely the supply, management and supervision system of rental housing, we can see whether it achieves the political purpose of public rental housing, 'residential stabilization for low-income group'. Public rental housing system is a demand and supply system to provide rental housing after selecting "qualified tenant designed politically". And management systems implies an institutional framework that the residents should keep the rules and management expenses during their rental obligations. Finally, supervision system could be an crucial institutional framework to influence system of demand, supply and supervision. The current legal framework of rental housing is not sufficient and clear enough to manage and supervise for public rental housing, additionally it does not well enforce. Thus, the Rental Housing Act should be supplemented below at least. The Article 16, Section5 of Rules on Housing Supply should be amended that they may select "qualified tenant designed politically" under the Article 16 Section 1 of Rules on Housing Supply after building, unless there are actual preliminary tenants due to no contracting. In related to managing rental housing, Article 9 Table no.1-2 of the Enforcement Rule of Rental Housing should be revised to estimate the house prices based on building cost and building lots prices by approval agency(person), and to rescind the Article 7 "changes in economic condition" of Housing Lease Protection Act in order that lease business operator can not raise the rental deposits and rental cost up to 5% per year. The Item 1 Table 1, Article 9 of Lease Housing Act Enforcement Rules should be amended more specifically that "in the 10-year period of rental obligations, lotting-transfer housings price is limited to ensure construction cost and up to 10~20% profits and to be less than the lotting-transfer housings price in 5-year rental obligation." The Article 28 Section 7 of Lease Housing Act should be revised to comply with management rules and tenant representative's decision by specifying them and to penalize any person who has violated Article 42 of the Rental Housing Act under the Article 42 Section 5 of the Rental Housing Act. With respect to the management of rental housing, Article 82 no.1~6 of Housing Act Enforcement Ordinance should be inserted in the Article 36(Supervision) of Rental Housing Act and the Article 42 of Rental Housing Act and also should be revised that any person(officials) who violates them should be penalized by the city mayor, county governor and head of a Gu.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Direction of Legal System Improvement to Promote Overseas Urban Development

    Han, Sang Hoon | 2014, 66() | pp.93~117 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper aims to propose reasonable direction of legal system improvement for the promotion of overseas urban development of Korea. Ever since the global financial crisis of 2008 construction industry of the nation has faced serious business situation due to the depressed real estate market. Especially, small and medium-sized construction companies have experienced stagnant economy caused by weak domestic demand and have difficulties to find new business market despite of their sincere efforts to manage the situations such as strengthening of private contracts for rebuilding, landing a contract for regional development projects provided by local authorities, and etc. Under these circumstances launching in overseas construction industry is considered as the most realistic alternative for the companies to overcome the situation. Overseas urban development has considerable business risk comparing to the business risk of construction companies in the domestic construction market because it is conducted within foreign such as developing countries and underdevelopment nations with poor estimation of demand and supply for the development. Considering the characteristics of overseas urban development with international development projects the study reviews the basic principles of international development cooperation based on the some cases of Germany, France and China. Although Korean government continuously implementing numerous policies for promoting overseas construction business, it is really hard to provide uniform and consistent government supports to the overseas urban development since the authorities of the implemented policies were different respectively and the content of the policies were fragmentary and unsystematic in terms of finance and technologies adopted in the overseas urban development. Therefore, in order to run the systematic management for overseas urban development throughout the unification of the fragmented policies modification of laws and regulations related to the overseas urban development is needed to be done in advance. In addition, to promote overseas urban development practical modification and supplementation for the Overseas Construction Act which currently focused on the support of overseas construction activities is necessary and reestablishment of the relationship between overseas urban development and overseas construction industry from the contextual and systematic perspectives in essential. Finally, to propose reasonable direction of legal system improvement for the promotion of overseas urban development we need to have open discussion and agreement for the following issues. Firstly, we need to have in-depth study on the issue of determining overseas urban development whether it need to be implemented as a part work of International Development Cooperation or as a part work of Overseas Construction. Secondly, from the examinations of Overseas Construction Act and Framework Act on Overseas Developments this research shows that the promotion of overseas urban development requires not only the restructuring of current legal system but it also needs rearranging the authorities of planning for the Framework Act on Overseas Developments.
  • 6.

    A Study on The Actual Condition and Improvement of The liquidation of The Urban Improvement Project

    Pilkyu Cho | 2014, 66() | pp.119~146 | number of Cited : 2
    Recently, Liquidation that transfer the ownership of property accepting the money instead of abandonment of ownership of a lot, is on the increase, because the real estate market has entered a staste of depression after the global financial crisis. So this study aims to analyze the method and procedure of the liquidation and to draw its implications by invastigation into the ralated laws and system, real state, lawsuits and survey of expert. The liquidation is based upon the principle of an out-of-court settlement, from now on it is desired that the apprasal is based on the last day of price reseatching if it is not spcified in the article. The implementor need to predict the increasing the members demand the liquidation and to have it ready in advance by professional consultations, etc.
  • 7.

    Eine Studie über die verfassungsrechtliche wirtschaftliche Ordnung unter der Berücksichtigung der Novelierungsdiskussion

    Shin, Okju | 2014, 66() | pp.147~171 | number of Cited : 0
    Als ein Merkmal der koreanischen Verfassung kann man wirtschftliche Regelungen nennen. Im Vergleich zu GG sind im 9. Kapitel der koreanischen Verfassung präzisen wirtschaftlichen Regelungen zu finden. Verfassungsvater Koreas hatte quasi kontrollierte wirtschaftliche Ordnung, wonanch persönliche wirtschaftliche Freiheit im Rahmen der sozialen Gerechtigkeit und des Ausgleichs gewäht wurde, bestimmt. In der Verfassung von 1960 wurde solche Bestimmung gehalten. Erst in der Verfassung von 1963 wurde im Prinzip persönliche wirtschaftliche Freiheit garantiert und ausnahmsweise konnte der Staat in die Wirtschaft eingreiffen, um soziale Gerechtigkeit zu verwirklichen und um die Volkswirtschaft zu entwicklichen. Diese Haltung dauerte bis 8. Änderung der kor. Verfassung von 1980. Bei 9. Revision der kor. Verfassung von 1987 bekommt wirtschaftiche Ordnung eigenartige Farbe. Allgemeine Bestimmung befindet sich im Art. 119. Abs. 1 des selben Artkels garantiert prinzipiell wirtschaftliche Freihekt von einzelner Person und Unternehmern. Und Abs. 2 befähigt den Staat, für 4 Fällen, nämlich Ausgleich des wirtschaftlichen Lebens, gerechte Verteilung des Einkommens, Vermeiden des Marktmonopols und des Missbrauchs wirtschaftlicher Kraft, und wirtschaftliche Demokratisierung in die Wirtschft zu intervenieren. in einzelnen Regelungen bis Art. 127. sind sehr konkrete Fällen für die Verstaatlichung und die Beschränkung des Grundrechts für die Gemeinwohl vorgesehen. Eigentlich zollt keiner seine Aufmerksamkeit auf die Wirtschftsordnung der Verfassung. Seit die Welle des Neoliberalismus im Jahr 2000 in Korea hoch geht, bekommt sie plötzlich das 'Spotlight'. Erste Position zu der Wirtschftsordnung hält es für richtig, dass der Artkel abgeschafft wird. Sie behauptet, dass wirtschftliche Probleme mit Eigentumsgarantie nach Art. 23 und Grungrechtsbeschränkung für Gemeinwohl nach Art. 37 Abs, 2 gelöst werden können. Zweite Position behautet, dass durch der Änderung des Art. 119 Abs. 2 der Eingriff des Staates minimaliert werden muss. Dritte Position, die jetzige wirtschftliche Ordnung befürwortet, vertritt die Meinung, dass Art. 119 abs. 1 und Abs. 2 gemeinsam soziale Wirtschaftsordnung darstellt. Die Wirtschaftsordnung der koreanischen Verfassung ist ein Bestandteil des Sozialstaatsprinzips zu verstehen. Daher isr sie soziale Wirtschaftsordnung, und mit zahlreichen sozialen Grundrechten schenkt sie koreanischer Verfassung einzigartige Farbe. Unter dem Gesichtpunkt der Verwirklichung der Gerechtigkeit im Bereich der wirtschftlichen Leben Koreas, muss man sich vorsichtig dem Art. 119 und seiner Revision annäheren. Die Diskussion um ihn kann vielfälltig ausgefaltet werden, aber seine Revision ist unnötig.
  • 8.

    The Promotion Strategy and Legal Issue on Urban Maintenance

    Dongsoo Lee | 2014, 66() | pp.173~201 | number of Cited : 8
    Cities are built for a long period of time. Therefore, it is very common to see deteriorated areas within the cities. In general, these areas requires proper urban rearrangement activities considered appropriate measures of urban planning. In order to revitalize retarded urban function most of cities of the nation have been implemented various types of urban rearrangement projects such as rebuilding, redevelopment, and newtown projects along with the legislation of numbers of urban rearrangement acts. However, most of these urban rearrangement projects were implemented throughout the uniform procedure of demolition-and-redevelopment focused on the provision of new apartments. As a result, the performance of existing urban rearrangement projects was ranked relatively low in terms of resolving conflicting between participants of the projects and rebuilding existing communities after the accomplishment of the projects. Specially, urban rearrangement projects implemented based on the Act on the Maintenance and Improvement of Urban Areas and Dwelling Conditions for Residents have introduced new type of urban problem called as the shortage of urban infrastructure such school, roads, parks and etc. In addition, urban renewal projects implemented based on the Special Act on the Promotion of Urban Renewal have caused abandonment of the projects since the Act regulated that the project implementer covers all the expenses for infrastructures regardless of the project’s financial benefits. For these reasons, currently Seoul Metropolitan government actively proceeds the exit strategies for the urban renewal projects. Recently legislated Special Act on the Promotion of Urban Regeneration and Assistance draws keen attention as an appropriate legal base for the improvement of deteriorated areas within cities because it enables additional support for the deteriorated areas without altering existing urban rearrangement system. However, it is expected that role of Special Act on the Promotion of Urban Regeneration and Assistance in the revitalization of retarded urban function is very limited because of its extraordinary exception articles which exceeds the scope of existing urban planning regulations. Furthermore, these extraordinary exception articles of the Special Act on the Promotion of Urban Regeneration and Assistance cause various problems, such as unsystematic connection, overlapped application, and etc., in the formation of systematic legitimacyBased on these findings this research argues that it is necessary to analyze and arrange problems of existing urban arrangement acts focusing on urban infrastructures for the formation of reasonable systematic legitimacy within the acts.
  • 9.

    Das Abwägungsgebot als Kontrollmechanismus der planerischen Gestaltungsfreiheit

    KANG, HYUN HO | 2014, 66() | pp.204~225 | number of Cited : 14
    Das Abwägungsgebot ist vom deutschen Bundesverwaltungsgericht entwickelt worden, um die planerische Gestaltungsfreiheit noch strenger zu kontrollieren. Als Grundsätze des Abwägungsgebots sind die folgenden vier Grundsätzen zu bezeichnen: erstens, Abwägungsausfall, zweitens, Abwägungsdefizit, drittens, Abwägungsfehleinschätzung und viertens, Abwägungsdisproportionalität. Der Abwägungsausfall ist eigenartig für den Abwägungsvorgang und die anderen Grundsätze sind sowohl für Abwägungsvorgang als auch Abwägungsergebnis anzuwenden. Das Abwägungsgebot erschien als einen eigenartigen Kontrollmechanismus für die planerische Norm, die als eine Zweck-Mittel Norm zu qualifizieren ist, im Gegensatz zu der normalen Verwaltungsnorm, die als ein Wenn-Dann Schema zu charakterisieren ist. Die Erscheinung des Abwägungsgebots führt dazu, daß die Rechtskontrolle über die planerische Entscheidung noch strenger durchgeführt werden kann, im Gegensatz dazu, daß die Rechtskontrolle gegenüber die Planungsentscheidung erleichtert wird. Diese Tatsache basiert auf die Gesetzgebung, mit der das Parlament Regelungen so wie § 214 und § 215 BauGB erläßt, die die Rechtsfolge von Mängeln der Abwägungsvorgang begrenzen, weil viele Bauleitplänen wegen der Verletzung des Abwägungsgebotes anulliert werden. Darum funktioniert das Abwägungsgebot in Deutschland als ein Instrument der Interessenregulierung. Dieses Abwägungsgebot hat Korea übernommen und zwar die Stufe der Übernahme als drei zu gliedern: Die erste Stufe akzeptiert die Charakter als Verwaltungsakt von planerischer Entscheidung insbesondere die städtebauliche Planungsentscheidung, die zweite Stufe nimmt das Abwägungsgebot als eine Unterart von Verwaltungsermessenskontrolle und die dritte Stufe erhebt das Abwägungsgebot als einen eigenartigen Kontrollmechanismus, so daß die Mängel der Abwägung bei der Aufstellung der Städtebaupläne die Städteplanung zu ungültig führen. Aber in den koreanischen Gerichtsurteilen ist die Bedeutung des Abwägungsgebotes noch nicht genau zu begreifen, sondern eher in der gleichen Dimension wie die Verwaltungsermessenskontrolle zu untersuchen. Aber das Abwägungsgebot ist ein eigenartiges Kontrollmechanismus für die planerische Entscheidung und trägt in sich Vorgangskontrolle, Prognose und Alternative. Darum ist bei der koreanischen Gerichtsurteilen auch die besondere Berücksichtigung von den obengenannten Elementen der planerischen Entscheidungen und auch die verfeinerten Kontrollmaßstäbe zu benötigen.
  • 10.

    Issues on the Act on Public-Private Partnerships in Infrastructure for Guaranteeing Private Investment Business’s Transparency and Sustainability

    Sung-Soo Kim | 이장희 | 2014, 66() | pp.227~250 | number of Cited : 11
    Today, the legal relation between a nation and citizen has transformed to the cooperative constitutionalism. It is necessary to conduct an in-depth study on the issues on the Public-Private Partnership in legal theory and system from the perspective of the cooperative constitutionalism. The Public-Private Partnership also has the issues such as privatization, contracting-out, nation’s responsibility for the social security, and nation’s duty to protect the fundamental rights under discussion in public law system. However, first of all, we need to understand the problems brought up from the perspective of the private investment business’s transparency and sustainability. Then we can suggest an alternative and the perspective from legal theory and legislative policy. Consequently, people will trust the Public-Private Partnership to be a significant alternative to the current public service system. Afterwards, people will believe it can be better for the private sector to take charge of some parts of the public service. And people will have more confidence that they are actual participants in the government administration. In other words, people will be a true sovereign and the cooperative constitutionalism created by the Public-Private Partnership will be realized in the future.
  • 11.

    Sicherung der öffentliche Interess und der Wirtschaftlichkeit in Public-Private-Partnership - von Public Finance Initiative zu Rekommunalisierung -

    Kil Joon Kyu | 2014, 66() | pp.251~278 | number of Cited : 20
    Ursprünglich ist Public Private Partnership(PPP) in der Großbritannien zuerst als Alternative der Privatisierungen ausgeführt, um die Öffentlichkeit im von privaten gebauten Infrastrukturen zu sichern und Privaten zu kontrollieren. Damals ist es Public Finance Initiative (PFI) genannt. In 1990er Jahren ist es europaweite Akzeptanz genommen. Auch in Deutschland ist es im Verkehr, Wasser usw. angewendet. Aber ist die Folgen von Public Private partnership im Daseinsvorsorger sehr negativ. Aus diesem Grunde ist es um die Rekommunalisierung der privatisierten Dienstleistungen einschließlich von Public Private Partnership im Deutschland sehr umstritten. In Deutschland ist der Begriff Public Private Partnership auch als den deutschen übergesetzten Öffentliche Private partnership (ÖPP) verwendet. Dennoch gibt es kein einheitliche Definition. Auch in Europa ist der PPP-Begriff zwar oft im Recht gefunden, aber gibt es noch kein Rechtsbegriff, anders als Korea. Deswegen ist in dieser Untersuchung die Merkmale von Public Private Partnership dargestellt. In vorliegender Arbeit wird Public Private Partnership schrittweise rechtlich betrachtet. Vor allem soll die Offentlichkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit in Public Private Partnership gesichert werden und die Auflösungen der Probleme und der Korruption institutionell und rechtlich betrachtet.
  • 12.

    A Study on Government Body’s CCTV Monitoring and Privacy Protection

    Jang Kyo-Sik | 2014, 66() | pp.279~297 | number of Cited : 10
    Today, CCTV cameras are used in various fields for diverse purposes such as crime prevention, facility security and workplace monitoring in both private and public spheres. Of course, they are a very useful means of crime prevention & investigation, facility safety and traffic enforcement. At the same time, they are very controversial in terms of the infringement of privacy such as disclosure of personal information. It is true that the CCTV cameras were helpful in achieving administrative purposes. However, it is time to come up with a specific solution to their reverse functions. Under current laws, first of all, a privacy protection system is non-systematic. For the consistency and uniformity of regulations on visual information, it is required to execute new rules based on the concept of new personal visual information. Regarding the CCTV cameras, therefore, it is needed to enact special laws which regulate the entity which is allowed to install the CCTV cameras, installation place, type of equipment, operating method & procedure, control method and supervision method in addition to the current Personal Information Protection Act. Moreover, it is desirable for the local authority to establish and operate the CCTV cameras through an integrated control center for diverse purposes such as crime prevention and disaster prevention in terms of the development of a social safety network. However, there has been a rising demand for CCTV cameras among the public agencies. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper measures for privacy protection in the collection and use of personal information, supply of personal information to a third party and establishment of safety. In addition, there should be a strict control system to check if the CCTV cameras are properly used for legally permitted purposes only by observing the related laws and regulations. In addition, all individuals under the influence of the CCTV cameras should be given the right to freely express their opinions on their operation. Basically, they should have the right to check the existence of their personal information and read it. Furthermore, they should be able to raise objection and request the editing or deletion of their personal data. To be prepared against any rejection of this kind of request, there should be application for objection and remedy for violation of private right.
  • 13.

    Study on Legislation & Policy about Urban Safty of Local Government

    Cholho Choi | 2014, 66() | pp.299~325 | number of Cited : 8
    Local government has authority to prevent for residents from hazards, it is essential to enhance specialization of local residents’ safety. Local government communication network and preliminary emergency communication network should be established among the disaster-related organizations and agencies. Autonomy police objects on making sure public security of local areas and their residents’ safety so that it regards its basic role as improving residents’ life standards. It is studied on community policing system because community policing is necessary to prevent local area crime. we have to take the merits and defects of cctv into consideration when using cctv for the purpose of crime prevention. This paper suggests the ways to cooperate on crime prevention between local government and police in case of installing and operating the cctv. Firstly, local governments should cooperate with the police in order to share the expenses of cctv installation. To save the residents’ safety against from disaster, it is necessary to seek ways to improve urban planning in Korea. This study derives the implications by examining the practice of disaster prevention urban planning in Korea and presents the urban planning law for disaster prevention urban planning in Korea.
  • 14.

    Von Amts wegen und auf Antrag im Verwaltungsverfahren - insbes. zur Belehrung und Begründung -

    Kim, Hyun Joon | 2014, 66() | pp.327~351 | number of Cited : 3
    Das Verwaltungsverfahren ist von Amts wegen oder auf Antrag einzuleiten. Die Behörde darf kein Verwaltungsverfahren einleiten, wenn sie nur auf Grund eines Antrags tätig werden darf und kein Antrag vorliegt. Sie entscheidet nach pflichtgemäßem Ermessen, ob und wann sie ein Verwaltungsverfahren durchführt, es sei denn sie ist auf Grund von Rechtsvorschriften oder auf Grund eines Antrags zur Durchführung eines Verwaltungsverfahrens verpflichtet. Diese grundlegenden Begriffe, die jedoch in der Literatur häufig vernachlässigt werden, sind erfordlich zur systematischen Erörterung der verschiedenen Verwaltungsrechtsprobleme. Umstritten ist, ob §21 des koreanischen Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetzes(KVwVfG) auch in Fällen angewendet wird, in denen ein Antrag auf einen begünstigenden Verwaltungsakt abgelehnt wird. Die Rechtsprechung geht davon aus, dass die Ablehung in Rechte einer Partei nicht eingreift und die Anwendung des §23 KVwVfG dabei ausgeschlossen werden soll. Die Ablehnung einer Vergünstigung ist m.E. auch als Eingriff im Sinne von §21 KVwVfG erfassen werden muss, da sie vor allem in Antragsrechte der Partei eingreift. Wenn zufolge der Rechtprechung das Verfahren nach §21 KVwVfG bei der Ablehnungsverfügung nicht angewendet wird, soll die Begründungspflicht der Behörde nach §23 KVwVfG anders als bei dem von Amts wegen belastenden Verwaltungsakt interpretiert werden, weil der Antragsteller keine Angelegenheit hat, seine Stellungnahme mitzuteilen. Auch daraus ergibt sich, dass die Unterscheidung von dem belastenden Verwaltungsakt und der Ablehnungsverfügung im Zusammenhang mit der Nachschiebung der Gründen nötig ist.
  • 15.

    Government3.0 and Communication - Centered in the Legal Relation between Government and Local Government -

    Jeong Kuk Won | 2014, 66() | pp.353~375 | number of Cited : 2
    Korean constitution law has regulations about separate local government in chapter 8 to realize coexistence and co-development between central governments and local governments. The local autonomy which is guaranteed by national constitution as fundamental principle of the nation doesn't establish the relation between national government and local government vertically but co-existing one. Despite of it, our reality fixs the vertical relation between central and local governments, one way relation, and dependant relation through nation's authorities and finances. Recently, entering Park, Geunhye government, the paradigm of the government has been called "government3.0". Through communication, information was shared with people. Customed-service was provided to each individual. It also intended to create jobs. There are many assumptions communication should be premised. 'Recognizing the others, attitude to care others first, self-sacrifice discarding oneself, reliability establishment to believe someone to do so.', etc. Between central and local governments, the role of the nation is not vertical but government3.0 to do all the roles. Communication has become an essential factor to operate nations successfully. With new paradigms of the governments, the objectives of government3.0 lie in realizing communication between central and local governments, communication between local government and citizens, communication between government and people in order to realize national development and people's happiness. In order to secure government3.0 beyond slogan, first the relation between central and local governments should be established as cooperative one rather than vertical one. Second, the authorities of central government should be transferred to local government. Third, most of all, in order to secure self-autonomy finance of local government, national taxes should turn into local taxes. Fourth, in the projects that local government persons, in case that national subsidy is received, it must be publicized to secure objectivity. Fifth, the personnel exchange between local and central governments should be active.
  • 16.

    A Study on a State of German Emergency

    Moon-Hyun Koh | 2014, 66() | pp.377~402 | number of Cited : 2
    Considering historical background that Hitler took power by the article 48 of Weimar Constitutional Law, Bonn Basic Law of 1949 did not provide powerful articles that give president power to dictatorship. We can tell from this that German people regretted the article 48 of Weimar Constitutional Law. It was also held under Allied Army to take an emergency power. Therefore, they don't need constitutionalization on an emergency power. By the way, it is noteworthy that we neglect an important fact on article 48 of Weimar Constitutional Law. That is to say, concrete measure is delegated to a law by article 48 of Weimar Constitutional Law. But a law was not made by the parliament at that time. It is not possible for us to conclude that absence of a law on an emergency power brought about destruction of Weimar Republic directly. But it can fall that a state can be destroyed in case of disruption of the constitution. Accordingly, this kind of provision casts a long shadow to us in that institutional remedial means is indispensible to overcome emergency of a state in post-war Germany. In this article, we examine German Constitutional Law on a state of emergency of 1968 first, and then constitutional principle on defence in Bonn Basic Law, and finally draw some implications from jurisprudence of German Basic Law on a state of emergency.
  • 17.

    A Study on the legislation and policy relating to the Multicultural welfare

    Kim Hun | 2014, 66() | pp.403~433 | number of Cited : 0
    Korean society still has racial discrimination problem toward migrant workers, married immigrants, children of multicultural families, and so on. Furthermore, supporting polices on multicultural families force married immigrants and children of multicultural families into being educated and adapted from our point of view, disregarding their language and culture. As a result, this study focuses on related law and policy to supporting multicultural families at the practical policy of multicultural welfare and human rights of multicultural society. So the premises ares incere society unification and effort to enhance cultural diversity. In other words, nation and the local governments require to acknowledge and embrace various culture, and help multicultural families have prideas a member of Korea. Human rights of multicultural families, minor and vulnerable social and economic group, should be treated specially, and it cannot be seemed to violate rights of equality or justice. This is discrimination with rational reason, a short cut to take social responsibilities toward human rights and realize social unification. To summarize this research, it focused on multiple culture, concept of multicultural families and related law in the chapter 1 of background of discussion: multicultural welfare related law, policies and programs (basic plan of policies on foreigners and multicultural families) in the chapter2: examples of guarantee for human rights in Korean and the United States in the third chapter: subtitling conclusion, problems and direction of improvement of multicultural welfare related law and policy in the chapter 4.
  • 18.

    The Autonomy of University and Guarantee of Participation for Members of University - Focusing on the Case of National University -

    Pyo, Myoung-Hwan | 2014, 66() | pp.435~454 | number of Cited : 10
    The University is provided as the one of school on the high-education law which is established on the base of constitution. Constitution secures the autonomy for this university. The autonomy of university is secured for university as the fundamental right on the constitution. This paper is started from the investigation about two track on the autonomy of university: One track is the autonomy of university from state. The other is the right for the realization by members of university. This paper investigate on the problem that is related with the protection by the relevant law with the autonomy of university. This paper presents so the method of the improvement on its problem originated from the relevant law with the autonomy of university: First, Law have to provide evidently the charachter of university. Second, I for members of university has to be provides by the relevant law. Third, The participation of members of university is secured by relevant law and has to be protected in process of establishment of university regulations. Fourth, The Execution of election of President of University has to be carried out in accordance with relevant law.
  • 19.

    Zum Schulverhältnis und Vorbehalt des Gesetzes - hauptsächlich am Beispiel des deutschen Schulrechts

    최정일 | 2014, 66() | pp.455~494 | number of Cited : 1
    Die Figur des besonderen Gewaltverhältnisses hatte in der verwaltungsrechtlichen Doktrin Otto Mayers ihren systemgerechten Platz. Sie umschrieb jene rechtsfreien Enklaven des konstitutionellen Staates. Dass es solche Räume unter der Geltung des Grundgesetzes prinzipiell nicht geben kann, ist heute selbstverständlich. Diese Umorientierungen betreffen drei Aspekte im Schulverhältnis : Die Erstreckung des Gesetzesvorbehaltes auf das Schlverhältnis, die Geltung und Gewährleistung von Grundrechten im Schulverhältnis und die Erstreckung des Rechtsschutzes auf das Schulverhältnis. Die von der Verfassung nicht ausdrücklich geregelte Frage der Kompetenzverteilung zwischen Parlament und Exekutive, d.h. Weite und Tiefe des Gesetzesvorbehaltes, wirft juristisch kaum lösbare Abgrenzungschwierigkeiten auf. Die von der Rechtsprechung begründete sog. Wesentlichkeitstheorie verdient den Namen “Theorie” strenggenommen nicht. Denn die These, dass das Parlament im Schulrecht alle “wesentlichen” Entscheidungen zu treffen hat, enthält ebenso Selbstverständliches wie Nichtssagendes. Die Wesentlichkeit einer zu regelnden Frage wird im Einzelfall regelmässig zu Kontroversen, zumindest aber zu Zweifeln Anlass geben. Den Prägnantesten Bezug des Wesentlichkeitsmerkmales hat das BVerfG im Sexualkundebeschluss hergestellt, als es ausführte, im grundrechtsrelevanten Bereich bedeute “wesentlich” in der Regel “wesentlich für die Verwirklichung der Grundrechte.”Der entscheidende Wandel und Fortschritt der Wesentlichkeitstheorie ist darin zu sehen, dass der Vorbehalt des Gesetzes von seiner Bindung an überholte Formeln [Eingriff in Freiheit und Eigentum] gelöst worden ist und Umfang und Reichweite des Parlamentsvorbehalts unabhängig von der klassischen Freiheit – und Eigentum – Formel neu bestimmt werden können. Während beim Wesentlichkeitskriterium allein nicht immer deutlich wird, ob es zur Begründung des Parlamentsvorbehalts oder lediglich des Rechtssatzvorbehalts herangezogen wird, hat das BVerfG zur Begründung des Parlamentsvorbehalt abgestellt. Neben dem grundrechtlichen Parlamentsvorbehalt wird in Rechtsprechung und Literatur für die Annahme eines Parlamentsvorbehalts gelegentlich darauf gestellt, ob eine Entscheidung von “allgemeiner politischer Brisanz” ist. Die Wesentlichkeitslehre konkretisiert die Selbstentscheidungspflicht des Gesetzgebers nicht nur durch ein partielles Delegationsverbot, sondern setzt dem Gesetzgeber auch Vorgaben für die inhaltliche Dichte der von ihm zu treffenden Regelungen. Zur Begrenzung nur verwaltungsmässig legitimierter staatlicher Schulbefugnisse trug seit den siebzigen Jahren letzten Jahrhunderts die aus dem Zusammenspiel von Demokratie – und Rechtsstaatsprinzip abgeleitete Wesentlichkeitstheorie bei. Diese Rechtsprechung zur Wesentlichkeitstheorie hatte für das Schulwesen die rechtliche Auswirkung, dass die übernommene Konzeption des Verhältnisses des Schülers zur Schule als “besonderes Gewaltverhältnis” stark modifiziert werden musste. Die nunmehr herrschende Lehre und Rechtsprechung sieht den Schüler zwar weiterhin in einem besonderen Pflichtenverhältnis zur Schule. In den grundrechtsrelevanten Bereichen bedarf es jedoch parlamentarisch legitimierter Gesetze oder mindestens entsprechender gesetzlicher Ermächtigungen, um die Beziehungen des Schülers zur Schule auszugestalten. Damit waren ältere gewohnheitsrechtliche Ermächtigungsgrundlagen zum Erlass untergesetzlicher allgemeiner Schulregelungen nicht mehr mit der Verfassung vereinbar. Art. 7 Abs. 1 GG kann unter dem Wesentlichkeitsvorbehalt zugunsten des demokratischen Gesetzgebers nicht mehr als Ermächtigungsnorm zur schulrechtlichen Rechtsetzung durch die Schulverwaltung dienen. In diesem Artikel werden die wichtgsten Auseinandersetzungen über den Vorbehalt des Gesetzes[Parlamentsvorbehalt] im Schulrecht in Deutschland Einsicht gennomen, damit einige wichtige Gesichtspunkte davon hilfreich für das koreanische Schulrecht über den Vorbehalt des Gesetzes werden könnten.
  • 20.

    The National Emergency Power in the England

    BAEK YUN CHUL | 2014, 66() | pp.495~514 | number of Cited : 4
    A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that announces that the country is in a state of emergency. This means that the government can suspend and/or change some functions of the executive, the legislative and or the judiciary during this period of time. It alerts citizens to change their normal behaviour and orders government agencies to implement emergency plans. A government can declare a state of emergency during a time of natural or man-made disaster, during a period of civil unrest, or following a declaration of war or situation of international/internal armed conflict. Justitium is its equivalent in Roman law. It can also be used as a rationale for suspending rights and freedoms, even if those rights and freedoms are guaranteed under the Constitution. Some countries do not have an embedded Constitution such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Legislation covers a state of emergency in these countries. Under the protocol of the ICCPR, rights and freedoms may be suspended during a state of emergency, for example, a government can detain citizens and hold them without trial. All rights that can be derogated from are listed in the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights. Some sources argue that non-derogable rights cannot be suspended.[ In the United Kingdom, the British Sovereign, the Privy Council, or the Prime Minister is able to proclaim emergency regulations under the Civil Contingencies Act 2004 in case of any seriously fatal threats to their human welfare, their human society, and their environment such as; warfare or terrorism. These regulations last for seven days unless confirmed otherwise by Parliament. A state of emergency had been last invoked in 1974 by Prime Minister Edward Heath in response to increasing industrial action.
  • 21.

    The Essence of Foregift and Public Law Solution

    Min, Tae-Wook | 2014, 66() | pp.515~535 | number of Cited : 15
    Foregift for store is widely spreaded business practice in korea. New lessee pays foregift to former lessee for business premium. The amount that the new lessee pays is very large amount even which reachs to hundred millions. Lessee who paid foregift wants to recollect the money from new lessee who rents the store. But it is uncertain because in the lease contact lessor prohibits foregift receiving. The business practice and legal order for foregift is conflict, which cause many troubles. So many scholars insist that the foregift should be protected by law. But legal protection for foregift has many legal problems because it require lessors who has no responsibility for foregift to play major role. Before preparing legal protection, it is necessary to examine that current foregift system is worth keeping. Many people believe that foregift is the price of location, or business premium, or facilities of store. But the profit for location is reflected in rent that is belong to lessor not former lessee. Former lessee can receive the foregift for business premium if he pass the know-how which earns extra profit to new lessee. Only reasonable price for business premium or facilities is deserve for protection. Current foregift which is traded in market is too high compare to reasonable price. So it is need to correct current foregift system. First, foregift that is now evaded by concealment should be taxed by the principle of substantial taxation. Second, foregift trade is controled by Licensed Real Estate Act. If former lessee want to receive foregift, he should submit evidentiary material that make reasonable calculation to real estate agent.