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2015, Vol.72, No.

  • 1.

    Rechtliche Untersuchung zur Spendeannahme des Staatseigentums

    Jonghyun Seok | 2015, 72() | pp.1~38 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    .Diese Abhandlung beschäfitigt sich mit dem System über Spendeannahme des Eigentums zu Gunsten der kommunalen Selbstverwaltungskörperschten oder dem Staat. Der Staat und die Selbstverwaltungskörperschten kann die Spende des Spender-Bodeneigentums ohne Entgelt annehmen. Diese Spendeannahme versteht man als bürgerrechtliches Schenken. Das Staatsvermögensgesetz und Vermögensgesetz der Selbstverwaltungskörperschten schreibt diese Spenndeannahme vor. wobei das Vermögen zwischen dem Staatsvermögen und dem Vermögen der Selbstverwaltungskörperchaften zu unterscheiden ist. Das Finanzministerium ist zuständig für das Staatsvermögen. Aber diese Befugnisse des Ministeriums übt die untere Behörde oder öffentiche Anstalt aufgrund der gesetzlichen Ermächtigung aus. Im Verwaltungspraxis taucht die Frage auf, ob das Staatsvermögen zu Gunsten der Selbstverwaltungskörperschaften gespendet werden sollte. Über die Eigentumsspende im kommunalen Verwaltung regelt die Satzungen der jeweiligen Gemeinderat oder Verwaltungsvorschriften sowie Anweisung des Bürgermeisters. Das Bauplanungsrecht schreibt hinsichtlich der baulichen Nutzung des Grundstücke und Bodens sehr einschränkend vor. Daher baulicher Vorhaben muss von der Baubehörde genehmigt werden. Auf dem Genehmigungsverfahren erfordert die kommunalen Baubehörde durch Auflage eine Spende der Baugrundstücke. Über die Umfang der Grundstücke-Spende regelt die Verwaltungsvorschriften oder Anweisung der kommunalen Behörde. Es ist hier eine Frage zu erheben, ob die bauliche Nutzung des Staatsvermögens auch zu Gunsten der Gemeinde gespendet werden sollte, wobei diese Frage noch nicht gesetzlich geregelt worden ist. Dieser Beitrag vertritt der Meinung, dass das Staatsvermögen hinsichtlich der baulichen Nutzungen zu Gunsten der Gemeinde nicht gespendet werden sollte und dem entsprechend Gesetzänderungen für notwendig wäre.
  • 2.

    Inhaltsbestimmung des Eigentums als Entschaedigungsgrund

    Hae-Ryoung Kim | 2015, 72() | pp.39~59 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    .Bei dieser Abhandlung handelt es sich um die verfassungsrechtliche Schutz des Eigentums und die aufgrund des oeffentlichen Zweckes ermoegliche Eingriffe auf dem Eigentum. Nach dem Art. 23 koreanischen Verfassung ergibt sich zwei Arten von Eigentumseingriffe. Einerseits kann der Gesetzgeber den Inhalt des Eingentums verkleineren oder verengern und anderseits kann die Verwaltung mit oeffentlichen Zweck den private Eingentum einteignen. Den ersten Fall nennt man als Inhaltbestimmung des Eigentums. Bei desem Fall, soweit dadurch eine schmerzte besondere Opfer gegenueber den Eigentumer verursagt wird, soll entschaedigt werden. Hier ergit sich eine Frage, ob bei dieser sog. entschedigungsbeduerftigen Inhaltsbestimmung fuer die Entschaedigung gegenueber denj Enteigung unterschiedliche Kriteria bedarf oder nicht. Fuer dieser rechtstheoretischen Problematik wird verschiedene Rechtsauffassung von Gerichte und Litratur disskutiert. Bei deser Abhandlung wird unter diesem Thema einzene Schwerfunt auseinandergesetzt.
  • 3.

    A Study on Regular Management System for State-owned Properties

    Lim, Hyung Taek | Jang Kyo-Sik | 2015, 72() | pp.61~83 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    There has been a shift of paradigm in the repair and maintenance of state-owned properties from passive to active management around the world. As a result, South Korean government also attempted to amend its legal system. Despite change in the legal system, however, active management of state-owned properties hasn’t been implemented. To manage national properties in an active manner, in general, it is needed to establish a proper plan based on a proper survey and systematically combine a 3-stage process which is needed to carry out the plan. According to a survey on state-owned properties, in particular, a certain problem (ex: The occupation of state property without permission, abandonment of idle land, etc.) can occur. In terms of the management of state-owned properties, therefore, dynamic management which examines them regularly as well as static management which checks them occasionally is required. In the Ministry of Strategy and Finance, however, only about 30 people are now in control of national properties. Furthermore, it is hard to examine their current conditions due to lack of budget. To solve these problems, the government body might be able to increase the staff or establish a cooperative governance system with professional organizations. However, the former suggestion can cause a government organization’s non-professionalism, delay in decision-making process and economic inefficiency. Therefore, it would be more desirable to establish a regular management system through cooperative governance with an organization which is specialized in the management of state-owned properties. It appears that this kind of a regular management system would strengthen the ground for the efficient utilization of state-owned properties.
  • 4.

    A Study on Setting on the Role of Council of Lessees' Representatives and Management Entity in Public Law

    Jae Kwang Kim | 2015, 72() | pp.85~115 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    According to the "2014 Housing Survey" announced by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in April 15, 2015, the rates of home ownership and home owner-occupied of the low-income have declined. This indicates a deteriorating housing stability. Therefore, the policies of public rental housing need to be pushed ahead more systematically. In that respect, "Special Act on Public Housing" and "Special Act on the Construction, Etc. of Private Housing" legislated recently are necessary to be compensated with provisions of rental housing management, unlike "Rental Housing Act". This results from change in the perception transferring 'ownership' into 'residence'. But, there are no specific laws to establish or amend a separate 'Rental Housing Management Rules'. In this regard, the management field of rental housing may has been neglected. Nevertheless, residents living in a rental housing project should make or revise management rules based on relevant laws. Making each management rules, they establish it on the detail basis of 'Standard Apartment Management Rules' made by related department of metropolitan city. These standards founded on relevant laws have contributed to produce the most proper management rules to solve the real problems. Meanwhile, management structure of rental housing can not build the rental relationship like normal housing, because it consists of council of lessees' representatives constituted by lessees and management entity appointed or consigned by rental business operator. Therefore, roles of two management bodies(council of lessees' representatives and management entity by rental business operator) should be analyzed in advance in order to analyze the management structure of rental housing. This article focuses on comparing and analyzing authorities of council of lessees' representatives and management entity related to task, such as appointment of management entity, formulation and revision of the regulations on the management of the rental housing, budget approvals and expenditure including management expenses, managing account of management expense, and operating expense of council of lessees' representatives and election committee etc.. In conclusion, the two special acts related to public rental housing which were recently made should have specific provisions about follow-up management and supervision of rental housing, because of the trends that the higher the preference for public rental housing rises, the more the strife between the tenants and lease operators increases. And it is necessary to enact a separate regulations of 'Rental housing management Rules' for rental house only.
  • 5.

    Revision Direction for Rental House Law

    Min, Tae-Wook | 2015, 72() | pp.117~140 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    As rental house system is converted from key money deposit to monthly rent, many tenants suffer for increased burden and it becomes social problem. The Government respond this problem by attempt to increase private rental house. Recently law that is related rental house is revised sharply. Revised law gives favors to private rental house business operator. Not only financial support and special taxation that are general means, but also zoning and building law favors are supplied to. Even a greenbelt zone can be dissolved for private rental house business operator to build rental house. But proper favors should be restricted to financial support and special taxation. Rental house should comply with zoning and building law that promotes the public interest. Favor for a greenbelt zone should be abolished. If not, restitution of development gain should be introduced or rental house should be keep for long times. It is desirable to concentrate favors to big business operator and impose correspond public duty. Public rental house that is offered to low-income group cheaply should be built by public finance not by private loan. The fundamental solution for residence unstability of non-houseowner is not revival of key money deposit system but reasonable rental price that non-houseowner is affordable. It is important that house price is keep in reasonable level compare to non-houseowner’s income. So it is in need that law related rental house pursue house price stability in comprehensive and long–term viewpoint.
  • 6.

    Étude juridique sur la Planification des espaces maritimes en France

    KIM JI-YOUNG | 2015, 72() | pp.141~166 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Par rapport aux espaces territoriaux, en raison de spécificités, on ne s’interesse pas aux espaces maritimes. Toutefois l’utilisation croissante et non cordonnée des zones maritimes et cô̂tières engendre une concurrence pour l’espace cô̂tier et maritimes et une inefficace et non durable ressources naturelles. Il est essentiel d’assurer une répartition optimales de l’espaces maritimes entre les parties intéressées et une gestion coordonnée des zones cô̂tiers pour permettre à des activités concurrentes de se déployer. En ce qui concerne des spécificités des espaces maritimes, elles ont tout d’abord plusieurs dimentions. En deuxième lieu elles font l’objet des domaines publics, ne font pas l’objet de la propriété. En troisième lieu malgrè que ce domaine ait besoin de vision stratégique et intégrée, on peut voir en ce domaine des planifications sectorielles, une gouvernance inadaptée. Depuis au milieu de 2000 l’Union europénne s’est donné pour objectif de devenir une économie intelligente et durable. Les secteurs maritimes sont des domaines ouvert à l’innovation, à la croissance durable et à la création d’emplois. La planification de l’espace maritime est communément entendue comme un processus public consistant à analyser et à planifier la répartition spatiale et des activités economiques dans les zones maritimes pour atteindre des objectifs économiques, environnementaux et sociaux. L’objectif de la planication de l’espace maritime est d’établir des programme pour déterminer les utilisations de l’espace maritime par diverses activités. En outre la gestion intégrée des zones cô̂tière est un instrument de gestion intégrée de tous les processus politiques concernant la zone littorale, qui taite les interactions terre-mer des activités de manière coordonnée afin d’assurer le développement durable des zones. De nombreuses politiques maritimes sectorielles sont conduites par la France en mer et sur littoral. Les limites de l’organisation sectorielle sont intensifiées et ont evoluées. Il est difficile de faire cohabiter les différents usages, et de ce fait, d’optimiser l’utilisation des espaces cô̂tiers et de réduire des conflits d’usage croissant. Pour la construction et la mise en oeuvre d’une politique maritime nationale, la Fance commence à élaborer une stratégie nationale pour la mer et le littoral(SNML). La SNML est déclinée en métropole, par des documents stratégique de façade et en outre-mer par des cocuments stratégiques de bassin maritime. La politique intégrée de la mer et du littoral articule, tant au niveau national et qu’au niveau territoriale, deux dimensions essentielles; une nouvelle gouvernance impliquant l’ensemble d’acteurs de la mer et du littoral, une vision stratégique et un cadre cohérent d’action, qui tiennent compte de la diversité des problématique maritimes et littorale. Depuis 2010, la France a induit pour les SCoT(Shéma de cohérence territoriale) et les PLU(plan local d’urbanisme) une obligation d’annalyse de la consommation d’espaces pour mise en oeuvre cohérence entre tous les deux.
  • 7.

    An Study of the Problem and Alternative Idea on the Early Selling Scheme - Focusing on the Ten-Year Public Rental Housing -

    Sunbae Lee | 2015, 72() | pp.167~196 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    Public rental housing units, with an option to be owned at the end of a ten-year obligatory rental period, started to be constructed in Pankyo New Town from May, 2006. When they were rented to tenants, any guidelines for calculating prices relating to the prospective conversion of public rental housing for sale had not been established except for an upper limit therefor. In June 25, 2009, the regulation governing the obligatory rental period was relaxed. If a public rental housing business and a tenant agrees to make conversion of a rental housing unit for sale after the obligatory rental period reaches a half of the period, an earlier conversion than the expiration of the obligatory 10-year period could be made. However, the regulatory relaxation raised a question. When the concerned parties agree to make an earlier conversion, the most important matter is to decide a price for conversion. However, since appropriate guidelines for calculating such price did not exist, only the provision prescribing that such a conversion could be made only if both of the parties reach an agreement had been applied to the transactions of publicly-built rental housing units, which is quite a similar way in transacting privately-built housing units. A problem arising in such cases was that public rental housing business operators, who were supposed to work for the pubic interest, pursued their profits and there was no good faith principle shown in the process For instance, conversions made earlier than the expiration of the ten-year period in August 2015 were based upon the prices relating to conversion of public rental housing units for sale (appraisal prices) in which the public rental housing entity unilaterally asked tenants to pay for public rental housing units constructed at A3-2 block in Pankyo new town. In comparing and analysing profits gained by the public rental business entity and by the tenants, it turned out that the business entity gained a net profit (343,370,000 won) while the tenants lost (-53,640,000 won). This type of early conversion system had provided rental business entities an opportunity to hit a jackpot in taking advantage of tenants’ weakness. In the name of constructing public rental housing, the ownership of housing sites from public institutions was transferred to the rental business entity in exchange for 65 ~ 85 percent of the costs to prepare housing sites. The State neglected that those business entities had been sought their profits, which would be almost like the abandonment of governmental authority This study suggests securing a normal profit, which is 15 percent of construction costs, as the guidelines for conversion at the expiration of an obligatory rental period. The rental business entity can end up being paid depreciation costs, rental deposits, and increased rents incurred during the obligatory rental period in addition to the normal profit guaranteed. As a result, the total profits gained from the sale in lots of rental housing can be 1.4 times larger than those gained from sale in lots of privately-built housing. When applying this proposal to conversion earlier than the expiration of an obligatory rental period, securing a profit rate not exceeding 50 percent shall be provided in addition to the guaranteed reasonable profit rate of 15 percent. If restriction not to exceed the total max profit of 22.5 percent (= 15 percent + 7.5 percent) is imposed in consideration of depreciation costs and increased rents during the obligatory rental period, such restriction may refrain the business entity from gaining potential profits occurred when earlier conversion is deliberately delayed by the rental business entity. At the expiration of a obligatory rental period, the same rule of the maximum 22.5 percent of profit rate can be applied. Securing a normal profit suggested in this study has an advantage as a total solution to resolve issues, which have neutralized the Rental Housing Act so far, regarding the exploitation of tenants caused by earlier conversion, the threat of livelihood that tenant might to face during an obligatory rental period, rent increase, the selection and evaluation of appraisal business entities, management and supervision conducted by a relevant Sis, Guns, or Gus, and most of all, conflicts caused in allocating benefits between public rental housing business and tenants. In particular, the proposal can be an alternative to contribute in accomplishing the purpose of the provisions of Article 21-3 (Reexamination of Regulation) of the Enforcement Rule of the Rental Housing Act.
  • 8.

    Legal problems and improvement of taxation on residential rental income

    KIM, NAM WOOK | 2015, 72() | pp.197~221 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    The securing people and middle layer dwelling stable, adjusting the economic housing market, is a national issue. Country while focus on that by issuing large card of activation of the effect is large construction business of recovery of the recession and to supply the house, we have been providing a variety of real estate policy and legal institutional apparatus and tax policy.enetration rate of 103% even though the self of housing ownership rate accounted for 58%, in order to cope with the declining birthrate, super-aged society, and income taxation of fundamentally rental housing We have requested the change and improvement of the d However, ordinary people and the middle class intends to conduct life in comfortable and happy home. The fact is that harm large people of residence stability by continued rise in house prices and charter rent price. In particular on the basis of the 2014, residential petergent policy on the law. Therefore, after explaining the significance of housing and housing rental income, South Korea and Japan, on the United States of the Income Tax Act, the taxation of residential rental income comparison legally discussed, exploring the suggestion of our country, of the Income Tax Act on the common people strengthening housing stability function, taxation from business income taxed as real estate income, small-scale comprehensive taxation of residential rental income, equitable taxation improvement of residential rental income, to ensure the clarity of the taxation system of residential rental income issues such as legal issues We presented the improvement measures.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Reorganization of Land System in North Korea after Reunification

    seung-il, park | 2015, 72() | pp.223~257 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to seek the reorganization of Land System in North Korea after reunification. The reorganization of land system in the North after reunification is the most critical factor in changing the socialist system to a market economy. The issue of privatization for land is not only closely associated with personal property, but also has great socio-economic effects according to process or method. At this point of time, this study finds appropriate land system in North Korea preparing for upcoming reunification of North and South Korea. After the land system of North Korea changes unified land system based on the capitalistic market economy, the operation of it should fit the situation of the unified Korea. Recently, North Korea has installed the special economic zones in the North, based on openness and reform experience of China. At the same time, changes are happening in the land system of North Korea based on Chinese experiences. Private ownership system in North Korea has been partially revived. From this point of time, this studies draw an implication from cases on the reorganization of land system in unified Germany, Russia and China. These cases on the reorganization of land system can provide a lot of implications for establishing property issues, land use and management policies. In addition, these can have a very important meaning to minimize confusion and errors when land system is reorganized in unified Korea.
  • 10.

    Reconsideration of Compesation for Premium in Urban-Rehabilitation Project Based on Legislation for Premium

    NO HANJANG | 2015, 72() | pp.259~282 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Premium for commercial buildings is a widely spread business practice that it has long been taken for granted in usual activated business area. The amount of premium for commercial buildings in Korea has been put at around 30 trillion won. Regardless of its practical substance and important function in the economy of ordinary people, give-and take of premium has been left exclusively from legal protection in the name of principle of private autonomy because there has been no positive laws regarding premium. Accordingly, premium for retail buildings has been treated case by case by commercial customs and judicial precedents until the amended Commercial Building Lease Protection Act(2015.5.13.) what is called Protection Act for Premium was executed. Legislation for premium through incorporating into the legal system has special meaning and historical significance in that It does consolidate the protection of lessees’ premium recovery. However, the purpose of amended Commercial Building Lease Protection Act was to further protect lessees’ premium withdrall just in the private judicial area that it contains various limitations in the area of public compensation for premium. Above all, current judicial legal system doesn’t accept the compensation for premium in the process of urban-rehabilitation project yet despite the legislation of premium for commercial buildings. The absence of positive law about compensation for premium in expropriation, use or restriction of private property from public necessity is also important limitation because Constitution of the Republic of Korea(Article 23) adopt the ‘Junktim-Klausel’ for guarantee of property rights. To remedy current unconstitutional situation above mentioned, this study suggests some legislative improvement approaches as follow: Firstly, it need to recognize based on new perspective that premium come under guarantee of property rights. Second, the compensation code for infringement of lessees’ commercial premium by expropriation, use or restriction of private property from public necessity should be specified on the positive law. Finally, the concrete criterion for premium appraisal need to be established to protect lessees’ reasonable compensation as a fundamental human rights.
  • 11.

    The Study on the School Sports Promotion Act and the role of subordinated ordinances

    Woo-Suk Chae | 2015, 72() | pp.283~304 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The School Sports Promotion Act (the "Act") has been enacted and it has came into force on January 27th 2013. The Act has been enacted to provide students with normalized gym classes which will enhance the serious social phenomenon of students reduced stamina resulting from concentration in college entrance while neglecting gym activities. Furthermore the Act includes students' right to attend classes for those aiming to become professional athletes. In order to effectively fulfil the goals of the Act, the composition of the subordinated ordinance with the delegated authority from the Act is crucial. People from both ends of the spectrum are discussing the composition and enactment of the subordinated ordinances. In this regard this study will organize the opinions from the working-level and analyze the ways to fulfill these opinions via legislation. However it will require much time, effort and revenue in order to effectively settle the subordinated ordinances within our soceity. Furthermore in-depth discussions in securing revenue and setting financial support system are much anticipated.
  • 12.

    Review of Laws on Safety of Structures- With the Focus on the Safety of High-Rise Buildings and Public Use Facilities -

    Heo, Kang Moo | 2015, 72() | pp.305~324 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Recently, there has been an increase in constructions of mega-sized shopping malls, skyscrapers and high-rise apartments. High-rise buildings and public use facilities involve the risks of accidents due to the high volume of floating population and residents population. Laws on structures, however, currently are not sufficiently prepared with safety measures for such risks or prevention facilities. As a result, the number of casualties from various accidents and fire from high-rise buildings and public use facilities is now at a critical level. Although a significant portion of the laws on safety of structures has been amended, reflecting the series of big accidents, it is not enough to rectify the problems caused by the general alleviation of regulations. Unless the trend that acknowledges structures as profit-generating objects and approaches mostly from a profit and commercial angle is changed, it is highly likely that accidents related to structures will repeat. Accordingly, safety of structures should be the top priority of organizing the laws related to structures. This research reviews the laws on safety of structures with the focus on safety of high-rise buildings and public use facilities with the aim of making policy recommendations on improvement projects in future. This research consists of the following chapters: (a) Chapter Ⅱ explores the general status of laws on safety of structures; (b) Chapter Ⅲreviews improvement projects for laws on safety of structures; and (c) Chapter Ⅳ makes recommendations on regulation policies on safety of structures.
  • 13.

    Legal Review for the Managerial Efficiency of Child Care Facilities

    Oh Sam Gwang | 2015, 72() | pp.325~341 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The primary goal of child welfare is to protect children to ensure their successful physical, social and psychological development to promote their wellbeing. That is comprehensive of policies, laws and services that are respectively formulated, enacted and provided by the government, social groups or individuals in various fields of society, economic, education and health. The protection of children at home is basically required to promote child welfare. In modern society, however, there is a great increase in the number of children who aren't protected by their parents or guardians at home due to divorce, increasing single mothers, child abuse or neglect. Child welfare facilities are the institutions that are run by the national government, local governments or private organizations to provide social welfare services to improve their quality of life, guarantee their welfare and let them grow up in a safe and happy way. So far, child welfare facilities have just focused on simple rearing and protection to accommodate children in need of protection. But the number of children who are in need of institutional care due to various complicated family reasons is on the rise, and the reason they need institutional care should closely be analyzed to provided them with a welfare center and programs tailored to their needs so that they could live a successful social life. Accordingly, child welfare centers should try to strengthen their professionalism to offer more specialized counseling and therapeutic services. As one of the parents of 90 percent or more of children in child welfare facilities is alive at least, all-out efforts should be made to help them to return to their families of origin. In addition, no support is provided for them to become socially and financially self-reliant after leaving child welfare facilities. So follow-up services should be offered in collaboration with local organizations. Children are one of important members of society who will be the mainstay of the future. Conventional large families have gradually been replaced with individual-centered nuclear families, and there is a big change in the way of looking at children. Specifically, children's environments are increasingly getting worse in modern society, and all the government, society and families should make concerted efforts to address their diverse needs and tackle their problems. How to ensure the welfare of children in need of care on a selective basis to let them grow up in better environments should carefully be considered.
  • 14.

    Eine Studie über die Revision des Gesetz zur Schutz und Ermittelung von Bodendenkmälern

    Shin, Okju | 2015, 72() | pp.343~369 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Das Gesetz zur Schutz und Ermittelung von Bodendenkmälern ist zwecks der Erhaltung und des Weitergebens der Kultur des Volks 2010. erlassen worden. Bodendenkmälern sind die Erbe für jetzige Generation, die die kommende Generation weiter zu geben verpflichtet. Denkmalpflege ist es, Bodendenkmäler zu erhalten und vor Zerstörung zu bewahren. Im Gesetz ist das Prinzip der originalen Erhaltung von Bodendenkmälern klar bestimmt. Das Prinzip ist bei der Massnahmen der Denkmalschutz und -pflege zu beachten. Weil sie einzigartige Zeugnisse der Vergangenheit sind, sind sie prinzipiell die Bodendenkmäler sind in ihren originalen Fundzusammenhang eingebettet zu bleiben. Man vermutete schon früher, unter jetzigem Konstrukturen des Gesetzes, die das Gesetz ohne Ziel, Inhalt und Umfang alles auf das präsidiale Verordnung und das präsidiale Verordnung auf die ministerielle Regelung überlässen, könnte nur durch die Änderung der Verordnung das Gesetz entleert werden. 8. 2015. wurden das präsidiale Verordnung und die ministerielle Regelung grossartig geändert. Ohne die Revision des Gesetzes sind wichtige Inhalt des Gesetzes geändert worden. Beispielsweise ist das Recht des Denkmalschutzamtspräsidents, das nach der Ermittelung von Erdoberfläche ein Schutzmassnamehe zu verordnen ist, auf dem Landespräsident verlegt worden. Und das Massnahme für die Erhaltung der Originalität von Bodendenkmälern ist durch die Erhaltung von Bodendenkmälern am Ort ersetzt. Nach der Änderung bezweifelt man daran, dass das Gesetz weiter die Schutzzende Funktion für Bodendenkmälern erhalten wird, Es ist daher wichtig, durch die Änderung des Gesetzes die Regelungen im Bereich der Ermittelung von Erdoberfläche und Ausgrabung der Bodendenkmälern zu verbessern. Aber um die Schutz und Pflege von Bodendenkmälern zu verstärken, muss den kernigen Teil geändert werden. Folgendes wird vorgeschlagen: der Titel des Gesetzes " Gesetz zur Schutz und Pflege von Bodendenkmälern", die Ausklammern von der Natur aus dem Schutzbereich, verfassungsmässige Konstrukturen des Gesetzes.
  • 15.

    A legal improvement on the legal issues of residents direct participation system

    Ko Heon Hwan | 2015, 72() | pp.371~398 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The residents direct participation system is essentials for realize to autonomy. in other words, Do not discussed about autonomy except from the residents direct participation system. To receive to autonomy, Agency lead administration is changing resident participation or cooperative relationship, it is emphasis to direct participation of residents for supplement to indirect democracy. korean is receive to twenty years, that launched autonomy system as residents election to a local government head in 1995. The residents direct participation system has been doing prepared a legal basis and institutional base. it need to enforcement of the residents direct participation system for realize to autonomy. In this context, this study would be present legal improvement on the major issue and problems. as review to main contents of legal, based the residents direct participation system on the local government act, for emphasis of the residents direct participation system.
  • 16.

    A study on the changes of Act on funeral services and its direction of legislation

    Lee, Dong-Chan | 2015, 72() | pp.399~418 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The funeral services has been affected by thoughts or religions in each ages. The cremation for funeral services was generally conducted during the Korea age, but the burial was more common during the Chosun age. And the funeral tradition during the Chosun Dynasty has greatly influenced on today’s funeral service. As a result, the funeral consciousness that prefer the burial to the cremation has existed in Korea until today. This funeral consciousness has made a serious social problem based on the cemetery. Therefore, the nation made the law on funeral services to solve the social problem owing to cemetery and has enforced it. Recently, a fundamental change of funeral consciousness that cremation increases sharply in funeral services has been occurring in our country. This change can be a result that the state and social organizations steadily promote people to the change of funeral consciousness and lead them. This change of funeral consciousness should be supported by law, not to end in preferences for it but to be settled as culture, practical and realistic This paper described the change of Act on Funeral Services, etc. and its contents. Also, this paper discussed the change of funeral consciousness and the legislative direction about the funeral.
  • 17.

    A Legal and Institutional Study on the Improvement of the Managerial Efficiency of Senior Welfare Facilities - With priority given to senior home care centers in the elderly welfare act -

    seon eun ae | 2015, 72() | pp.419~442 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Although there are a lot of social problems triggered by the growing elderly population, the countermeasures that have been taken to resolve these problems are often not down-to-earth enough. A wide range of welfare should be provided in line with an increase in the elderly population, but existing stereotyped welfare services rather result in putting senior citizens into the dead zone of welfare. Specifically, the importance of senior home care services is increasingly stressed in accordance with social changes such as the increase in the elderly population and a change in the way of looking at maintenance obligations, and senior citizens who live in their own homes are actually in need of various welfare services. Nonetheless, it's not yet easy to keep track of their needs to offer appropriate services. The services provided by senior home care centers are largely divided into two. One is to offer services in their homes, and the other is to let them benefit from the services by living in an institution. As some of elderly people to whom home care services are provided stay at home, stricter management and supervision are required, and senior home care centers should consequently be under more professional and closer supervision. In fact, however, there is room for improvement in terms of the management system of human and material resources in these centers, which are under the control of the national or local governments as one of social welfare facilities. The discreet management and supervision of both human and material resources for senior home care centers are quite important, and a more systemized home care service system should be built.
  • 18.

    A study on the report reward system in the Livestock Products Sanitary Control Act

    Hong Wan Sik | 2015, 72() | pp.443~464 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This article deals with the report reward system in several Korean acts. The report reward system is one of the law reinforce system to give a financial incentives to the reporter against a person who violates Acts to the administrative agency. The aim of the report reward system is to contribute to the stabilization of the livelihood of citizens and the establishment of transparent and clean social climate by protecting and supporting those who have reported any conduct that is detrimental to public interest. The Minister for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries may give a report reward to any person who reports a complaint against a person who violates Acts to the relevant administrative agency or investigation agency. The report reward system is regulated in the Livestock Products Sanitary Control Act as well as in the Food Sanitation Act. The report reward should be granted to not the public servants but the citizens. Therefore the report reward could be granted to not the public servants but to the citizens according to the Food Sanitation Act. But the report reward could be granted to the public servants according to the Livestock Products Sanitary Control Act and the Decree. This Act and Decree should be revised.
  • 19.

    Eine Untersuchung zum Vermeidungs- und Verursacherprinzip im Deutschen Katastrophenrecht

    Lee, Kee Chun | 2015, 72() | pp.465~487 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Im 21. Jahrhundert trifft deutsche Katastrophenrechtswissenschaft eine Renaissance. Sie ordnet sich als Katastrophenverwaltungsrecht ein, indem siie macht sich selbständig von allgemeiner Polizeirechts- und Umweltrechtswissenschaft. Die Erfolge der inzwischen wissenschaftliche Bemühungen erscheinen. Einer von ihnen ist 「Handbuch des Katastrophenrechts」 des Michael Kloepfers. Ich habe die Grundprinzipien (bes. Vermeidungs- und Verursacherprinzip) des Katastrophenrechts im diesen Handbuch analysiliert, und auf Grundlage von den Erfolgen dieser Analyse und zusammen mit den Durchsichten geltender (Länder-)Katastrophenschutzgesetze habe ich unter öffentliche Rechtspunkte beide zwei Prinzipien untersucht. Folglich denke ich, die Natur des Vermeidungsprinzips im Katastrophenrecht nicht anders als des Risikovorsorgeprinzip im Umweltrecht ist. Aber das Vermeidungsprinzip ist hier mehr weitgehend als Vorsorgeprinzip im Umweltrecht, und fangt aber auch vorsorgliche Sichtpunkte des Katastrophenrechts im weiteren Sinne (Terror-, Gesundheits-, und Bauordnungsrecht) auf. Außerdem muß man auf die Spezialitäten der Verantwortungsverteilung im geltenden (Länder-)Katastrophenschutzgesetze. Sie führen die Billigkeitselemente wie Absicht, Verschulden, und Härte in die Gesetze ein. Durch sie gleichen jeweiligen Gesetze unbillige Zurechnungserfolge ab und verwirklicht Verhältnismäßigkeitsgrundsatz. Wir müssen am schnellsten Katastrophenrecht als selbständige Rechtswissenschaft machen und führen wissenschaftliche Anhaltspunkte der deutschen Katatstrophenrecht ein.
  • 20.

    A Study on the Legal Protection of the Right of Publicity on the Fashion-model and Entertainer

    권기일 | Kim, Sang-Kyum | 2015, 72() | pp.489~512 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The right of publicity refers the right that an individual can control and gain the economic benefits regarding personal name, likeness, voice, image and other external appearances, and the right to protect such individual characteristics from others' using them without permission. The right of publicity became an important legal right due to the development of mass media, the increase of the use of the internet and smart-phone, and especially the spread of social network sites. Even though right of publicity is protected in Korea, there is almost never statutory protection and supreme court decisions. Most of the lower courts, high and district courts admitted the existence of publicity right. Everyone can the right of publicity protection under the general public, especially in the case of A fashion model and entertainer of the property value is 20 million won a year more than 20 billion won, so they insist that legal protection under the publicity rights and should be protected from the right of publicity and has become an object of attention and protection of their right of publicity. This article was prepared based on the right of publicity on court decisions of the Fashion-model and Entertainer, and was modified and added appropriately for the presentation in ‘legalistic institution’ and ‘infringement and remedies’ on the right of publicity.
  • 21.

    Die Unabhängigkeit der Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Organisation als rechtsfähige Anstalt des öffentlichen Rechts

    Myeongjin Han | 2015, 72() | pp.513~551 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Die Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht (abgekürzt: BaFin) wurde durch das Gesetz über die Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht (abgekürzt: FinDAG) und die Verschmelzung des Bundesaufsichtsamtes für das Kreditwesen, des Bundesaufsichtsamtes für das Versicherungswesen und des Bundesaufsichtsamtes für den Wertpapierhandel im Geschäftsbereich des Bundesministeriums der Finanzen als eine rechtsfähige bundesunmittelbare Anstalt des öffentlichen Rechts i. S. d. Art. 87 Abs. 3 Satz 1 GG im Jahr 2002 errichtet. Im organisationsrechtlichen Sinne ist die einschlägige Rechtsgrundlage für die Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht lediglich Art. 87 Abs. 3 GG und Art. 86 GG. Denn die Merkmale der BaFin treffen auf die typische Form der bundesunmittelbaren öffentlich-rechtlichen Anstalt nicht zu. Diese atypische Charakteristik ist darauf zurückzuführen, dass die BaFin ihre Aufgaben nicht im Bereich der Leistungsverwaltung, sondern im gewerbepolizeirechtlichen Bereich erfüllt. Des Weiteren gehört die von der BaFin wahrgenommene Aufgabe der Finanzaufsicht nicht zu der sog. „distanzierten Staatsnähe“, die typisches Merkmal der bundesmittelbaren Verwaltung ist. Darüber hinaus sind die dem Anstaltsnutzungsverhältnis immanenten Benutzer der BaFin nicht nur für die beaufsichtigten Unternehmen und Institute, die an der Ausführung der Aufgaben der BaFin ein Interesse haben können, sondern auch für die Öffentlichkeit tätig. Alles in allem lässt sich sagen, dass die Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht durchaus eine „atypische“ Anstalt ist. Die Form dieser für die Eingriffsverwaltung atypischen Neuorganisation scheint auf „ein Abrücken von staatlichem Einfluss“ bei der Finanzmarktaufsicht abzuzielen. In der Begründung zum Entwurf des Gesetzes über die Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht heißt es, dass die Bundesanstalt ihre Aufgaben selbständig wahrnimmt. Überdies wird darin auch erwähnt, dass sie durch den Anstaltstatus und die damit einhergehende Loslösung vom Bundeshaushalt mehr Unabhängigkeit im budgetären, organisationsrechtlichen und personellen Bereich gewinne. Jedoch zeigt sich bei der BaFin die (zumindest einigermaßen) organisatorische Verselbständigung durch die volle Souveränität, durch die Zusammenarbeit mit der Bundesbank und durch die Rechenschaftspflichten. Doch wegen der mangelnden Satzungshoheit und der begrenzten Autonomie des Verwaltungsrates wird das eigene Organisationsrecht der BaFin weniger gewährleistet als dasjenige der anderen öffentlich-rechtlichen Anstalten. Diese fehlende organisatorische Selbständigkeit wird durch die Steuerung und Kontrolle durch das zuständige Bundesministerium besonders evident. Die Unabhängigkeit der Bundesanstalt im personellen Bereich wird auch teilweise dadurch festgestellt, dass der Präsident der BaFin kein politischer Beamter ist. Deshalb kann er nicht außerhalb eines Disziplinarverfahrens in den Ruhestand versetzt werden. Daneben sind Regelungen, wie z.B. die der „Einrichtung einer eigenen Haushaltsführung“, die der „Einräumung der Dienstherreneigenschaft“ und die der „Einbeziehung von Vertretern gesellschaftlicher Interessen“ Indikatoren für die Selbständigkeit der Verwaltungseinheit. Insbesondere ist die BaFin durch ihre eigene Dienstherrenfähigkeit in der Lage, aufgrund ihrer haushaltsrechtlichen Unabhängigkeit ihren Haushaltsplan einschließlich eines Stellenplans selbst aufzustellen. Hingegen lässt sich in den Beamtenrechtsvorschriften des GG (Art. 33 Abs. 4 und 5) eine eingeschränkte Unabhängigkeit der BaFin im personellen Bereich, zumal ihre Verwaltungsbediensteten dem Funktionsvorbehalt unterstellt sind, finden. Die Indikatoren der Unabhängigkeit der BaFin im budgetären Bereich sind etwa die eigenhändige Aufstellung eines eigenen Verwaltungshaushaltsplans (§ 12 FinDAG), die 100%ige Finanzierung ihrer Kosten (§ 13 FinDAG) und die Erhebung der Umlage (§ 16 FinDAG). Die BaFin ist in der Lage, durch eine 100%ig eigene Finanzierung vom Bundeshaushalt abzukoppeln und für die Aufstellung des Haushaltsplans einschließlich des Stellenplans selbst zuständig zu sein. Das Finanzierungssystem der BaFin führt aber zumindest zu einer partiellen Unabhängigkeit von ministeriellem Einfluss. In der Gesamtschau der vorliegenden Untersuchung wird deutlich, dass sich die Unabhängigkeit der BaFin, die sich, der Begründung zum Entwurf des Errichtungsgesetzes der BaFin zufolge, durch Aufgaben im organisationsrechtlichen- und personellen- und budgetären Bereich manifestieren soll, nicht verwirklicht. Die Verselbständigung der Anstalt geht mithin keineswegs über die der früheren Behörden hinaus, eher bleibt sie dahinter zurück. Diesbezüglich ist die politische und demokratische Verantwortung des Bundesministeriums als Anstaltsträger deutlich geworden.
  • 22.

    A legal study on the Religious Behavior of a Sportsman

    KibokGoh | 2015, 72() | pp.553~572 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This paper analyze the theories to freedom of religion on korean constitutional law and attempts to reconsider ‘religion and sports.’ Sports has become a part of culture as same as religion. It has become an integral factor in people's lives. People find pleasure in sports as their vocation, as a means for health or as sports games. Whereas the relations between religion and sports are generally formed by their mutual exchanges, sports have been regarded as a kind of religion because of peculiarities they share. Thus it is asserted that there are a number of correspondencies of sport with religion. Sports is regarded very important in modern Society. The development of sports and its increase of influence and economic value came to require the intervention of state. Of course, this does not mean that the traditionally maintained autonomy of sports is being denied, Sports player as a nation have the human rights, which is freedom of religion and freedom of association etc. In principle the autonomous rules of sports organizations within their area still have an effect regardless of state legal order. The most problems with the assertion are concerned with the definition of religion, and with comparative parallelomania. In addition, there are some contradictions in that the way to see ‘sport as religion’ is polytheistic, but biblical accounts on games are monotheistic, even exclusive and fundamentalist. It is true that sports have religious elements. Sports player can do religious ceremony in the games. because they have the freedom of religion. But they must observe the sportsmanship. Anyway sport and religion pursue an peaceful life together.
  • 23.

    Legitimacy of State's Intervention based upon “The Realization of Public Purpose”(“Gewährleistungsverantwortung”) and Smart Regulation - Focus on the Private Finance Initiative for Infrastructure -

    Hwang Jihye | 2015, 72() | pp.573~591 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    New Public Management means that administrative agency performs public service along with private sector and the State has responsibility that it should guarantee good quality of public service. This is so called Gewährleistungsstaat. Although the State doesn't control directly, the State leads and manages in order that Private Finance Initiative would perform well through self-regulation. In spite of the State's delegation of infrastructure management to the private actor, the fundamental legal base is not civil law principle, rather the State should act as the continuous supervisor. This sort of regulation is called as "Smart Regulation". Someone argues that Smart Regulation might violates the private enterprise's autonomy. But according to articles of Constitution of the Republic of Korea, the State's intervention is evaluated as legitimate. Because Constitution of the Republic of Korea is considered to have adopted Social Market Economy. According to article 119 (2), the State may regulate and coordinate economic affairs in order to maintain the balanced growth and stability of the national economy, to ensure proper distribution of income, to prevent the domination of the market and the abuse of economic power. In historical and comparative law view, especially after Global Financial Crisis in 2008, the State's intervention is considered legitimate. The Global Finance Crisis in 2008 is caused by abolition of Glass-steagall Act 1933 that had been made to stabilize financial system. This historical example shows that the State's intervention and regulation are necessary. The State can manage and supervise the private actor to perform self-regulating well. The following two ways can be considered. First, the State can consider whether to adopt Designated Management System. Designated Management System guarantees the private actor's autonomy in the management of infrastructure. But still public actor(in Japan, local government) has the responsibility of management. Second, The administrative disposition for public interest can terminate Private FInance Initiative contract, even though the private actor doesn't violate the law. In different perspective, this administrative disposition has contradiction, because Private Finance Initiative is contract between the public actor and the private actor as mutual contract parties. But the State has responsibility that it should manage and supervise Private Finance Initiative and should protect public interest.