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2016, Vol.76, No.

  • 1.

    Improvement of Mortgage Loan regulation - With legal issues of the LTV/DTI and protection plans for loan consumer -

    Lee,Heon-Seok | 2016, 76() | pp.1~23 | number of Cited : 6
    In recently, the rapid increasing trend of mortgage loan has assumed serious economic crisis. Attention on residential mortgage loans has been rising since the global financial crisis, as household debt and financial stability have emerged as the main issues. When the rapid downturned consumption and house prices plunge or interests increase under drastically accumulated household debts it can put pressure on repayment for household's principal and interests, and lead to deteriorated profitability and soundness of financial institutions where loan are heavily weighted. Loans exceeding one's repay ability can become a malicious debt and can lead to capita crunch, affecting negative impact on the country's economy. Therefore we agree to enforce a system of mortgage loan restriction. But during this time, government is focused on the regulation of LTV and DTI ratios, a typical means of controlling mortgages. Nevertheless, in the process of stipulating macro prudential LTV/DTI policies with micro-supervisory regulations, a problem has risen where the stipulated goal, maintaining the soundness of financial institutions, is in discord with the practical goal of stabilizing land market. Moreover the LTV and DTI have problems of legitimacy regulation, the experts have their differences in opinion, but it is analysed that the legal structure runs counter to the legal principle of the Ban on Comprehensive Authorization, as supervisory regulations over the regulation of LTV/DTI ratios by financial institutions are outside the delegated authority, or are enacted without a delegated basis. Therefore, under the criterion of law-imposed administration, administrative legislation needs to be reviewed and revised on a continued basis to secure legitimacy in financial administration legislation as the Banking Act and the Savings Bank Act ect. Furthermore, we should consider's right to defend against hybrid financial loan product and to protect and save minimum value against fore closure in the perspective of the right of residence.
  • 2.

    A Study on Promotion of Urban Regeneration Program - Focusing on the experiences in the operation of Jeonju testbed project -

    Jang Kyo-Sik | 2016, 76() | pp.25~44 | number of Cited : 5
    An urban regeneration program is still in an early stage with a lack of experience. Even though it is necessary to add economic, cultural, consumption and housing functions to a city which is in a slump with population decline, it is not easy to promote the project due to not enough professional personnel and lack of citizens’ perception. Under these unfavorable circumstances, diverse activities which have recently invigorated old villages have emerged as a new urban regeneration program model. In case of the Jeonju testbed project, for example, it is a region where the ripple effects of neighborhood regeneration for the regions in recession as well as nearby areas are expected. A variety of urban regeneration techniques were used for about 3 years from 2011 to 2014. The Jeonju testbed project attempted to try a new urban regeneration method called ‘self-rehabilitation neighborhood regeneration program’ and maximize local assets. Therefore, operating experience itself is important to solve problems arising from the recession of a multifunctional city. Therefore, this study investigated the meaning and characteristics of the Jeonju testbed project and analyzed its operations for the past three years. In addition, it derived an improvement plan to facilitate the urban regeneration program based on the operating experiences of the Jeonju testbed project according to the ‘Special Act on the Promotion of Urban Regeneration’ enacted in the late 2013. To facilitate a city through the urban regeneration program, it is required to concentrate on the promotion of economic (industry and employment), cultural and historic energies in addition to the improvement of urban infrastructure and physical environment. In case of a deteriorated residential area, there should be an integrated approach to social integration-centered policies including the introduction of a self-update program which improves a region through owners’ investment intention and assistance to a public sector, resettlement of the locals and recovery of local communities. Furthermore, local residents’ participation is crucial in promoting the urban regeneration program. To facilitate the locals’ participation in the program, it is also important to motivate them to participate by actively listening to their voices after organizing a governance organization as a decision-mediating council among the program developer, locals and central/metropolitan/local authorities from the beginning of the program such as maintenance plan and program planning. It is also needed to promote Korean-style urban regeneration program, taking the testbed project of Jeonju or Changwon as a success model. For this, there should be efforts to create the synergy effects of the regeneration program through connect & development (C&D) and promote urban economy through mixed-use development. At the same time, it is needed to improve an incentive system for the efficient and effective promotion of the urban regeneration program.
  • 3.

    The affordable housing policy and regulatory takings in the U.S.

    JEONG, HA MYOUNG | 2016, 76() | pp.45~60 | number of Cited : 1
    To meet the housing crisis, the city of San Jose, California, enacted a housing ordinance that compels all developers of new residential development projects with 20 or more units to reserve a minimum of 15 percent of for-sale units for low-income buyers. Many cities are to providing affordable housing for their low-incomes residents in the U.S. According to San Jose Municipal Ordinances, those units must be sold to these buyers at an affordable housing cost-a below market price that cannot exceed 30% of these buyers’ median income. The California Building Industry Association sued to enjoin the ordinance and argued it was unconstitutional regulatory takings. A California state trial court agreed with the petitioner’s arguments and enjoined the ordinance. The Court of Appeal reversed, and the Supreme Court of California affirmed the Court of Appeal’s decision, however.(61 Cal. 4th 435, 351 P.3d 974 (2015)). The Supreme Court of the United States denied the petition for writ of certiorari on Feb. 29, 2016. Therefore, the Supreme Court of California’s decision would be final on the issues. The affordable housing ordinance is not regulatory takings according to the U.S. Constitution and the case laws. The Korean government also had enacted the Housing Size-limit Regulation to address the housing crisis since 1978. In 2014, the Korean government lift it because the housing market conditions was changed. The numbers of one person household has been increased dramatically and the needs of big size housing has been decreased. The supply of small size housing became abundant regardless of the regulation. According to the Supreme Court of California’s decision, the re-introducing of Korean style affordable housing policy would be constitutional.
  • 4.

    A Study on Securing the Adequacy of the Property Right restricted by the Management Planning

    LEE SANG HOON | Seok, Ho Young | 2016, 76() | pp.61~82 | number of Cited : 8
    A country has an obligation to establish necessary plans to promote the public welfare and to improve the life of the people in order to continuously develop the national land, the living space of the people. Especially, the country which has very narrow national land always needs to establish a comprehensive plan in order to utilize and to develop the national land efficiently, and also needs to make legal and institutional efforts to implement the established plan. Accordingly, we enacted the National Land Planning Act that specifies the basic items necessary for the establishment and implementation of plans, and the plans stipulated in this act include the regional town planning, the urban master planning, and the urban management planning. In particular, due to the fact that the urban management planning as the plan established for developing, maintaining, or conserving the areas under the jurisdiction of municipalities, metropolitan cities, special autonomous cities, special self-governing provinces, cities or districts includes many concrete plans, the decision or notification of the urban management planning corresponds to the restrictive plan carrying legally binding power that regulates the rights of local residents, imposes a development commitment on the local residents, or prohibits the local residents form certain development activities. Because the decision of such urban management planning entails the designation of the use district or use zoning and the decision of the urban management planning which installs the urban planning facilities such as road, railroad, park, school, broadcasting facility, communication facility, sewer, etc., the decision of the urban management planning involves certain restrictions on the land use. Especially, the land or building owners in the areas corresponding to the urban management planning shall not be able to use their own properties for its conventional purposes, and the private use possibility of the land shall also be abolished due to the fact that the land use method legally permitted practically no longer exists. As a result, the land and building owners are no longer able to obtain some proper economic profits from selling their properties because they experience a decrease in the value of their properties. In this regard, the decision of the urban management planning shall cause the excessive restriction to the land owners' properties. Therefore, by reviewing the content and the legal nature of the urban management planning and the cases of the property right restricted by the urban management planning, this study presents a method which can secure the adequacy of property right restricted by the urban management planning in order to minimize the excessive restriction imposed on the land owners.
  • 5.

    Forschung auf Verbesserung des Festsetzungssystems von dem Gebiet der Investitionsförderung im Cheju

    Seung Joo Baig | 2016, 76() | pp.83~108 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Da die Direktinvestition der Ausländer Unterschiede und die Komplexität je nach der Industrie, dem Staat oder der Region zeigen, kann man kaum fsetstellen, ob die Direktinvestition der Ausländer zu guten Ergebnissen führt oder nicht. Es ist dennoch zweifellos, dass bei den Schwellenländer oder den Regionen, die ähnliche Wirtschaftssystem wie Schwellenländer haben, richtige Regulierungen unentbehrlich dafür sind, um Wirtschaftsentwicklung und Arbeitsplatzbeschaffung durch Investitionsförderung zu verwirklichen. Viele Staaten führt deshalb eigene Regulierungen ein. In einigen Staaten wird der Kapitalanteil der Ausländer festgesetzt. In diesen Staat darf die Direktinvestition der Ausländer auf wichtige Industrie üblich 50% der Gesamtkapital nicht überschreiten. Es wird in meisten Staaten auch gefordert, dem inländischen Joint-Venture-Unternehmen Technologien zu übertragen oder inländische Beschäftigiten weiterzubilden. Gegebenenfalls wird es gefordert, dass die Tochtergesellschaft des Joint-Venture-Unternehmens das Produktionsmaterial mehr als einen bestimmten Anteil im Inland beschafft. Unter Berücksichtigung dieser Umstände ist es erforderlich, dass bezüglich der Direktinvestition der Ausländer die Joint-Venture-Regel oder die Pflichtanwendung der regionalen Produktion durch Veränderung des “Cheju-Spezialgesetzes” eingeführt wird, anstelle von rücksichtsloser Investitionsanziehung chinesisches Kapitals. Ferner ist es benötigt, um doppelte Begünstigungen je nach dem “Cheju-Spezialgesetz” und “Gesetz über Investitionsförderung von den Ausländern” zu beseitigen. Außerdem sollte die in diesem Aufsatz genannten Probleme durch Verbesserung des Systems lösen. Wenn man denkt darüber nach, dass nachträgliche Kontrolle nach der Festsetzung von dem Gebiet der Investitionsförderung gemäß des “Cheju-Spezialgesetzes” unzureichend ist, ist es auch nötig, Voraussetzungen über Festsetzung zu verstärken und wirksame nachträgliche Kontrolle einzuführen.
  • 6.

    Die steuerrechtliche Behandlung beim Genehmigungssystem über die Geschäftsverkehr des Grundstücks

    Muyoal Kim | 2016, 76() | pp.109~130 | number of Cited : 0
    Die Genehmigung ist für den Geschäftsverkehr des Grundstücks benötigt, wenn das Grundstück im spekulativen Bezirk liegt, sich der Preis des Grundstücks im bestimmten Bezirk raschend erhöht, oder solche Situation möglich ist. Diese Genehmigung ist im Gesetz über Planung und Benutzung des nationalen Grundstücks. Im Jahr 19.01.2016 werden die Vorschriften über die Genehmigung im Gesetz über die Anmeldung des Grundstücks usw. umgezogen. Das Gesetz wird ab 20.01.2017 in Kraft gesetzt. Es handelt sich darum beim die Genehmigung voraussetzten Vertrag über den Geschäftsverkehr des Grundstücks, welche Wirksamkeit privat-rechtlich entsteht. Es ist umstritten beim Verwaltungsrecht, was die Rechtsnatur der Genehmigung ist. Außerdem ist es problematisch beim Steuerrecht, ob es möglich ist, dass die privat-rechtliche Wirksamkeit im Steuerrecht angewandet wird. Man kann auch das Problem im Steuerrecht als die Besteuerung über die Einkünften aus der rechtswidrigen Handlung verstehen. In diesem Beitrag wird die steuerrechtlich Aspekt überwigend behandelt. Infolge sollte die steuerrechtliche Wirksamkeit des Vertrages über den Geschäftsverkehr des Grundstücks ohne Genehmigung m. E. wirtschaftlicher Betrachtungsweise entsprechend beurteilt werden.
  • 7.

    A study on the legal character and the primary tax right of collection of development contribution - in relation to the judgment of the South Korean Constitutional Court of 30 June 2016 -

    Shin, Jung-Gyu | 2016, 76() | pp.131~156 | number of Cited : 9
    Beim Urteil des KVerfG v. 30. Juni 2016 handelte es sich vor allem darum, ob das vorrangige Erhebungsrecht von Entwicklungsbeitrag verfasungsmaßig ist. Daneben geht es auch dann um dessen Rechtscharakter. Die Mehrheitsmeinung des Urteils des KVerfG v. 30. Juni 2016 sah den Entwicklungsbeitrag als Steuer an und dagegen verstand dessen Minderheitsvotum den Beitrag als Sonderabgaben. Der Auffassungen der Mehrheitsmeinung und des Minderheitsvotums ist allerdings gemeinsam, dass das Bestehen der sachlichen Rechtfertigungsgründe des Entwicklungsbeitrags in Bezug auf Sonderabgaben nicht ausreichend überprüft wird. Die Mehrheitsmeinung, nach der der Entwicklungsbeitrag anlässlich der Verteilung des Aufkommens aus dem Entwicklungsbeitrag und dessen Erhebungszwecks dem Steuerbegriff zuzuordnen ist, kann dazu führen, dass die gesetzgeberische Kontrolle der Sonderabgaen durch die in dem Anhang des § 3 Gesetz für das Management der Sonderabgaben vorgenommene Aufzählung der Sonderabgaben geschwächt werden kann, weil der Willen des Gesetzgebers benachlässigt wird, dass der Entwicklungsbeitrag unter Sonderabgaben i. S. des § 2 Gesetz für das Management der Sonderabgaben fällt. Im Vergleich dazu betrachtete das Minderheitsvotum den Entwicklungsbeitrag als Sonderabgaben. Allerdings dabei wird die Frage, ob die sachlichen Rechtfertigungsgründe des Entwicklungsbeitrags als Sonderabgaben vorliegen, fast nicht überprüft. Nach der Mehrheitsmeinung ist das Enumeration zur Begrenzung der Sonderabgaben sinnlos und nach dem Minderheitsvotum ist die Kontrolle der Sonderabgaben nur dann der gesetzgeberischen Entscheidung(oder gesetzgeberischem Einschätzungsspielraum) unterworfen. Dieser Unterschied zwischen der Mehrheitsmeinung und dem Minderheitsvotum fordert, dass die gesetzgeberische Kontrolle durch die Enumeration der Sonderabgaben grundlegen verändert werden muss, weil die verfassungsgerichtbare Kontrolle der gesetzgeberischen Kontrollrichtung entgegenstehen kann und dieses entgegengesetzte Kontrolle selbst dann die Kollision von der Legislative und der verfassungsrechtlichen Judikative verursachen kann.
  • 8.

    Study on legal issues and improvement of the agricultural system - Emphasis on problems of a diversion of farmland -

    Ryu Ji Woong | 2016, 76() | pp.157~182 | number of Cited : 6
    Recently as agrarian system is a changing trend. effective measures to support it is necessary. In go to rural areas increase a recent phenomenon, it is necessary to effectively support the fixing of these, must be no positive law violation and accurate understanding of agricultural land conservation contributions. The position of farmers, acts as an important element in the farmland investment. Difference occurs in the tax, such as buying and selling farmland to time by depending on whether you want to certification. For this reason, there will be a need to reclamation the educational environment in law scholar, to reorganize the agricultural structure. In the long run, the registering plan which changes the farm income tax into a national tax is the effective way. An agricultural income tax rate should be decreased. and, there will be a need to reclamation the educational environment of the law scholar for that, to reorganize the agricultural structure. the knowledge on the use of land should be understood. and prevent illegal land conversion should be noted. Ifthere is no suitable land acquisition, it may constitute an offense if you even slightlypositive law violation. To see the contents of the farmland conservation contributions and type of farmland get around this Agricultural Land Act, assistance to deal to the improvement of the quality of the farmers due to import opening of agricultural products in the water also actively yesterday measures of urban people should. Now, in order to enhance the price competitiveness in the agricultural sector, there will be a need to innovate by the market economy, reorganizing the agricultural structure migration of rural population so that it can be easily adapted.
  • 9.

    A study on comparing of law term on difference of legal cultures with korea and us - as a road traffic law -

    Won Jung Kim | 2016, 76() | pp.183~197 | number of Cited : 3
    Each law culture of Korea and the United States has developed in the establishment and the growth of each nation through their different ways. The different cultural backgrounds of the two nations, thus, lead to the law divided into Continental and British America system. There are as differences in legal terms between Korea and the United States just as they do in their legal cultures and systems. Korean culture has been based on Chinese characters influenced by Confucianism, so its legal terms are abstractive and implicative. Therefore, the law states shortly and does not specifically, resulting in leaving great discretion to administrative agency. The brevity and implication has the following advantages: the law system is simple and easy to find the contents of the law. The other hand, the abstractiveness has its weakness : no ground articles in the law and they are difficult to be understood due to excessive compactness. On contrast, the legal terms of the United States consist of usual words used in everyday lives of the people, and they are descriptive. The strength is that every person can understand what they mean and the descriptive statements are specific, while the weakness is that they are lack of brevity and the descriptive statements are too extensive to find their related articles. The law is the stronghold for keeping social system in order and puts its highest purpose in protecting the basic rights of the people. In addition, a Modern Law-Governed Country fundamentally pursues for the law to be made out by every persons. It is necessary, therefore, that the law should be regulated to be understood by all the people, and its legal terms should be more easier and be adjustable for modern social lives. In conclusion, the disadvantages in the legal terms of Korea and the United States mentioned above needs to be improved to be accessed by all the people without difficulty.
  • 10.

    Legal Issues about Decedent’s Online Digital Asset

    KIM, MIN HO | 2016, 76() | pp.199~218 | number of Cited : 2
    Up to now, legal dispute over documents was able to be solved by judging who holds the legal rights of the documented medium(book, picture etc.). However, it brings difficulty for those figureless online digital documents recorded in virtual space. For example, since online digital documents cannot be entirely controlled and managed by its recorder and are in need of help from the ISP(Internet Service Provider), the rights and obligations for the documents between the recorder, ISP and users became complicated. It becomes even more complex when the recorder passed away, in other words, when the documentary of the dead is 'Online digital information'. The law of succession was heretofore applicable to dead's documents since they had physical entities(books, pictures etc.) of recording medium(documentary). However, legal process for dead's documents which are stored in cyber space can be difficult since they do not have physical entity. Therefore, this study has discovered and brought solutions to legal issues of controlling and managing 'Online digital information of the dead'. This matter requires to be solved between ISP and users by their contract(agreement), and must respect user's right of option. By revision of law, ISP must be layed under necessity of setting terms and conditions of dead's online digital data processing and allow users to select range and methods of such process in accordance with the terms. Under the current law, it must be a principle to shutdown relevant account and delete information when the Internet User is dead and exceptionally allow a third party with a request from dead's parents and children or a court decision to access and handle the information.
  • 11.

    A study on information disclosure subject of Public institution

    Jeong Hoe Gun | 2016, 76() | pp.219~238 | number of Cited : 0
    In today's society, the information comes to have biggest influence on the human being society, because of information-oriented society. The administration utilizes the information with basics of administration policy and administrative action document to collect various personal documents and information and to manage it. When the administrative main constituent acquires information, the nation comes to fall to the passive position. Therefore, possibility to change in quality of the democracy itself can be brought about. Therefore, for the administrative democratization, the approach of the nation for information and the document which an administration holds must be guaranteed. And, for realization of the democracy, it is necessary to be accepted the right to claim of the information disclosure of the information and the administrative information disclosure. Therefore, the information that the public institution manages must be shown in principle, if a public institution holds it, and information to manage is information for security of the people's right to know, in the case of public institution information for participation of the nations, a case to secure transparency of the national political administration and the information disclosure request of the nation, However, the excessive information disclosure by the system of public offering of information have the following problems : the infringement possibility for a state secret and the personal information, the increase of the administrative burden, abuse possibility of trade secrets, the confusion possibility of the information order because of insincerity information and operated information, the inequity-induced possibility by the predominance between an information incapable person and information ability people. There are the problems that must show information when information is requested from a purpose to torment a state organ. Therefore, If hold and managed information from the nation is not a reason not to open to the public, the public institution which came to receive a demand by an information disclosure request must show information. If a government office may refuse information disclosure, the government office must insist on them and prove such contents “Is it clashed with the profit of the law that how is which part or basics right?”, “Is it the reason of what kind of not open to the public?” through confirmation and examination in the contents concretely. The government office must compare the profit such contents ; profit such as the equitability of the duties accomplishment protected by information secrecy, security of the people's right to know protected by information disclosure, the participation of the nation for the government and the securing transparency in the national administration, whether the government office show information or not.
  • 12.

    A review on the transition administrative penalty to administrative order punishment

    Ko Heon Hwan | 2016, 76() | pp.239~260 | number of Cited : 12
    The administrative agency has imposed sanctions to ensure the effectiveness of administrative action by indirectly forcing the line of duty with respect to administrative duties in order violators. administrative punishment is drawn to divide administrative penalty and administrative order punishment. Today, social change and decriminalize sanctions for administrative offenses on administrative law and order duties in accordance with the flow of the times. According to decriminalization emphasized the cultural aspect was the administrative center of the administrative punishment has been converted into administrative order punishment. But there was cause many problems and confusion fondness targets, criteria and the amount of the administrative charge levied in as administrative order punishment. In particular, administration of excess administrative order punishment, calculation of the amount of the heavy administrative order punishment, there is the problem of sanctions, redundancy, etc. Paper. Moreover, the administrative transition to administrative order punishment of administrative penalties in this situation, there is a growing risk that could lead to the phenomenon of escape to the administrative order punishment of flooding, or punishment In this situation it is important to review the plans for the establishment of a government of transition administrative order punishment of administrative penalties to the effectiveness of the fundamental rights of citizens protection and ensuring effective than sanctions in administrative action, and is worth studying challenge. Therefore, in the transition to the administration of administrative punishments of administrative order punishment In this context, he raised the issue and was discussed about the establishment of a transition plan.
  • 13.

    A Legal and Institutional Study on the Prevention of Preschool Child Abuse in the Child Welfare Act

    seon eun ae | 2016, 76() | pp.261~282 | number of Cited : 6
    Children are entitled to enjoy all their rights and freedom without any racial, gender, religious or language discriminations and to be well cared and supported to lead a happy life as eligible members of society. Child abuse is behavior to curb children's sound growth and development and takes a tremendous toll on not only abused children themselves but overall society. In modern society, an increase in parental divorce and single parents is concurrent with growing child abuse and neglect, and the number of children who aren't properly cared by their parents at home is greatly on the rise. Our society is terribly shocked by child-abuse crimes that have lately taken place, and child abuse is now regarded as one of serious social issues. Since abuse against children has a huge physical, psychological and mental impact on the victims, how to cope with it efficiently should carefully be considered. The purpose of this study was to make a legal, and institutional research into preschool child abuse to seek ways of preventing it and its recurrence to make a contribution to the improvement of child welfare. Preschool children are often abused by their own parents. So many preschool child abuse cases that occurs at home are hidden without being known to the outside, and a lot of cases aren't reported, either. Furthermore, the harm of preschool child abuse is more serious due to the young ages of the victims, and it often takes place habitually, not just on a temporary basis. Because it is looked upon as one of family problems, it's possible to relieve damage only when it is known to the outside. Now child abuse should no longer be viewed as a family problem. Instead, entire society and the government should actively intervene in this issue and discreetly map out how to prevent it and the recurrence of it. Indeed, thorough care and management are required to help children to live a safe life without their rights being infringed upon.
  • 14.

    Comparative legal review of domestic and overseas donation systems

    BAE, BYUNG HO | 양은영 | 2016, 76() | pp.283~310 | number of Cited : 3
    国土計画法,住宅法,都市整備法など建設に関連する個別法に基づく開発事業の場合、事業の施行によって今後追加的な社会基盤施設の需要が増加するのが当然だ。このような基盤施設の確保に対する義務は国家または地方自治団体にあるのが原則だが、財政的な問題により法律上、原因者負担に応じて負担金という形で賦課することにしたり受益者負担の原則による認·許可時、寄付採納の約定を誘導して基盤施設確保の行政上の目的を達成している。実際に法律の根拠による各種負担金の場合は負担金の軽減または免除の対象が広範囲なので、実質的には負担金を通じては、十分な予算を確保し難い。したがってわが國では事業施行前の段階で寄付採納の制度が必ず必要なことのように認められて運営されているもちろん寄付採納の制度は基盤施設の設置費用の確保の手段としての意義しか持たないわけではない。今日では開発事業によって予想される開発利益の社会的な返還と公共に寄与する観点からも寄付採納の制度に正当性と意義を付与することもある。しかし、現在施行されている寄付採納の制度は法的な根拠が曖昧なうちに地方自治体の方針、指針などによって運営されており、超法的な制度と考えられる。 ただし、寄付採納の適用による容積率、高さなどの調整というインセンティブとして不法性と住民の不満を調和させているのが実情だ。しかし、過度な寄付採納は開発事業の推進に経済的にも負担になるだけでなく各地方自治体に一貫された基準が不在して公平性の議論がある。 行政庁による規制と恩恵という二重的な手段として活用されている寄付採納制度は法的な根拠を明確にしなければならず、国民の立場から、民間事業者に向けた行政措置として活用されなければならない。そして国家は中央政府的レベルで一貫した基準が適用されるように法的に強制的な手段を用意し、地方自治体による任意的な規制行為または過度な負担を要求することを制限できるようにしなければならない。外国の場合、韓国が寄付採納制度として達成しようとする目的の実行手段として各国の実情に合う制度を構築している。これと関連しては米国、英国、ドイツ、日本の制度をまとめたところでは、これらの国はすべて負担金制度を活用しており韓国のような事前契約を通じた開発行為許可の条件で負担される寄付採納の制度はない。日本の場合、行政指導に従って韓国と類似した姿が現れる場合があるがこれを規律する法的根拠と基準、手続きなどで差異がある。したがって、外国の法制度を比較検討し、韓国の寄付採納制度の現実を評価する必要がある。
  • 15.

    Study on the Conflict and Harmony between Personal Information Protection System and “the Improper Solicitation and Graft Act” - Focused on the provision of the report and restriction on the outside lecture, etc. -

    Hyunkyung KIM | 2016, 76() | pp.311~336 | number of Cited : 1
    The Improper Solicitation and Graft Act(hreinafter referred to as the “Solicitation Prohibition Act”) regulates that if professors and journalists conducts a lecture, presentation, or contribution related to his/her duties or requested due to de facto influence arising from his/her position or responsibilities at a training course, promotional event, forum, seminar, public hearing, or any other meeting(hereinafter referred to as "outside lecture, etc"), he/she shall report, in advance, in writing, the details of the request for the outside lecture, etc., to the head of the relevant institution. If a head of a relevant institution deems an outside lecture, etc., reported by a professors and journalists may hinder fair performance of duties, the head of the relevant agency may restrict the outside lecture, etc.(hreinafter referred to as the “the report and restriction on the outside lecture, etc."). The report and restriction on the outside lecture, etc. It is reasonable that this system will be abolished because of violating the constitutional proportionality test. First, the 'adequacy of means' is unlikely to be accepted. The professor presented the findings at the seminar, public hearing, or any other meeting in the form of a lecture, presentation, or contribution, and this activities is he/her inherent duties to strengthen their professional area and perform a higher level of education. There is no empirical evidence that the advance report to the head of the relevant institution and gain permission for such activities regard as appropriate measures to prevent the illegal entrance, illegal performance assessment and illegal treatment of students. Similarly, there is no evidence that to control journalists in advance to participate in debates or seminars is appropriate measures to ensure integrity in the report. In addition, "the report and restriction on the outside lecture, etc." applicable to professors and journalists, is more likely to be constrained academic freedom, freedom of the press and the general behavior liberties by infringing on right to control personal information and privacy, rather than contributing to their fair job performance. Therefore, by the principle of proportionality, "the report and restriction on the outside lecture, etc." applicable to professors and journalists is advisable to be abolished because it does not comply with the standard of 'adequacy of means' and 'minimum infringement of the right' Nevertheless, even if "the report and restriction on the outside lecture, etc." applicable to professors and journalists inevitably be maintained, the following points should be complementary to minimize conflicts of the right to control personal information and privacy. First, significantly reduce the range of the personal information to be collected, such information shall not accumulate a long period of time. The following should be clearly defined for the purpose and the scope for the use of personal information collected by. Meanwhile, a head of a relevant institution must immediately destroy the personal information in the contents of the report when they check the activities reported are not contrary to the Solicitation Prohibition Act. In addition, the retention period of personal information collected through this system should be minimal. A head of a relevant institution shall have specific regulations for use of the scope of the personal information collection, management methods, minimum retention period, method of destruction in the personal information treatment directive. By doing so the personal information collected will not be exploited as a means to limit the coverage of the activities of journalists and professor's academic activities.
  • 16.

    A study on the Funeral Law - On the basis of Act on Funeral Services, etc. -

    Lee, Dong-Chan | 2016, 76() | pp.337~357 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper introduces contents of Act on Funeral Services, etc. which is in 43 articles of Chapter 7. The paper also raises its problems and offers methods for improvement. The study is confined to some articles in Act on Funeral Services, etc. ; Article 13 (Establishment Criteria of Cemeteries, etc.), Article 14 (Report of Establishment of Cemeteries, etc.), Article 18 (Establishment Criteria of Grave and Charnel Facility), Article 19 (Duration of Graves), Article 20 (Disposition of Graves which the Duration has Expired), Article 22 (Preparing and Managing Cemetery Register), Article 27 (Disposition of Graves, etc. Established on Another Person's Land, etc.), Article 28 (Disposition of Unclaimed Graves), Main points of the paper are as follows : 1. A governmental institution should launch simultaneous investigation into existed graves. 2. Establishment criteria of cemeteries should be readjusted. 3. A system of connecting a notice of death with burial report & establishment of cemeteries should be enforced. It will enable to realize the periodic burial regulation. In addition, It is necessary to reduce grave area and set criteria for establishment of charnel facility.
  • 17.

    Constitutional Study on National Security and the Act on Reporting and Use of Certain Financial Transaction Information

    Kim, Sang-Kyum | 변승현 | 2016, 76() | pp.357~376 | number of Cited : 0
    National Security is a nation's constitutional obligation for the existence of the state and the safety of the people. The preamble of the current constitution mentions the safety of the people, and other articles impose state institutions including the President and the military the obligation for national security. Furthermore, Article 37 (2) states that the freedoms and rights of citizens may be restricted by Act only when necessary for national security. The Constitution imposes the duty of national defense on all nationals in accordance with the law, and proclaims the importance of national security for state institutions. In a legal state, national security is the most fundamental and core constitutional order. Its importance does not diminish in a democracy that respects diversity and maximizes the freedom of press, since national security provides the ground for democracy to exist within a state. A democratic legal state can exist when the existence of a state and the safety of people are ensured. Especially in Korea which is under the threat from North Korea, national security has important constitutional value. In an information society, information security is an essential part of national security. Given that the principle of information state is becoming more incorporated into the Constitution as a basic principle, there is no domain in the state that can function without information gathering. For example, money laundering in cross-border crimes like terrorism and drug trafficking can be prevented and held accountable through information gathering. Tracking down information on financial transaction becomes an important state responsibility in national security and prevention of crime. Korea has legislated a law that enables the state to track down information on financial transaction. The exclusion of the National Intelligence Service (NIS) from access to such information in the initial legislation caused enormous difficulties in preventing international national security crimes such as terrorism and drug trafficking. Thus, it was the right decision that the recent amendment in March 2016 granted the NIS access to information on financial transaction. The legislative branch should recognize the importance of financial transaction information in national security, and not make the same kind of mistake again.