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2017, Vol.80, No.

  • 1.

    Legislation Evaluation on Public Rental Housing

    Min, Tae-Wook | 2017, 80() | pp.1~23 | number of Cited : 5
    Newly amended ‘Special Law on Public Rental Housing’ has resolved many problems which had been pointed out by the academic world for years. Nevertheless, there are some important issues to be compensated. Standard for the source of construction money should be established in law. The key point of public rental housing is fund supply needed for construction and maintenance. Public rental housing is leased to low - income bracket at a low price, it is operating at a loss consistently. So it is desirable to raise fund that is needed for construction from public sector which is not obliged to redeem. Now government burden is determined by the administration based on the standard price which is distinguished from actual price. And a significant portion is borrowed from private sector as condition for paying interest. It is in need to discuss carefully about fund supply. Conversion of public rental housing for sale that happens after 5~10 years rent is not coinside with its nature, because from the beginning developer pursues sale to the middle class. In regard to sale price of public rental housing, many conflicts occur between developer and lessee. There are so many different types that do not seem to vary significantly, so it is difficult for people to understand public rental housing and for administrative office to manage. It is desirable to simplify types of public rental housing. Up to now public rental housing has been supplied mainly by national agency, but in the future major role is replaced by local government which is well versed in resident and situation.
  • 2.

    Investigation on REITs under a Special Act on Public Housing - Resident Stability vs. Debt Reduction of LH -

    Sunbae Lee | Yoon Lee | 2017, 80() | pp.25~55 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Korea Land & Housing Corporation (LH) was a solid supplier of public housing in Korea until now. LH has an external pressure, however, from a debt reduction policy by the ministry of strategy and finance, led to change its business profile from providing public housing to adopting the real estate investment trusts (REITs). This approach is that LH sales its rented housing or unsold real estate sites to REITs and allows private real estate companies to plan and construct on those site which could ultimately reduce burden of construction and debt. However, in this business cycle, LH becomes an investor or a manager, which makes REITs are one of the corporations of LH. Fundamental research question can be arisen that these REITs can increase resident stability and debt reduction of LH. In result, this new approach can only reduce debt of LH but not for the resident stability. Analyzing the end of leasing contract, the investment earning rate of LH, only 3% investment from LH, could be 1,000% if 10% to 20% housing price increases. Although the future profit of public housing services should be returned to the homeless, this REITs approach only utilized the debt reduction of LH. In this research, an alternative approach is suggested that the resident stability and debt reduction for LH considered simultaneously. In this sense, the minister of land, infrastructure, and transport should discard the special act on public housing article 4 section 1 number 6. Second, the korea land and housing corporation act article 11 should be revised. Third, the public institute classification accounting operation guideline should be reconsidered as removing the security deposit of public housing and housing fund financing from the balance sheet of the public housing service. Fourth, an ambiguous sentence of conversion of rental housing for sale should be revisited as a reasonable probit guaranteeing method. Suffice to say that aforementioned revisions can lead LH returns to its initial purpose of establishment. This can ultimately contribute to resolve the reduction of birth rate and income inequality problems in Korea.
  • 3.

    Eine Untersuchung über die Aneignung des Fiskus des Verlorenen Grundstück

    Kang, Ho-Chil | 2017, 80() | pp.57~84 | number of Cited : 1
    Obwohl das koreanische bürgerliche Gesetzbuch vorsieht, dass das herrenlose Grundstück in Staatlichen Besitz ist und dass das Staatseigentumsgesetz Durchführungsbestimmungen für die Aneignung des herrenlosen Grundstücks zum Fiskus hat, schweigt es doch über das Konzept des herrenlosen Grundstücks und konkrete Kiterien für die Beurteilung, ob der Fiskus es aneignet oder nicht sowie die rechtlichen Beziehungen des Falles, in dem sich das Grundstück nach der Aneignung zum Fiskus als nicht herrenlos herausstellt. Dies entspricht nicht dem Grundsatz des Rechtsvorbehalts und verursacht in der Praxis große Verwirrung. Realistischerweise wird das Grundstück, das dem Konzept des herrenlosen Grundstücks (Abwesenheit des Eigentümers) genau entspricht, als ein separates Phänomen behandelt, und das Grundstück, das durch den Art. 252 Abs. 2 des bürgerlichen Gesetzbuches und den Art. 12 des Staatseigentumsgesetzes geregelt wird, ist dasjenige Grundstück, dessen Eigentümer unbekannt ist. Infolgedessen wird das Grundstück, dessen Eigentümer unbekannt ist (das verlorene Grundstück), im Namen der Abwesenheit des Eigentümers (das herrenlose Grundstück) geregelt und daher entspricht die Norm nicht der Realität. Obwohl sich das herrenlose Grundstück im Wesen vom verlorenen Grundstück unterscheidet, werden das Konzept und sogar die Art von sowohl dem verlorenen Grundstück als auch dem herrenlosen Grundstück nicht richtig diskutiert. Es ist notwendig, ein genaues rechtliches Verständnis und ordnungsgemäße rechtliche Regeln für das verlorene Grundstück zu etablieren, wodurch auch das Verständnis vom herrenlosen Grundstück klar wird.
  • 4.

    Eminent Domain and compensation of Transmission and substation equipment in the UK - Focused on the Underground Transmission Line -

    Lee Soonja | 2017, 80() | pp.85~111 | number of Cited : 0
    In Britain, it has become mandatory to lay electricity transmission and distribution lines under the ground with the lack of space in the city, safety issues, and the protection of gas companies. In accordance with the Electricity Act 1989, the installers of the transmission and substation facilities have a legal obligation to preserve cultural heritage when developing electric power lines or performing other tasks related to transmission facilities. Consequently, the underground burial rate of electricity transmission lines in London, England, is 100%. The installation procedure of the underground transmission line gets started by submitting the underground transmission line installation plan to the planning team in accordance with the "Planning Act", and submitting the recommendation to the Director of the Energy Climate Change Bureau after six months of review by various stakeholders. After the approval of the Secretary of State, an underground transmission line can be installed. Acquisition of land for transmission and substation facilities is mostly structured to acquire public land through consultation, but to execute the confirmed order of enforced acquisition from a relevant minister depending on the "Land Acquisition Act" if no agreement has been reached. Land compensation related to the underground requires that all the people concerned with the land are identified and consulted in accordance with the Planning Act 2008. In principle, the criteria for calculating the amount of compensation for land acquisition (permanent or temporary) should be built on market value and then the settlement should be done on an individual basis. However, if a settlement can not be reached, or there is a legal dispute about the compensation, it is required to be referred to the Land Tribunal. In addition, the UK has an incentive payment system to accelerate the contract of easement and a reimbursement system for continuous use. In this way, by examining the examples of laws and policies related to the underground transmission line such as land acceptance, land use, land compensation, etc. in the UK, which has a high share of the underground transmission line installation, this study will give implications for the increase of the underground transmission lines installation in the future in Korea.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Effective Measures for Development Charges System

    sim min suk | 2017, 80() | pp.113~142 | number of Cited : 6
    According to the statistics of the Ministry of Land Transport and Transport in 2013, 1% of the total population(500,000 people), owns 55.2% of the land, and 10% of the total population(5 million people), own 97.3% of the land. This polarization of land ownership may serve a maximum of causes that may lead to a polarization of society. According to the 「RESTITUTION OF DEVELOPMENT GAINS ACT」, if the development project approved by June 30, 2018 is in the metropolitan area, the development charges is reduced by 50%, In the non-metropolitan area, the development charges is exempted. These things tells us that the development charges system is weakened a lot of its current effectiveness. At the present time, I would like to suggest Legislative measures to make the development charges system as more effective. The first is to operate the development charges system consistently. In this regard , Singapore has never ceased levying development charges. The second is to raise the burden of the development charges to 50% in the metropolitan area and 40% in the non-metropolitan area. In this regard, Singapore is imposing 100% of the land value increase for the commercial use of the business area and 70% of the land value increase for the land development for other purposes. Third, the start of the imposition of the contributions for development should be the official land price of the next year after the development project is announced, and the end of the contributions for development should be the official land price of the next year when the development project is completed. This is to ensure that development gains are not reduced but reflected properly. In this regard, Singapore is calculating the development charges at market prices. The fourth is to impose the development charges without restriction of the target business. The fifth is to impose a development charges without any limit on the scale of the development project. The sixth is to approve the development plan after the development charges is secured. In this regard, Singapore has no restrictions on the scope and scale of the development project in terms of imposing the development charges, and the competent authority does not issue planning permission or preservation permission unless the development charges is paid or satisfied. The Constitutional Court explicitly recognize the public concept of land ownership, and widely admits the discretion of the legislation. The present state of our land ownership is showing a polarization phenomenon in land ownership as if we are seeing the polarization of society. This polarization increases the friction and conflict between strata, and it does not help to stabilize the lives of ordinary people. Rather, The amount of money that is returned as development gains can contribute to equal social development if it is stipulated in the 「RESTITUTION OF DEVELOPMENT GAINS ACT」 to be used only for public investment.
  • 6.

    Legal Study on the Right to Informational Self-Determination in the Fourth Industrial Revolution

    Lee, Jehee | 2017, 80() | pp.143~165 | number of Cited : 13
    The Fourth Industrial Revolution is based on the connections between humans and things. These connections can offer a variety of new services and produce new customer benefits. The success of the Fourth Industrial Revolution depends on information utilization, especially personal information. It is therefore important to achieve harmony between policies regarding the protection and utilization of information. Information protection ensures the right to informational self-determination, meaning that an individual is able to control the disclosure or use of their own personal information. Consent to provide information is valid if it is based on a rational, mindful decision. However, because of the diverse uses of personal information, it is difficult for an individual to understand how their personal information is utilized and what, if any, influence its use may have on them. Additionally, when an individual wants to use essential services such as e-mail or a social network service (SNS), the individual’s ability to make choices are so restricted that their right to informational self-determination is limited. Prior consent for disclosure or use of personal information given by an individual needs to be flexible in order to better protect such information and allow for its utilization. For example, in the case of essential services or improvement of services, prior consent needs to be changed to post consent to strengthen the individual’s right to informational self-determination. To alter the consent system in this manner, the individual’s right to object to the processing of their personal information must first be enhanced. Further, compensation for damages related to the use of personal information obtained without such consent must be extended to offer more substantial information protection. The European Union (EU) regulates general data protection to protect and promote the free movement of personal information. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) grants rights to individuals, including the right to be forgotten and the right to data portability, which are not included in the Korean Personal Information Protection Act. The right to be forgotten is aimed at strengthening an individual’s right to erase their personal data. The right to data portability supports individual rights and promotes competition in the market. Both rights have to be regulated to strengthen individuals’ power to control disclosure and utilization of their own personal information.
  • 7.

    A Comparative Legal Review on the Regulations for the Use of Drone in Korea and Japan

    Seok, Ho Young | 2017, 80() | pp.167~191 | number of Cited : 5
    With the global spotlight on “the Fourth Industrial Revolution”, a new industrial era based on the most advanced information and communication technologies such as the Internet, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data and Cloud Computing, “Drone” using the artificial intelligence technology in particular is gaining widespread attention worldwide. The drone, which was originally used for the military purposes such as a bombing, a reconnaissance, etc. as “the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle”, is being utilized in various fields such as communication, surveillance, lighting, filming, observation, rescue, etc. nowadays, and its role and utilization are even getting greater around the world. To keep pace with this trend, in early 2016, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport has selected the seven new industries, which are able to lead “the Fourth Industrial Revolution” to the future, like the Space Information, Drone, Autonomous Vehicle, Seawater Desalination, and REITs, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport increased its budget by 56%(45.2 billion KRW increased compared to the budget of 81 billion KRW in 2016) in order to strengthen the supports for “the Fourth Industrial Revolution.” Especially, the budget related to “Drone” in 2017 was increased five times more than the budget in 2016. Despite the fact that the utilization of “Drone” is expanding worldwide, there has been some limitations to the universal use of “Drone” due to the safety during the use of “Drone”, the invasion of privacy, the protection of personal information obtained by the use of “Drone”, the infringement of property rights by the use of the upper part of the lands owned by others, etc. To prevent or eliminate these problems, it would be desirable to regulate the use of “Drone” to a certain range by law, but it would be legally challenging to determine the criteria at which the standards are based. Therefore, it shall now be necessary to acquire and suggest some implications obtained by reviewing how other countries regulate the use of “Drone”, so this paper examines the legal system of the use of “Drone” in Japan which is geographically close to Korea and which has the legal system similar to Korea, and it presents implications applicable to Korea.
  • 8.

    Eine rechtliche Untersuchung über die Reformvorschläge vom Informationszugangsrechtssystem für die Wiederherstellung der kollektiven Identität zwischen Bürger und Staat

    KANG, HYUN HO | 2017, 80() | pp.193~223 | number of Cited : 3
    Schon vor 200 Jahre vorher wurde die Öffentlichkeit der Informationen, die von den öffentlichen Behörden gesammelt und verwaltet werden, in der Bestimmungen über die Meinungsfreiheit in Schweden vorgeschrieben. Diese Öffentlichkeit der Informationen beeinflußte durch die Freedom of Information Act in den USA die meisten Ländern der ganzen Welt einschließlich Korea. Eine wissenschaftliche Diskussion über den Erlaß des Informations Freiheit Gesetz(IFG) wurde insbesondere durch die Verabschiedung der Information Freiheit Satzung in der Gemeinde von Cheongju eingeleitet. Nach einer heftigen Diskussion wurde das koreanische IFG erlassen und danach floß die Zeit etwa 20 Jahre schon. Nun ist es die Zeit, eine neue Betrachtung gegenüber dem System der Informationsfreiheit in Korea. Die Grundlage der Offenlegung von Informationen stützt sich das Wissensrecht der Bürger und auch auf die Transparenz in der staatlichen Verwaltung, aber sie hat um so mehr verfassungsrechtlich eine wichtige Bedeutung. Die Offenlegung der öffentlichen Informationen legt eine Grundlage der Staatsexistenz nach dem Prinzip der Demokratie. Die Existenz des Staates ist dadurch zu fortzulaufen, durch die Offenlegung von Informationen eine kollektive Identität als eine Gemeinschaft zwischen den Bürgern und dem Staat beizubehalten. Für die Aufrechterhaltung der nationalen kollektiven Identität sollte die Offenlegung von Informationen noch positiver erfolgen. Als Ergebnis der Überprüfung des gegenwärtigen Status des Systems der Offenlegung von Informationen in den letzten 20 Jahren ist es zu sagen, aus der Sicht der Äußerlichkeit zufriedende Früchte hervorzubringen, aber aus einer neuen Perspektive auf die Offenlegung von Informationen ist es immer noch einige Dinge zu verbessern. Für die Kategorie der Antragsteller der Offenlegung von Informationen sollte m.E. noch eine reservierte Haltung beibehalten werden und schauden die läufende Situation in Bezuf auf Sicherheitsaspekte und andere wichtige Interesse des Staates. Die öffentlichen Einrichtungen, die ihre Informationen gegenüber dem Bürger offenzulegen haben, müssen von der Stelle her ein Beispiel für die Offenlegung geben, die hohe Gewalt ausübt. Dafür sind Medien, Bewertungssystem und Strafe usw. als Mittel genutzt werden. Bei der Offenlegung von Informationen ist es notwendig, in ihrem Inhalt her noch eingehend und zuverlässig zu veröffentlichen. Zunächst ist es zu empfehlen, das System der Vorabbekanntmachung weiter voranzubringen. Selbst wenn es sich um keine Offenlegungsinformationen handelt, sollte mindestens derer Informationsliste in der Hinsicht des Demokratieprinzips öffentlich gemacht werden, damit die Öffentlichkeit wissen kann, welche Informationen von den öffentlichen Einrichtungen gesammelt und verwaltet werden. Es ist auch notwendig, detailliertere Klassifikationskriterien für die Nicht-Offenlegungsinformationen bereitzustellen. Es besteht auch ein Bedarf, auf das Fehlen von Informationen bei der Berechnung der Offenlegungsrate von Informationen angemessen einzugehen. Es ist auch zu berücksichtigen, bei der Nicht-Offenlegungsentscheidung mit dem Verwaltungsverfahrensrecht eine Zusammenarbeit zu leisten. Die Organisation und die Unabhängigkeit des Informationsoffenlegungsausschusses sollten im Hinblick auf die Aufrechterhaltung der verantwortlichen Aufgabenwahrnehmung gestärkt werden, und es ist notwendig, einen Verantwortlichen für die Offenlegung von Informationen in der Behörde zu ernennen. Die Offenlegung von Informationen sollte sich nicht nur auf die Offenlegung von Informationen konzentrieren, sondern auch einen ausreichenden Komfort bieten. Durch diese Verbesserungen ist es zu erwarten, das System der Informationsoffenlegung fortgeschritten zu werden.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Administrative Control and New direction of discretion Activities

    Ko Heon Hwan | 2017, 80() | pp.225~245 | number of Cited : 0
    Today, expanding administrative functions and expanding demand for social changes are causing various administrative activities. In particular, the number of discretion of the administration is increasing due to the increase in the number of benefits. implementation of the presumption that an indefinite concept is enacted, it is given to the Administration to decide on the administrative situation quickly because it is technically impossible to legislate in all cases. This increase in discretion is highly likely to infringe upon the rights of the public in the course of administrative action. Thus, it can effectively control the effectiveness of administrative objectives and protect the public's right to rights by effectively controlling them. So far, controls on discretionary control have mainly relied on legislative control and judicial control. However, the importance of administrative control has emerged as a result of numerous questions raised in the effectiveness of the control. In this context, it seeks to explore the administrative control of administrative control in relation to administrative control of discretionary control, control by administrative procedures, control by administrative justice, control by administrative affairs, control by administrative affairs, and more effective control of administrative control.
  • 10.

    A Legal·Institutional Consideration of Police Officer Welfare Pertinent to the Police Welfare Law

    seon eun ae | 2017, 80() | pp.247~264 | number of Cited : 1
    「Framework Act on Health Safety and Welfare of Police Officers」, which is the law for police officers' welfare and safety, was passed at the Assembly plenary session on December 29, 2011, was declared on February 22, 2012, and was enforced from August 23. The main contents of this fundamental law are prescribing that “the nation shall establish and enforce a policy for health safety and welfare promotion so that police officers can devote themselves to duty, and shall strive to secure finances for this.” Thus, it can be regarded highly because of having arranged a legal·institutional device for welfare promotion on police officers who perform duty while sacrificing themselves for the country and accepting riskiness. The groundwork was arranged that can reinforce quality of life with improving the working conditions in police officers who have sacrificed themselves and served for the nation and people in the meantime. However, it is the real situation that a doubt still cannot help existing about how effective it will be for police officers' welfare policy despite having introduced this Framework Act on police welfare. It is a fact of being incomplete in spite of being certainly needed, especially, the relief system on police officers' criminal injury on duty, and the institutional conditions for promoting police officers' status or spirits due to dangerous working environment or excessive workload. What the nation secures this section so that police officers can proceed with making a stabilized life and an affluent life is also considered to offer public peace service at which all people can be satisfied. To improve police officers' welfare in this way, an improvement plan will need to be suggested through a relevantly legal and institutional consideration. Accordingly, the realistic and effective legislation should be enforced on the basis of the Framework Act on Police Welfare. Even in police officers' criminal victim on duty, a relief plan will need to be expanded. And police officers' welfare promotion will need to lead to being capable of efficiently executing duties through positively adopting a program for police officers' morale support caused by dangerous working conditions or duty-based difficulties.
  • 11.

    Zur direkten Demokratie und Volksgesetzgebung - im Mittelpunkt von der Debatte und der Gesetzgebungserfahrung in Deutschland -

    최정일 | 2017, 80() | pp.265~301 | number of Cited : 2
    Sonderausschuss für Verfassingsverandering im koreanischen Parlament hat 「Die wichtige Punkten für Verfassungsveränderung」 veröffentlicht, im Mittelpunk von den wichtigen Streitpunkten für Verfassungsveränderung, über denen der Sonderausschuss diskutiert hat. In diesen wichtigen Themen für Verfassungsveränderung existieren das Einführungsproblem für Volksinitiative der Gesetzesentwürfe und das Einführungsproblem für Volksinitiative der Verfassungsverändernedn Gesetze. In diesem Aufsatz möchte ich 「die rechtstheoretische und rechtspolitische Debatte und die Gesetzgebungserfahrung über direkte Demokratie und Volksgesetzgebung in Deutschland」 vorstellen und danach einige Hinweisen für Korea herausstellen. Weil die Notwendigkeit der Verstärkung der direkten Demokratie」neuerdings durch den koreanischen Präsident betont worden ist, wird dieses Thema zum wichtigen Streitpunkt während des Prozesses der Verfassungsveränderung im Jahr 2018. Im Fall Deutschlands, seit der Gründurng der BRD ist in periodischen Abständen immer wieder der Ruf nach einer Einfügung plebiszitärer Komponenten in das Grundgesetz laut geworden. Bereits im Jahre 1948 wurde diese Frage im Parlamentarischen Rat kontrovers diskutiert. Angesichts des augenblicklichen Zustands der Parteiendemokratie gewinnt die Forderung nach einer unmittelbaren Beteiligung des Volkes an der Willensbildung des Staates zunehmend an Aktualität Die Pateien beschränken sich nicht mehr auf die Kanalisierung des Volkswillens, sie suchen ihn vielmehr zu beherschen. Um dieses Problem auszulösen, waren die Bürgerinitiativen, die in den 70er Jahren auf kommunaler Ebene in Deutschland gegründet wurden, wesentlich erfolgreicher. Den Anstoss für die neuerliche Debatte über eine Einfügung plebiszitärer Komponenten in das GG liefert allerdings nicht allein die Parteienverdrossenheit in der alten Bundesrepublik. Auch in den neuen Bundesländern ist ein wachsendes Bedürfnis der Bürger nach Formen unmittelbarer Demokratie zu verzeichnen. Vor dem Hintergrund der friedlichen Herbst-Revolution im Jahr 1989 in der damaligen DDR überrascht es wenig, wenn dasselbe Volk, das im Oktober 1989 für die Anerkennung seiner Bürgerrechte kämpfte und damit den Zusammenbruch des SED-Regimes einleitete, auch in einem vereinten Deutschland aktiv am politischen Geschehen teilzunehmen wünscht. Das Grundgesetz nennt Abstimmungen in einem Atemzug mit Wahlen. Dennoch kennt die Bundesverfassung keine unmittelbare Beteiligung des Volkes an der Gesetzgebung. Plebiszitäre Elemente enthält das Grundgesetz nur bei der Schaffung einer neuen Verfassung[Art. 146 GG]sowie bei der Neugliederung des Bundesgebietes [Art. 29 GG]. In den Ländern hingegen besteht für das Volk die Möglichkeit, durch Volksinitiative ein Gesetz in das Parlament einzubringen oder selbst ein Gesetz zu beschliessen. Die Länder haben somit einen Kontrapunkt zum prononciert antiplebiszitären Grundgesetz gesetzt. Dies begegnet nach Ansicht des BVerfG, auch mit Blick auf das Homogenitätsgebot aus Art. 28 Abs. 1 GG, keinen verfassungsrechtlichen Bedenken. Die Fraktionen FDP, BÜNDNIS 90/DIE GRÜNEN und DIE LINKE. forderten in ihren Gesetzentwürfen im Jahr 2006 die Einführung von Volksinitiative, Volksbegehren und Volksentscheid in das Grundgesetz. Den Bürgerinnen und Bürgern werde durch diese Elemente direkter Demokratie, die das parlamentarisch - repräsentative System des Grundgesetzes ergänzten, die Möglichkeit gegeben, sich unmittelbar an politischen Entscheidungen zu beteiligen. Die Gesetzentwürfe wurden in der 35. Sitzung des Deutschen Bundestages am 11. Mai 2006 an den Innenausschuss federführend überwiesen. Der Ausschuss empfahl, die Gesetzentwürfe abzulehnen. Am 23. April 2009 hat Deutscher Bundestag diese Gesetzentwürfe endgültig abgelehnt. Aber die Hoffnung des deutschen Volkes, nach der plebiszitäre Komponenten ins Grundgesetz eingefügt werden und dadurch auch in der Bundesebene ergänzende, direkte Demokratie ausfgeührt wird, löscht nicht aus und das deutsche Volk wartet immer noch darauf, dass eine Einfügung plebiszitärer Komponenten in d
  • 12.

    A Study of Contents and Resolutions in the Mental Health Welfare Act

    Kim Chang-Hwee | 2017, 80() | pp.303~331 | number of Cited : 11
    Dignity and happiness of human through possession of the natural rights may be formed within suitable harmony between national stability and order. The power of national order brings the personal rights into the national order, but the individual may carry the personal rights to indicate the roles of the rights. In other words, the natural rights are the personal subjective rights with the objective order as the political unified body of the State, having the mutually supplementing properties. The personal liberty as the natural right along with the psychological liberty is the most fundamental liberty to implement dignity and value of human, the core of the constitutional ideology, and they are the prerequisites to assure all natural rights. Enacted in 1995, the Mental Health Act was amended on May 29th of 2016, 20 years after enactment, to become the “Act on the Improvement of Mental Health and the Support for Welfare Services for Mental Patients” to be enforced from May 30th, 2017. Though the violation of human rights was predicted from the enactment of the Mental Health Act, the Act was enforced with the justification of preventing mental illness and medical and rehabilitation. However, the number of patients hospitalized increased rapidly with the enforcement of the Mental Health Act, and the formal administration of the protective hospitalization system led to long-term hospitalization to eliminate the fundamental purposes of treatment and rehabilitation by being spoiled to quarantine and confinement with the logic of public security. Hence, the paradigm of trouble-shooting approach in mental health has been changed. Although there may be differences, it is generally evaluated that the issues in mental health are desirably resolved with human dignity through recovery along with management of symptoms in the local community for mental patients rather than with quarantine and confinement for treatment. Therefore, the continuous request of amending the Mental Health Act by social organizations and mental patients and their families led to the case of reviewing the unconstitutional act, making the Mental Health Act have constitutional nonconformity. Moreover, under the trial, the Act has been amended entire in May 2016. The newly amended Mental Health Welfare Act had widely different regulations about protective hospitalization, which was a major issue in the preliminary Mental Health Act. The scope of definition of mental patient has been reduced, the scope of welfare service for mental health has been extended, the concept of consented hospitalization has been newly established, and the substantive and procedural requirements of protective hospitalization have been reinforced. Yet, there are still matters to be improved in the Mental Health Welfare Act, and this study has reviewed such points.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Real Estate Brokerage Fee Decision System

    Lim, Suk-Nyeo | 2017, 80() | pp.333~351 | number of Cited : 4
    Today, real estate is recognized as a part of individual property rights, and it is becoming a means of property growth through property ownership and transactions. The real estate brokerage area, which mainly deals with real estate brokerage, has become more aware of the brokerage business as well, thanks to the opportunity of participation by experts. It is not easy to judge or judge the information about the economic value judgment or the legal regulation regarding the real property in the course of the real estate transaction in terms of the general public, As a result, Korea has a system of certified real estate agents with strict qualifications. Based on the expertise of the practitioner, the real estate transaction is promoted, and the real estate professional is guaranteed. Also, the social role of the real estate agent is also recognized as important. It is reasonable for an agent with the same expertise as a real estate agent to receive the corresponding remuneration. Article 32 (3) of the Act does not limit the specific commission rate to items other than houses and houses. In the case of brokerage of houses, a limit is first set in the Ordinance of the Ministry of Land, Transport and Tourism. . In the case of brokerage of goods outside the housing, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport is required to set the order. However, considering that some control over the real estate brokerage commission is necessary to secure the security of real estate transactions, when compared with other experts such as appraisers and appraisers, it is reasonable to judge whether it is reasonable to strictly regulate brokerage commissions of real- It is also controversial whether the procedure for establishing specific regulatory limits should be made by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Land, Transport and Traffic and local governments. It is necessary to deeply examine the content of the legal system that establishes statutory rates and limits of commission fees in the Ministry of Land, Transport and Tourism Ordinances. In addition, the current real estate brokerage commission determination system is divided into residential and nonresidential for sale and lease.
  • 14.

    A Study on the Less Restrictive Alternative Test - Focusing on the U.S. Supreme Court Decision -

    Lee Young Woo | 2017, 80() | pp.353~377 | number of Cited : 0
    Freedom of expression should be guaranteed as the foundation of the democratic society. So in the U.S., theories are being discussed that give superior status relative to other rights of freedom to freedom of speech. The guarantee of such superiority in representation is made up of prohibition of inspection. Also, it is made by placing stricter restrictions on the constitutionality of the constitutional judgment required to judge whether or not the regulation of freedom of expression is constitutional. It is the principle that, in terms of freedom of expression, the less restrictive alternative should be adopted considering the freedom of expression has superior status than other freedom rights. This criterion is not a mechanical solution for complex problem that occur realistically, but it has the flexibility to apply differently depending on the nature of specifics of the matter or difference in the nature of a right. In relation to this LRA standard, in Korea, It is considered very important in terms of the criterion of determining legislative constitutionality of the constitutional restrictions on freedom of speech or limitations of rights limit.
  • 15.

    Study on the Legislative Residents’ Support for CCS

    Kim, Dong-Ryun | Moon-Hyun Koh | 2017, 80() | pp.379~397 | number of Cited : 4
    Due to industrialization, the climate change has been intensified. Various solutions are being prepared as measures against climate change, and one of them is CCS. CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) refers to a technology to collect carbon dioxide from source of emission or from business and to store it underground to quarantine it from the atmosphere for a long time. Since CCS is not well-known, it is yet difficult to form a social consensus. Moreover, as it is categorized as waste under the Waste Control Act, it is hostile among people. Therefore, to correctly and efficiently apply CCS, it is required to obtain a social consensus. As shown especially in the United States and Netherlands, it is very important to gain a social consensus, and this consensus comes from communication. For efficient administration of CCS, the plan of communication is required. The plans for residents support to create a social consensus may be discussed, and if applicable, these shall be legislated. To create a social consensus of residents, the safety of CCS shall be secured and assured for residents, and the laws and regulations shall define the methods, subjects, and procedures of residents support. Furthermore, the committee for communication with the public shall be established as well.
  • 16.

    A Study on the Applicability of the Adjudication of Constitutionality on Customary Law

    김영숙 | Kim, Sang-Kyum | 2017, 80() | pp.399~417 | number of Cited : 2
    State system of positive laws alone cannot address every legal issue of a country. This is why customary law which did not go through the official legislative process fills the need of the society and is recognized by the state. However, customary law has an effect to a complementary extent, and has different standards of application from positive law. In order for customary law to be binding, it has to be stipulated in the positive law as in Article 1 of our civil law and criminal law. Against the backdrop of the controversy on customary law which is a kind of unwritten law lie a series of rulings in which the Constitutional Court and the judicature presented conflicting positions. The difference in views on customary law of both constitutional institutions have constantly caused a controversy on the source and effect of customary law in a state based on written law. In academia, the majority denies the applicability of the adjudication of constitutionality on customary law, and some claim that the adjudication should be applied to customary law as well considering its legal effect. Even though our Constitution does not mention customary law in particular, laws from the legislature defines the source of customary law, and recognizes the primary effect beyond complementing positive law under certain circumstances. This view of the legislature can be interpreted as recognizing customary law as a complement in the absence of positive law. As long as the positive law does not deny the effect of customary law, it would be groundless to deny the legal effect of customary law. Denying the applicability of adjudication of constitutionality on customary law seems to be a result of grammatical interpretation and formal logic. The Supreme Court's position would not also be free from non-legal factors such as the subtle competition with the Constitutional Court. Considering the purpose of the adjudication of constitutionality as a review mechanism of norms that have effect on the legal right of people, its applicability on customary law should also be recognized.
  • 17.

    A Constitutional Study on the Prevention of Hate and Discrimination based on Religion

    KibokGoh | 2017, 80() | pp.419~442 | number of Cited : 0
    Recently there have been more cases of crimes in which the perpetrators do harm to the victims without any particular reasons. Even though the Constitution stipulate human dignity and equality upfront, hate crimes are increasingly taking place. States have been legislating laws to prevent social crimes deriving from discrimination and hate, but it is not easy to solve a problem originating from cognition solely with law and institutions. Nevertheless, law and institutions are the foundation for social order in the modern society. The United States already legislated a law in the 1960s that imposes punishment on acts of discrimination and violence based on race, ethnicity, religion, nationality, gender, homosexuality and etc. Korea has established the National Human Rights Commission in 2000. In 2008, the Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights Commission began its work. There was a discussion on the Prevention of Religious Conflict Law to prevent religious conflict in advance the same year. In the Civil Servants Law article which states the responsibility of civil servants to maintain their religious neutrality was newly added. In Korea, the issue of discrimination in various domains, including that against children from a multi-cultural family or homosexuality, is becoming more salient. Discrimination and hatred impair human dignity and undermine integration of a society and state. Despite the constant effort of the state, discrimination based on gender or religion still exists. It is high time that the law which prevents hate crime and discrimination is legislated.
  • 18.

    Die Rechtssprechungstendenzen des koreanischen Höchsten Gerichts über das öffentliche Baurecht und Entschädigungsrecht im Zeitraum vom Januar 2010 bis zum Oktober 2017

    Jonghyun Seok | 2017, 80() | pp.443~488 | number of Cited : 2
    Dieser Beitrag hat die Rechtssprechungen des koreanischen Höchsten Gerichts über das öffentliche Baurecht und Entschädigungsrecht im Zeitraum vom Januar 2011 bis zum Oktober 2017 zusammengestellt, um die Tendenzen der Rechtssprechungen zu verdeutlichen. Dabei ist die Kommentierung zu der einzelnen Rechtsprchung nicht vorgenommen.