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The New and Old Alterations of Communication Politics in late Qing. -The transition from Traditional Document System to Communication politics by modern parliamentary politics.-

  • 중앙사론
  • 2010, (31), pp.43-79
  • Publisher : Institute for Historical Studies at Chung-Ang University
  • Research Area : Humanities > History

Chunbok Lee 1

1중앙대학교

Candidate

ABSTRACT

This paper handled the partial aspect of the new and old change of communication politics in the end of Ching focusing on the aspects and institutionalization that the method of communication between ruler and the ruled is diversified and the class and scope is gradually extended. During Qing dynasty, Palace memorial(奏摺) system appeared by making up for problems of Tiben(題本) and Zouben(奏本) which are the Throne article(上疏文) system of Ming Dynasty in Qing Dynasty. Palace memorial system stamped out the negative effects such as concealment, leakage, delay, etc. that was existing because the original documents which were not opened were directly delivered to emperors. But basic problems were not solved. In other words, the system basically blocked any possible ways of communication between minor officials lower than ranking five(5品官), literary intelligentsia(士大夫), and emperors and also between the public and emperors directly. The institutional safety device which control emperors were not prepared if they reject communication because the rights to decide final policies belong to them. Of course, Kedaoguan(科道官) and Duchayuan(都察院) installed in Qing Dynasty like the expostulation system in the traditional ages played role in expostulation and forthright statement. control function of royal authority was nominal. The main causes of them is that the final right to decide collection of public opinion and the power to appoint and dismiss officials lied in the hands of emperors. Appearance of assemblymen who are the representative organizations and spokesmen of citizens made a breakthrough to solve chronic deficiencies of communication structures in the traditional ages. The communication structures formed under appearance of the assembly system the big three changes as follow: First, the organization that leads communication between high levels and low levels changed from the administration system to the assembly system. Second, emperors in the traditional states that the representative organization that leads communication between high levels and low levels and members are responsible were changed to citizens who have suffrage. Finally, leadership of the communication structure was changed from monarches to assemblies which are the representative organizations of citizens. in the communication process, assemblymen in the houses of representatives could not help valuing public opinion trend of citizens and their results of the poll as basis and standard of communication.

Citation status

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