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pISSN : 1975-521X / eISSN : 2765-3943

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2020, Vol.40, No.1

  • 1.

    A Study on Jeyeongsi Poetry of Gongbukru Pavilion in Gongsanseong Fortress, Gongju

    DongJae Lee | 2020, 40(1) | pp.1~39 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study as part of a basic study to examine the cultural status of Gongsanseong Fortress, a UNESCO World Heritage Site reviewed the current status of Jeyeongsi poetry of Gongbukru pavilion in Gongsanseong Fortress and the world of the works, contributing to finding the cultural and historical value of Gongbukru pavilion and utilizing it for cultural tourism. Gongsanseong Fortress in Gongju is a space of beautiful scenery along the river Geumgang, and was the royal palace in the Baekje era, and there was Gammu for the provincial governor in the Joseon era, comprising various pavilions including Gongbukru pavilion. Gongbukru pavilion was a pavilion built north of Geumgang riverside in 1603 by the Cheongcheong‐do provincial governor, Yu Geun in the Gongsanseong Fortress as he was preparing Gammu of Cheongcheong‐do province, and played a spatial role of Yushik (遊息) and Jeonbyeol as well as functioning as Gwanbang (關防). After Yu Geun completed and built Gongbukru pavilion in 1603, Jeyeongsi poetry of Gongbukru pavilion in Gongsanseong Fortress was written steadily until the beginning of the 20th century, and there are 94 poems in 86 subjects in the DB on the original information service provided by the Institute for the Translation of Korean Classics. In terms of the form of Jeyeongsi poetry of Gongbukru pavilion, there are 2 poems in 2 subjects in the classic Chinese quatrain with five‐character lines, 13 poems in 12 subjects in the five‐syllable regulated verse, 20 subjects 23 poems in the classic Chinese quatrain with seven‐character lines, and 56 poems in 52 subjects in the seven‐syllable regulated verse, showing that the seven‐syllable regulated verse accounts for more than half. It is because Yu Geun's poems, the first Jeyeongsi poetry of Gongbukru pavilion, were the seven‐syllable regulated verse, and the poets of oncoming generations wrote this poetry a lot by rhyme‐matching (次韻). In the contents of Jeyeongsi poetry of Gongbukru pavilion in Gongsanseong Fortress, there are 24 poems which recited the beautiful scenery of Gongbukru pavilion, and 36 poems that revealed the inmost unburdened thoughts of journey, 26 poems revealing emotions of Yushik (遊息), and eight poems that reveal the emotions of historical retrospectives. It is because it was a space of beautiful scenery where Gongbukru pavilion was the ramparts of Gongsanseong Fortress, the royal palace and rural palace site of Baekje, a space with the view of the river Geumgang, a place of rest and entertainment for officials or envoys who perform public affairs, and the spaces of military camps where poets and experts in calligraphy and ink drawing could stay and expose the fatigue of the journey.
  • 2.

    Research for Rational Analysis and Reconstitution of 『Cheongchangyeondam(晴窓軟談)』

    Kang, Min - Koo | 2020, 40(1) | pp.41~85 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Shin Heum(申欽)’s 『Cheongchangyeondam(晴窓軟談)』 inherited the tradition of the compilation of poetic criticism books of the preceding period and was carried out in the trend of the lively compilation of poetic criticism collections at that time. It was also likely that his participation in the compilation of 『Haedong Shibuseon』 under the order of Seonjo was related to the compilation of 『Cheongchangyeondam』. The books that Shin Heum used in the compilation of 『Cheongchangyeondam』 were 『Yongjae Essay(容齋隨筆)』, 『Siin-ogseol(詩人玉屑)』, 『Munheontong-go(文獻通考)』, 『West Lake Sightseeing(西湖遊覽志)』 and 『Sandangsago(山堂肆考)』, 『Dangshi pumhwi(唐詩品彙)』 and 『Dangshis seubyou(唐詩拾遺)』. However, he did not reveal the fact that he used them as references. 『Cheongchangyeondam The first(上)』, in total 40 sections, commented on 45 poets from the Tang Dynasty and their works. And, 『Cheongchangyeondam The second(中)』, in total 42 sections, made comments on 43 Chinese poets and their works. In 『Cheongchangyeondam The third(下)』, in total 70 sections, it commented on 6 Chinese poets and 59 Korean poets, a total of 65 poets and their poems. Among them, except for the overlapping figures, 56 poets from the Tang Dynasty, 4 poets from the Southern and Northern Dynasties, 18 poets from the Song Dynasty, 3 poets from the Yuan Dynasty, 7 poets from the Ming Dynasty, 4 poets from Goryeo and 55 poets from Joseon, a total of 147 poets were subject of criticism. And in all the first(上), second(中), and third(下), Shin Heum’s weighty theory were placed in the right place. The criticism made in 『Cheongchangyeondam』 covers the theory of poetry, works, writers, style, and text. In particular, the 『Cheongchangyeondam The third(下)』 is mainly composed of Joseon poets’ poetic criticism, and it is said that the abundant knowledge that Shin Heum collected during his long tenure in important position were used as a material. As a result of analyzing the 『Cheongchangyeondam』, the values are as follows. 1. It introduced and commented on various writers and works of China and Korea. 2. It attempted to bind and comment on poems under the same theme. 3. It raised the level of criticism in Sino-Korean literature by presenting a weighty theory of poems. 4. It summarized and arranged the situation and trends of Joseon Dynasty’s poetical circles. 5. It preserved lost works. 6. It made it possible to know the original form of the work. 7. The lively poetic criticism made it possible to understand the literary environment of Joseon Dynasty. On the other hand, 『Cheongchangyeondam』 also contains the following problems. 1. The arrangement of the object of criticism is distracting. 2. Some sections have to be readjusted through the process of separation and integration. 3. The category of criticism are entangled. 4. While it contains a large number of works and anecdotes of people who are close to him, the poets and works that must be put in are omitted. 5. A forgery is included. 6. There are numerous errors in the wording, including the name of the reference, the name of the writer, and the name of the work. The problems of 『Cheongchangyeondam』 are the same in other poetic criticism books. Therefore, the experience and methods of the formal copy work to solve the problems shown in 『Cheongchangyeondam』 could be applied to the formal copy work of other poetic criticism books.
  • 3.

    A Study on Poet Song, Nam-soo in Hoedeok

    JUNG,KYUNG HOON | 2020, 40(1) | pp.87~113 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Song Nam-soo is a representative poet in the Hoedok area. He is the third poet in Hoedeok, along with Song Hee-gap and Song Mong-in. In addition, Yoon Geun-soo, Lee Jeong-gu, Kwon Pil, Kim Sang-yong, Yoo Geun, Jeongon, Jeong-gu, Lee Ho-min, Ian Noul, Shin Heum, etc., cultivated with the best writers of the Joseon Dynasty and left over 300 poems. Song Nam-soo's poetry was included in the famous poem 『KIA』 and was widely known in the world. Song Si-yeol and Kim Chang-hyup revealed the poetic features of Song Nam-soo. In particular, Kim Chang-hyup referred to the poetry of Song Nam-soo as ‘A true poem(眞詩)’. Song Nam-soo's specialty is to write down beautiful landscapes. And after living in office, living leisurely and getting pleasure through poetry and alcohol. And remembering the past while staying in Hoedeok. Song Nam-soo toured Gyeryongsan, Kwandong, Yeongdong, Geumgang, Hyeonggang and Gapcheon and left them as poems. And after finishing his bureaucratic life at the age of 60, he came to Hoedok without regret and enjoyed lyre, books, poetry, and alcohol until he died at the age of 90. After retirement, he enjoyed poetry and alcohol, and transferred his last life to a small pond in Songdam. I looked back on my life here and expressed various feelings in a poem.
  • 4.

    Regional Imagery Patterns and Its Meaning in JungJae, Ryu Chi-Myeong's 『Kwanseo Yurok』 Official Records

    Nam Yoon Deok | 2020, 40(1) | pp.115~145 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Ryu Chi-myeong's 『Kwanseo Yurok』 examines the situation and relationship in various aspects such as social, political, economic, and cultural aspects of Pyeongan-do and the characteristics of the primary Yurok, which records the impressions and excitement of the ridges and scenic spots in the Kansai region. It also reflects reality perception, such as directly or indirectly. 『Gwanseo Yurok』 shows the historical value through historical technology. This is revealed realistically through the combination of history and literature. Ryu Chi-myeong is the ideological figure of the Joseon Confucian, who is the origin of Myohyangsan, Gija who spread civilization in the East, Hwangseong, Song Dynasty, Huijong and Heumjong, and Orangka's Ogukseong. Revealed without adjustment. In addition, introduced representative gangs and Kanghak spaces in the Kwanseo region, and expressed his regrets and feelings in a sincere and calm tone. Ryu Chi-myung's 『Kwanseo Yurok』 can be recognized as a literary value in various meanings and intentions, such as knowing the government office area properly and taking time for self-reflection as a wooden building, not a description of a simple go sightseeing.
  • 5.

    Necessity and Meaning of Data Collection on Bamboo-branch Poems

    kimyoungjook | 2020, 40(1) | pp.147~171 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is a brief inquiring into the writing process and its purpose of Bamboo poems and pursuing its meaning and position in the literary circle of that time. At large from the late eighteenth to early nineteenth century, quantities of knowledge were explosively expanded and the intellectuals tended to write information/knowledge by the form of encyclopediac and memoranda style. However, wrote「Record of the Extraordinary」which depicted the lives and customs of folks by adopting the form of combining prose with poem written in classical Chinese. And one more, impacts from traditional Chinese Bamboo poems. Simply put, his unique careers and social situation made him pursue not only literary accomplishment but also information delivery and accordingly he took a choice of a form of Bamboo poems, which was a kind of response to task of the time.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Transmission of Buddhist Scholar’ Gugyeol and Divide of Confucian Scholar’ Gugyeol

    Shin,Youngju | 2020, 40(1) | pp.173~194 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study looked at the 借字表記 口訣 that our ancestors had used for the study and study of Chinese characters. During the early Goryeo Dynasty, there was a 口訣 written with dots and lines using 角筆. There is also a 口訣 written with a brush by omitting the Chinese characters' dots and lines. We looked at how these two are related and when they were created. In addition, the function of 口訣 has been changed from interpreting to reading aloud. The cause was analyzed. For this, we looked at cases such as <初雕本 瑜伽師地論>, <舊譯仁王經> and <再雕本 瑜伽師地論>. So far, 口訣 has been used to study 佛經. In addition, the results were passed back to future generations, allowing them to succeed the academic tradition. At this time, we looked at the role of 口訣. In addition, we examined the phenomenon in which intellectuals who learned 儒學 used a new combination of 口訣 rather than 口訣 of 佛經. Also, we investigated the possibility of differentiation strategies in this division.
  • 7.

    A Research on Importation and Publication of Chinese Books in the Early Chosŏn Period: Focused on the Category of Confucian Classics

    Noh, Johann | 2020, 40(1) | pp.195~242 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This article explores the importation and the publication of Chinese Books in the late Koryŏ and early Chosŏn period focusing on the category of Confucian classics. King Sejong endeavored to realize his ideal of establishing a country of Confucian culture by studying Confucian classics renovating the national cultural system based on that. He struggled to adopt the academic and cultural achievement of Ming China through Chinese classics of the four categories of Jingshi ziji (經史子集, jing-classics, shi-histories, zi-masters and ji-collections) to secure the legitimacy and to organize the cultural system, of newly established country. He sought to obtain the fine copies of Chinese books through several routes not only to publish or reprint them, but to compile and print the wholly new editions with annotations based on study with scholars at Chiphyŏnjŏn Hall. Then, what were the books that the king and the scholars scrutinized the principle of Confucianism with in the royal lecture at that time? What were the original texts that were used when they edited wholly new editions based on them. Chosŏn court had to send an official letter (咨文) to the ministry Rites (禮部) of Ming China to obtain books which were granted as imperial gifts. It was the only way to obtain books from Ming China though it was relatively easy to import books from Yuan China under relatively few regulations. Sishu Wujing Daquan (四書五經大全), Daxue Yanyi (大學衍義), Zizhi Tongjian (資治通鑑), Tongjian Gangmu (通鑑綱目) that were imported via that route in the early Chosŏn period are the good examples. Along with this, books passed down from Koryŏ dynasty were also republished in the early Chosŏn period. This article examined the importation and publication of Chinese books in the early Chosŏn period including Sishu Wujing Daquan (四書五經大全), Zhouyi Huitong (周易會通), Yizuanyan (易纂言), Shujizhan Jiluzuanzhu (書集傳輯錄纂註), Yinshi Shujizhuan (音釋書集傳), Yinshi Shijizhuan (音釋詩集傳), Chunqiu Jingzhuan Jijie (春秋經傳集解), Chunqiu Hushizhuan (春秋胡氏傳), Chunqiu Zuoshizhuan Jujie (春秋經左氏傳句解), Chunqiu Zhuzhuan Huitong (春秋諸傳會通).
  • 8.

    Focusing on the Development of Seohakjungwonron (西學中源論) and Its Implications

    Ham Young Dae | 2020, 40(1) | pp.243~267 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Seohak is the West’s sciences handed down by Chosun envoys that came and went between Chosun and China after the 17th century, late Ming the early Qing. In fact, Chosun scholars’ logic to cope with Seohak is still equipped with present meaning because it is intellects’ logic to recognize new civilization. In the academic circles of Chosun at that time, there was Dogi(道器) Divided Acceptance Theory intensely supported. It means that they had to follow the logic of acquiring superior scientific technology even if it was from Western civilization but would never accept heretical ideas associated with social order or moral practice unlike advanced technology. The layers of coping with Western civilization were, in fact, very diverse then. One of the interesting points about the coping logic is Seohakjungwonron(西學中源論). Seohakjungwonron was insisted by Chinese scholars during late Ming and early Qing, and it means that the advanced West’s science originated from China’s ancient civilization. It was not just about ethnocentrism but what was developed into logic to accept new civilization. Of course, considering the historical development, transmission, and acceptance of scientific technology in the holistic viewpoint, we can find Seohakjungwonron is hardly equipped with historical authenticity and can never disregard its logical absurdity. Despite that, in the process of acculturation, the logic of Seohakjungwon was maintained for more than about 150 years. This is not simply because of their stubbornness about knowledge and recognition but because of the difference of viewpoints over science and civilization which headed for different directions. Through that, we can examine recognition logic as an object of sciences, problems in the goals and methodology of sciences, and the matter of cultural identity. Yet, what is obvious is that exact recognition on heterogeneous civilization and desirable attitudes to cope with changes should be grounded on righteous understanding as well as thorough analysis on new civilization and the counterpart preferentially. Although establishment of the subject is what is demanded all the time, that subject becomes mature not from an isolated subject but from that being able to receive the aspects of change in its entirety.
  • 9.

    A Study of Chinese Characters in the Name of the Acupuncture Point in the Human Body

    Lee, Ho-jik | 2020, 40(1) | pp.269~303 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the East, meridian point was found to be the reaction point of the human body's internal organs to the body's surface and also the therapeutic acupuncture point. Therefore, each acupuncture point, including this meaning, was named using the means of Chinese characters. Chinese characters has repeated its creation and extinction through the steps of inscriptions on bones and tortoise carapaces, an epigraph, Sojeon, square, and ornamental, and the Chinese characters written in Meridian point' name are also considered to be the same. In order to accurately understand the meaning of the name written in the current Meridian point' name, an analysis of the ‘the principle of Yuk Seo(六書) in Chinese characters’ and ‘Formation(形), Sound(音), Meaning(義)’ is required. In this paper, Chinese characters related to buildings were selected out of 361 acupuncture point in the human body. The selected Chinese characters include 倉 of 地倉(stomach Meridian System No.4) acupuncture point, 臺 of 靈臺(Governor Vessel Meridian No. 10), 牖 of 天牖(Triple Energizer Meridian No. 16) and 極" of 極泉(Heart Meridian No. 1). However, errors sometimes occur because ‘the shape of a character(字形)’ or ‘pronunciation of a characters (字音)’ of the Chinese characters used today are different from the original ones. Therefore, based on Heo Sin's “Surveyor” in order to understand the significance(名義) of the acupuncture point, various track records and the greatness presented by Chinese medicine were compared and analyzed. We also looked at the pronunciation of a characters (字音), the source of a letter composition(字源) and change of formation letters through the analysis of ancient the shape of a character centered on sound part(聲符) and formation letters(字形). The 地's acupuncture point is located on the tail of the mouth, which is the edge of the mouth. The word '地' in 地倉 was considered to be the function of the earth and the mouth was the location of the earth among sky(天), earth(地), and human(人) in the facial part. ‘倉’ was named as follows because ‘地倉’s acupuncture point' belongs to ‘胃’s Meridian system and ‘胃’ is the storehouse of grain. At the 靈臺's acupuncture point, ‘靈’ is the heart and ‘臺’ is a Hyoungsungja(形聲字) made by the method of formation(形成) in Chinese characters. ‘臺’ is named as follows by comparing the characteristics of an ancient building located in a high place and the characteristics of a heart located in a high place, it’s the same function that supports the human body. In ‘天牖’s acupuncture point, ‘天’ was named to reflect that the acupuncture point is located next to the ear. Also, ‘牖’ is named by comparing the ears to the functions of ancient windows. In ‘極泉’s acupuncture point, ‘極’ means that the acupuncture point is located under the armpit and its shape is like that of a cornice. In addition, Also, ‘泉’ was named as the first place to start like a spring water. If you analyze and organize the Chinese characters ‘形, 音, 義’ and ‘source of a letter composition(字源)’ written in the human body’s acupuncture point, you will be able to give objective and persuasive information to those who study Chinese characters and Chinese medicine.
  • 10.

    A Study on Teaching Method about ‘Masculine-tone’ and ‘Feminine-tone’ in the Secondary School Course Pre-modern Literature

    GOOTAEUN , Song, Ha-on | 2020, 40(1) | pp.305~331 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Learning ‘tone’ is important works in secondary school curriculum because it is closely related to the situation of the narrator or mood of the poem. In particular, categorizing the tone according to gender, such as ‘male-tone’ and ‘feminine-tone’, used continuously for analyzing poetry. This study attempts to raise the issue of masculine and feminine tone that we have used customarily. We specifically analyzed the above problems through practical questions from students, and also analyzed textbooks and instructional textbooks for teachers. Furthermore, We deviated from a fixed understanding of gender, proposed a realistic method to students to learning literature more actively and effectively. Distinction between the two tones through cultural gender attributes is issue for current middle and high school students. This is because they are no longer able to accept male and female attributes against cultural tradition. Even now, many textbooks analyze poetry that should be basically learned in our literature according to gender attributes. For example, the feminine tone is soft and delicate, and lt used mourning or longing stand out, and the masculine tone is used harsh strong poetry or the intense feelings appear. This distinction has limitations that it is not possible to answer whether gender itself and emotional characteristics correspond. It is not the way it has been used before. Decisively, the effectiveness of this method is also weak, because students should be given additional explanations of ‘what is masculine?’, ‘what is feminine?’. If this method continues, can also have negative influence for students to internalize stereotypes by gender during they grow. Therefore, instead of the distinction between masculine and feminine tones, Expressions that evaluate the Narrator’s ‘emotion’ should be recommended, such as a soft tone and rigid tone.