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2020, Vol.74, No.74

  • 1.

    프랑스국립도서관(BnF) 소장 『대불정여래밀인수증요의제보살만행수능엄경 (大佛頂如來密因脩證了義諸菩薩萬行首楞嚴經)』 권1, 2에 기입된 구결(口訣) 및 한글 연구

    Ha, Jeongsoo | 2020, 74(74) | pp.1~37 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to explain the kugyol(口訣) and Hangeul(한글) of “the Materials of Neungeomgyeong (楞嚴經, Surangama-sutra) vol 1, 2 kept in Biblitheque Nationale de France”(from now on we called this by BnF Neungeomgyeong (楞嚴 經). It has many informations about Korean linguistic history. Translation of Neungeomkyeong (楞嚴經, Surangama-sutra) was the first work and important work of king Sejo(世祖). It was his the Korean own language and character(한글) translation. The ten volumes of the text were originally published in 1461 in a movable-type edition. Then one year after in a woodblock printing were published in 1462. King Sejo(世祖) and prominent scholars and monks of the time examined various books such as Neungeomgyeong (楞嚴經) documents. And they reflected the results of studies and debates in the translation. Therefore, this book shows various perspectives on these translations after this work. Some Materials of Neungeomgyeong (楞嚴經) is written by character borrow system(借 字表記法) of Koryeo dynasty. This BnF Neungeomgyeong (楞嚴經) documents enables understanding of that work compared Neungeomgyeongeonhae (楞嚴經 諺解). In chapter 2, We focused on the basic bibliography and the characteristics of the this documents, and focused on the queen(韓氏) and the monk Hakjo(學祖) who wrote the remarks(跋文). In chapter 3, The Eumdok-kugyol(音讀口訣) characters written in this document were categorized based on their form. And we tdescribe the basic work for contrasting this documents with other Neungeomgyeong (楞嚴經) documents of the early Joseon Dynasty. In chapter 4, For the Hangeul written in Seokdok-kugyol(釋讀口訣) in this document, the morphological and grammatical characteristics of the Hangeul were examined, and other annotations were discussed. BnF Neungeomgyeong (楞嚴經, Surangama-sutra) documents has a great significance in showing the relation of the Joseon Dynasty era eonhae(諺解) as a result of the Koryo Dynasty era Seokdok-kugyol(釋讀口訣) in the continuity of Korean linguistic history. It shows the process of accepting the early translations of Korean by Hangeul(한글), and shows the tradition of the Goryeo Era translation of Buddhist Studies in the Royal Family and its traditions.
  • 2.

    A Study on Adverbs Modifying Nouns

    Jiseon Mok | 2020, 74(74) | pp.39~69 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study was intended to catalogue adverbs modifying nouns according to the objective criteria and then classify them. Through this process, the characteristics of adverbs modifying nouns and the causes in which adverbs modify substantives will be addressed by category in detail. And based on the results of these discussions, the role or status of the adverbs modifying nouns will be established. Since adverbs modifying nouns have been actively discussed only since the 90s, there have been few accumulated study results. Moreover, since researchers may have different perspectives, significant study results have yet to be achieved. Consequently, there is still controversy over the word class category; the classification, meaning and syntax, and the pragmatic applicability and function of the substantive which is the modificand; and the cause in which the adverbs modify the substantives, in addition to the name of ‘adverbs modifying nouns’. The root cause of this controversy lies in the inability to catalogue the target vocabularies based on exact conceptual rules and standards. In order to overcome these limitations, having both adverb usage and determiner usage has been established as the most basic condition of the adverbs modifying nouns. The vocabularies used only as adverbs or adjectives were excluded from the catalogue of the adverbs modifying nouns suggested in prior studies by applying this, and then remaining adverbs modifying nouns have been cataloged. In addition, for only the vocabularies that can be considered adverbs modifying nouns, the meanings and syntactic characteristics when they function as adverbs and the meanings and syntactic characteristics when they function as adjectives were compared to suggest the characteristics of the adverbs modifying nouns. And then they were categorized based on meaning and modificand, and the characteristics were examined. Finally, the discussion was concluded by contemplating the cause in which adverbs modify substantives by category.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Life and Poetic World of Gon-Leyun(昆侖) Choi Chang-dae(崔昌大) - Focusing on the chinese poetry that shaped Bukgwan(北關) -

    LEE SEUNG YONG | 2020, 74(74) | pp.71~94 | number of Cited : 5
    This paper is a study of Chinese poems created while traveling to Bukgwan(北關) when Gon-Leyun(昆侖) Choi Chang-dae(崔昌大) served as Bukpyongsa(北評事). Gon-Leyun(昆侖) was recognized for his poems and sentences of the time. Even Nong-Am(農巖) Kim Chang-hyup(金昌協), who had a different political orientation at the time, spoke in praise of: It is difficult for Chinese poetry to realize the profound reason, but only Mr.Choi(崔) realized the point. While previous studies have shown that Gon-Leyun(昆侖)’s entire literature has been studied, there is still much to be studied regarding Gon-Leyun(昆侖)’s Chinese poetry. This study attentioned to Bukgwan(北關), a new creative space that inspired Gon-Leyun(昆侖)' to go beyond ordinary daily space and to look at things and curiosity, and looked at Chinese poems that were created during the time when Gon-Leyun(昆侖) served as Bukpyongsa(北評事). When looking at his life, it was also a time when he had given full play to his literary power. First, the study looked at Bukgwan(北關), which had become a new creative space for Gon-Leyun(昆侖), and briefly looked at the different regions that Gon-Leyun(昆侖) was assigned Bukpyongsa(北評事). And then in Poetic World, Under the titles ‘capture of unfamiliar frontier and express of unfamiliar experiences’ and ‘changes in perception of regional colors and realistic description’, looked at how Gon-Leyun(昆侖) embodies the landscape that he saw in the frontier, and what is the characteristic aspect that is manifested in the poetry he created at this time. Many of the works during this period were based on images of unfamiliar terrain and their emotions. The forms are using Old Style Poetry(古詩) along with five or seven character-Regulated Verses. This was Gon-Leyun(昆侖)'s creative intention to actively express his curiosity and feeling about the border areas. In addition, a new perception of Bukgwan(北關) shows a realistic depiction of the scenery he saw, and gyeong-seong-gwan-dae-jo(鏡城觀大操) is one of the representative works. gyeong-seong-gwan-dae-jo(鏡城觀大操) is Long Old Style Poetry(古詩), When he was appointed as Bukpyongsa(北評事), he saw a large-scale military exercise in gyeong-seong(鏡城), and drew it realistically, featuring vivid descriptions and metaphors. In the late Joseon Period, none of the writers created large-scale military drills in the frontier, and, moreover, none of them used Long Old Style Poetry(古詩). The works that were created when he served as Bukpyongsa(北評事) cannot represent his entire Poetic World. However, his work created during this time clearly showed that he was an individual writer who sought new attempts and changes.
  • 4.

    The Writing of Kim Myung-soon: As a Repetition of Agony

    Seulki Park | 2020, 74(74) | pp.95~127 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper examines that the writing of Kim Myung-soon is a kind of response triggered by misunderstanding on her, especially literary responses, not explanations to reveal the truth. This is an endeavor to identify that her works were the appearance of a substantial problem in the period of establishing modern Korean Literature, and also the writing to reveal the abyss of the modern literature. Namely, Kim is obviously the subject of writing, not of woman’s writing. Kim’s works have been regarded as pieces of women’s writing, especially of Si n y eosu n g (New Woman). It was obvious that her works are the one of masterpieces that reflect the Si n y eosu n g ’s thought and life. Regarding generous opinions, her works mirrored her own life, which is proved that major characters of her works are actually herself. By using Ma n y a n cho , her pen name and Ta n sil , her childhood name, Kim, expressed herself as women suppressed in that time and designated her agonizing experience. However, in texts, her two names are not Kim’s other name but the kind of figures that lived their own speech. Their speech never integrated into the author’s language, namely Kim’s speech. These split speech does not indicate the circumstance that her one subject is divided. If anything, two or three or more individual subjects are assembled in her own subject. In other words, she speaks many words with only one mouse, in that, her speech is closes the plural speech drown concept in the idea of Blanchot. This means that she never occupies the place of ‘I’, as the absolute subject is the foundation of the modern literature, the ‘Literature of ‘I’. Furthermore, she disrupted the discourse of I by losing her own words. In this sense, her works are a kind of dark spot that have to be concealed to establish the literature of I.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Aspect of Heterochronie Based on the Spatial Composition of Honbul

    SEO CHEOL WON | 2020, 74(74) | pp.129~160 | number of Cited : 0
    This study aims to explain the spatiality as a site of living shown in Ho n bul by Choi Myeong-hee. Ho n bul shows the spatial division focusing on Maean Village, Geomeonggul, Goribaemi, and Musan, and reveals the realistically-contradictory situation of ‘others’ through the ‘migration to Manchuria’. The space designed inside the novel is directly connected to the vitality of characters, which is the utopian source directly connected to lifestyle. In this place, there is essentially ‘heterotopia’ as a heterogenic ‘different space’ while there is also dark, ominous, and gloomy ‘heterochronie’ in the conflicting site of it. In relation to the spatiality inside Ho n bul , this study ultimately aims for “Seeking for the ‘brightness’ in the center of ‘darkness’’’ by applying the principle of “Seeking for the ‘same’ from ‘differences’’’. The significance of this study is to examine the concrete circumstances by connecting the issues of class/ stratum of the lower class in Banchon, Goribaemi, Geomeonggul, and Musan of Maean as the main stage of Ho n bul to the spatial identity, and also to examine the paradoxical value and meaning of heterotopia composing the life radius of immigrant Joseon people focusing on ‘Xita Street’ of Manchuria and heterochronie located in the opposite point of it.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Meta-dramatical Characteristic of Lee Gang-baek in the 1970s — Focusing on the ‘Dramatist Technique

    Jiyeon Kim | 2020, 74(74) | pp.161~189 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzed dramas written by Lee Gang-baek in the 1970s using the concept of ‘dramatist’, meta-dramatical technique. His drama Works were F ive, Three, Egg, W atchma n, N ae - ma, C haos a n d Order i n the museum, G ae - P pul ( dog’s hor n) . Dramaist in Lee Gang-baek’s 1970s drama works could be categorized into three types The first type of dramatist showed a philosophical perception based on self-consciousness with the ‘Theatrum mudi’. ‘Ra’ in F ive , ‘Da’ in Three , ‘Nae-ma’ in N ae - ma were the types. They developed self-consciousness by repeatedly experiencing the same situation and realized the limits and tragedies of human beings. The works of this type of dramatist were covered in a political drama, but they essentially dealt with human beings and internal reflection. The second type of dramatists confronted another dramatist in the drama. Citizen ‘Ra’ in Egg , ‘Da’ in W atchma n were the types. They had skepticism of the power and tried to uncover the world's darkness, but eventually fell into a victim. It was because these works were reflecting the era in which individuals with convictions inevitably lost their against with the world, and in this respect, their defeat was already scheduled. The last type of dramatists led the crowd to change. ‘Sun-u’ in C haos a n d Order i n the museum , ‘He’ in G ae - P pul were the types. They seemed to have been defeated by the world on the surface, but through the defeat and sacrifice, they changed the crowd and further led to the victory of the people. It was at this point that it was throwing a strong social message as a political drama. The characters who led the drama in Lee Gang-baek’s drama showed various aspects as a dramatist, from a philosophical investigator, an accuser of the world, to a savior of the people. This could be said to be the result of the philosophical consideration of the human existence of the playwright Lee Gang-baek, the problem consciousness of the times and society, and his worldview as a playwright.
  • 7.

    Correlation Between Motivation to Self-determination of Korean Language Teaching Practicum Students and Academic Achievement

    Hyunjin Park | 2020, 74(74) | pp.191~213 | number of Cited : 4
    This study aims to investigating six types of motivation to self-determination in 25 Korean language teaching practicum students and the correlation that these have with their overall academic achievement. Among the six types of motivation to self-determination, controlled regulation had the highest average, followed by integrated regulation, intrinsic regulation, internal regulation, external regulation and lack of motivation. An examination of the correlation among types of motivation for self-regulation revealed a positive close correlation with motivation, however intrinsic motivation and lack of motivation, which are at the opposite ends of the motivation to self-regulation continuum, showed a negative correlation. No meaningful correlation was found between overall motivation to self-regulation and academic achievement. However, when looking at the different types of motivation, a strong negative correlation was found with lack of motivation, and a positive correlation was found with integrated regulation and intrinsic motivation. Considering in particular that a strong negative correlation was found between lack of student motivation and their academic achievement, we stress the need to reinforce the value of the practicum class in order to avoid students’ lack of motivation.