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High removal of emerging contaminants from wastewater by activated carbons derived from the shell of cashew of Para

  • Carbon Letters
  • Abbr : Carbon Lett.
  • 2021, 31(1), pp.13-28
  • DOI : 10.1007/s42823-020-00145-x
  • Publisher : Korean Carbon Society
  • Research Area : Natural Science > Natural Science General > Other Natural Sciences General
  • Received : January 6, 2020
  • Accepted : April 10, 2020
  • Published : February 1, 2021

Pascal S. Thue 1 Pascal S. Thue 1 Eder C. Lima 1

1Graduate Science of Materials Program (PGCIMAT), Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio G

Accredited

ABSTRACT

Activated carbon from the shell of the cashew of Para (SCP) was produced by chemical activation with ZnCl using the ratio of SCP: ZnCl2 1.0:1.5 at 700 °C. The prepared activated carbon (SCP700) was used for the removal of two emerging contaminants, 4-bromophenol (4-BrPhOH) and 4-chloroaniline (4-ClPhNH2) that are primarily employed in the industry. Different analytical techniques were used to characterize the activated carbon. From the N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms were obtained the specific surface area of 1520 m2 g−1 and total pore volume of 0.492 cm3 g−1. The functional groups were identified by the FTIR technique and quantified by modified Boehm titration. The results revealed the bearing of several functional groups on the SCP700 surface, which may utterly influence the removal of the emerging contaminants. The equilibrium experiments showed that the maximum uptaken capacities (Qmax) achieved at 45 °C were 488.2 (4-BrPhOH) and 552.5 mg g−1 (4-ClPhNH2). The thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that the processes of 4-BrPhOH and 4-ClPhNH2 adsorption are exothermic, spontaneous, energetically suitable, and the magnitude of ΔH° is compatible with physisorption. The mechanism of the adsorption of the emerging contaminants onto the carbon surface is dominated by microporous filling, hydrogen bonds, π-stacking interactions, and other Van der Waals interactions. The use of activated carbon for the treatment of industrial synthetic wastewater with several inorganic and organic molecules commonly found in industrial effluents showed a very high percentage of uptaking (up to 98.64%).

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Total Citation Counts(KCI+WOS) (29) This is the number of times that the duplicate count has been removed by comparing the citation list of WoS and KCI.

Scopus Citation Counts (33) This is the result of checking the information with the same ISSN, publication year, volume, and start page between articles in KCI and the SCOPUS journals. (as of 2023-10-01)

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