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2D/2D composites based on graphitic carbon nitride and MXenes for photocatalytic reactions: a critical review

  • Carbon Letters
  • Abbr : Carbon Lett.
  • 2024, 34(1), pp.227-245
  • DOI : 10.1007/s42823-023-00634-9
  • Publisher : Korean Carbon Society
  • Research Area : Natural Science > Natural Science General > Other Natural Sciences General
  • Received : July 11, 2023
  • Accepted : October 23, 2023
  • Published : February 1, 2024

Praus Petr 1

1Institute of Environmental Technology, CEET, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The combination of the two-dimensional (2D) materials g-C3N4 and MXenes in photocatalysis offers several advantages. The g-C3N4 can serve as a visible light-absorbing material, while MXenes can enhance the charge separation and transfer processes leading to improved photocatalytic efficiency. A critical review of 77 already published articles in the field of photocatalytic reactions using g-C3N4 and MXenes, such as hydrogen evolution, the reduction of carbon dioxide, the degradation of organic compounds, the redox reactions of nitrogen, was conducted. For the purpose of greater objectivity, the published results were analysed by non-parametric Mann–Whitney, Kolmogorov–Smirnov, and Mood´s median tests and visualised by box and whisker plots. It was found that MXenes can significantly improve the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4. Adding other co-catalysts to the MXene/g-C3N4 composites does not bring a significant improvement in the photocatalytic performance. Promising results were obtained especially in the fields of hydrogen evolution and the reduction of carbon dioxide. Since the MXenes are relatively a new class of materials, there is still a big challenge for finding new photocatalytic applications and for the enhancement of existing photocatalytic systems based on g-C3N4, especially in terms of the MXenes and g-C3N4 surface and in the heterojunction engineering.

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