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A Study on Pyeongsinjin in Chungcheong-do during the Late Joseon Dynasty

  • 중앙사론
  • 2011, (34), pp.225-278
  • Publisher : Institute for Historical Studies at Chung-Ang University
  • Research Area : Humanities > History

SEO TAE WON 1

1서울대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

Pyeongsinjin, which was the base of Chungcheong-do Sugun during the late Joseon Dynasty, was installed as Hanggeumjin was moved to Pyeongsin at Daesan-myeon in 1711 (Year 37 of King Sukjong) and the cheomsa was called Pyeongsin Cheomsa. Hanggeumjin situated in a position advantageous for advancing to the open sea was installed for several reasons including the defense of the sea off Chungcheong-do and support to the defense of Ganghwa-do, but the fortress was moved to Pyeongsin because it was difficult to build a wharf for battleship at Hanggeumjin. As the registries of stock farm lands and residents were transferred from the corresponding village to Pyeongsinjin in March 1794 (Year 18 of King Jeongjo), Pyeongsinjin was operated like a village. Then, stock farms were abolished in September of the same year and Jangyongyoung army lands were installed. Going through these changes, the military unit was discontinued in the Reform in 1895 (Year 32 of King Gojong). The office buildings (公廨) of Pyeongsinjin include inn, inner court, armory (軍器庫), grain storage (屯庫), Yiwonchang (梨園倉), Changtaekchang (昌宅倉), registry storage (戶籍庫), and administrative office (作廳). Battleships (戰艦) belonging to Pyeongsinjin were 2 defense ships (防船), 1 military ship (兵船), and 2 patrol ships (伺候船), and deployed soliders were 710 Suguns, 354 Dunabyeongs, 233 Jusaguns 233 and 60 Sinseonguns. According to Pyeongsinjin Jusagunbyeong Sinmyosik Chodoan (平薪鎭舟師軍兵辛卯式草都案)written in 1890 (Year 27 of King Gojong), 22 Jusagun military officers were deployed in Pyeongsinjin on the first and second defense lines including 1 Daejang (代將), 5 Gipaegwans, 1 Gyosa (敎師), 1 Hundo, 1 Jwapogwan, 1 Upogwan and 1 Hwapogyosa (火砲敎師)on each line, and they were all from the gentry class. Mostof 211 soldiers whose social standing was recorded were from the common class, but the authenticity of the records is low in that records on physical features were uniform. Among the solders, 79 had the name Aji (牙之) and 59 lived at the area below Pyeongsinjin as the most common residence. The solders’ average age was 32.5 and their village was all Pyeongsin. The soldiers were deployed on the first and second defense lines including 12 standard bearers (旗手), 10 shooters (射手), 12 gunners (砲手) including 5 artillerymen (火砲手), 1 Jaengju, 1 Gosju, 1 Yosu and 1 Posu Sugun on each line, and 2 Chwisu Suguns and 32 oarsmen for both lines. To these members, 2 trumpeters, 1 Taepyeong Sugun, and 1 Tasu Sugun were added to the first defense line, so a total of 79 members were deployed on the first line, and 1 Jeongsu Sugun and 1 Susolgun were added to the second defense line, so a total of 77 members were deployed on the second line. On the militaryship were deployed 10 shooters, 10 gunners, 1 Tasu, 1 Jeongsu and 1 Yosu Sugun, and on each of the 1st and 2nd patrol ships were deployed 1 artilleryman and 5 Gyeokguns (格軍). Furthermore, arms, flags, instruments, rations, etc. were placed on the battleships. Of the incomes of Pyeongsinjin, Sugunjeon (水軍錢) 1,420 ryang was spent in provisions and arms for Banggun (防軍), and the repair and modification of the battleship, Gyeoljeon (結錢) 700 ryang in provisions for Banggun (防軍) and official demands (官需), and Sinseongunjeon (新選軍錢) 120 ryangand Jangje (場稅) 36 ryang in official demands (官需). Furthermore, 181 ryang 2 jeon collected from Sugun, Sinseongun and Jusagun soldiers in each eclipse year was spent in purchasing paper, brush and ink and miscellaneous items, in case of year 1862 (Year 13 of King Cheoljong), Dunjeon (屯稅) 196 seok 9 du (943 ryang 8 jeon 8 pun) was used in pays to officers. Besides, interests from loaned grain 839 seokwere used in financing Pyeongsinjin. Pyeongsinjin played the role of defending the sea of Chungcheong-do from foreign forces and pirates and supporting the defense of Ganghwa-do in time of emergency. Thus, in 1738 (Year 14 of King Yeongjo), Pyeongsin Cheomsa was punished for neglecting the report on a foreign ship, and in 1866 (Year 3 of King Gojong), Pyeongsin Cheomsa reported to Gamsa and Susa of Chungcheong-do of an unidentified ship. After the French disturbance in 1866 and the American disturbance in 1871, Pyeongsinjin was reinforced with additional deployment of 40 artillerymen. The second duty of Pyeongsinjin, working alternately with Sogeunjin every other year, was guarding the safety of tax ships sailing from the inlet at Anheung, Taean-gun, Chungcheong-do to Pung-do, Namyang-bu, Gyeonggi-do. However, as a tax ship charged to Pyeongsinjin sank, Pyeongsin Cheomsa reported Gamsa and Susa of Chungcheong-do on the reasons for sinking, rescue of people, disposal of salvaged grain, imprisonment of those responsible for the accident, etc. In most of such cases, Cheomsawas also punished. The third role was horse management because Pyeongsinjin was installed at stock farms and Cheomsa acted as the supervisor over the farms. As the number of horses at stock farms belonging to Pyeongsinjin decreased sharply in 1793 (Year 17 of King Jeongjo), Pyeongsin Cheomsa was punished. As the registries of stock farmers and lands was transferred Pyeongsinjin in March 1794, disseizin of stock farmers was reduced, but stock farms were abolished and Jangyongyoung Dunto was installed in order to expand the finance of Jangyongyoung in September of the same year, and as a result, Pyeongsinjin was released from horse management. Besides, Pyeongsinjin carried out duties such as control over pine tree cutting (禁松) and check and drowing up of family register.

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