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Discussion of US·USSR military retreat in the UN General Assembly after transfer of the Korean issues to the UN

  • 중앙사론
  • 2017, (46), pp.263-291
  • Publisher : Institute for Historical Studies at Chung-Ang University
  • Research Area : Humanities > History

YOO, JIA 1

1경희대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The United States (US) suggested division of the 38th parallel north after the Potsdam Declaration because it worried about the vacancy of power in the Korean peninsula after Japan's surrender. A significant possibility existed that the Soviet Union (USSR) would occupy some part of this region; thus, this temporary method was suggested to solve colonial territory issues stemming from the defeat of Japan. The fundamental policy of US military occupation in the Korean peninsula commonly focused on fast transfer of territorial trusteeship and retreat of US military forces. However, the Cold War atmosphere in East Asia was fixated after the second meeting of the US–USSR Joint Commission failed on July 2, 1947. As a result, the US transferred the handling of all Korean issue to the United Nations (UN) to solve external conflict with the USSR and internal disputes between US military command and the Department of States. The UN's 186th plenary meeting, held on December 11, 1948, was the beginning of discussions about Korean issues and US military retreat. On December 12, the 195th (III) general assembly resolution was established, which ordered the creation of the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea (UNTCOK) to replace the UN's temporary commission in Korea and to inherit all formal projects related to Korea. The missions of the UNTCOK were 1) to watch and confer on the national assembly system based on the free will of the Korean people, 2) to watch actual retreat processes occupants, 3) and to confirm their retreat. On July 27, 1949, the UNTCOK received a second mission to process reports from the Third Codex Committee at their 48th meeting. The UNTCOK confirmed that US military expected a full retreat of forces by June 29, 1949 except for less than 50 air force personnel and 500 Military Advisory Group to the Republic of Korea (KMAG) staff members, who only6 temporally left from the Kimpo Airport to rearrange public administration. Meanwhile, the 28th command order came from the US Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK) on November 13, 1945, which was designed to ensure the national security of Korea and declared the official establishment of Korean Security Forces and the Office of the Director of National Defense of the Military Government of Korea. The office included army, navy, and military affairs departments, and it held exclusive operational control of police. The US military retreated to benefit Korea, believing that economic support and building cooperation in Far-East Asian was a more cost effective option. In this way, the US planned to give up responsibility for Korean political, ideological, and diplomatic issues, with the exception of except military issues. This Cold War perspective would allow the US to retain military control if a Korean War broke out.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.

This paper was written with support from the National Research Foundation of Korea.