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2019, Vol., No.16

  • 1.

    Lee Gwang-su’s Argument of Racial Reconstruction before and after the Asylum in Shanghai

    Hongseop Cheong | 2019, (16) | pp.11~48 | number of Cited : 1
    This treatise inquired into the central idea of Lee Gwang-su’s main works before and after his asylum in Shanghai focusing on the character of the Asylum from the viewpoint of the argument of Reconstruction. It was the foundation of this treatise and the previous one to infer that his abrupt returning to home and going to Japan and participating in ‘the 2․8 Independence Movement’ and the asylum in Shanghai may also have not been done with enough preparation because the elopement with Heo Young-suk had been performed with a very impulsive decision. This inference makes another inference possible that the essence of the idea which he had had firmly since the second studying period in Japan was kept consistently even during and after the asylum. With these inferences as the hypothesis this treatise considered the essence of his idea before, during and after the asylum from the viewpoint of Reconstruction and confirmed the fact that the continuity of the essence was consistently kept and even intensified in spite of some changes due to different situations. In short, it was confirmed that the consistent central idea of his writing was the argument of racial reconstruction since the second studying period in Japan, including “the 2․8 declaration of Independence”, “the Petition for Calling of National Rally”, “Reconstruction” which he wrote in Independence Newspaper in the period of the asylum, and many works just before his returning from the asylum and the “For the Reconstruction of Korean Traits” after the asylum.
  • 2.

    A Study on Lee Gwang-su's poetry in the Shanghai exile

    Kwak Myoungsuk | 2019, (16) | pp.49~76 | number of Cited : 1
    This study aimed to investigate the poems written by Lee Gwang-su in the exile when he worked for the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai. He was a president and head of the Sanghai edition of the Dongnipsinmun(The Independence) and also a head of the Sinhancheongnyeon(The Young Korea), where his several poems were published. I focused on the meaning and the poetic formation of these poems in relation with the historical events as like March 1 Movement and Gando massacre, and the inner consciousness of Lee Gwang-su in exile. In the 1920's, Shanghai was the special place free from Japanese censorship and a proxy space to remember and record the misery of Choseon colony. It is worth noting that his poems in Shanghai exile represented the national subject and were mournful over the tragic of korean people.
  • 3.

    March First Movement and time in prison -Relationship between self and politics in 1920s fiction

    Lee Haeng-mi | 2019, (16) | pp.77~109 | number of Cited : 2
    This article starts from the premise that the political upheaval of the March First Movement and the question of self, which was one of the core themes of literature in the 1920s, are closely related. In the harsh colonial reality, the fiction embodying the March First Movement is difficult to directly reveal the political nature of the movement, and the meaning of the historical event is largely expressed through the personal narrative. However, it is difficult to conclude that such personal narrative lies on the opposite axis of the resistance of the movement. It is necessary to explain from various angles what the March First Movement, which shows the scenes of where life and death intersect, remains to the individual and how the ‘self’ discovered through this movement is related to the history of the movement. In this respect, a series of fictions dealing with imprisonment require particular attention. This is because it contains the criticism of the violence of colonial power and the meaning of the March First Movement in a situation where it is difficult to directly express the scene of the March First Movement. The March first Movement is a movement that resisted violent domination and repression and increased the value of nonviolence and freedom on the contrary. The fiction, which deals with the imprisonment related to the March First Movement, attempts to indirectly criticize the reality by embodying the problem of death, the maximum of violence. These fictions are narratives that solidify our will for life and life in the face of death or criticize the reality of prisons where the self, which is the basis of individual life, is difficult to survive. In this sense, this narrative has a political character. In the early 1920s, interest in the self was parallel to the desire for new literature. The self was regarded as both a condition and a power to create art through mediating reality. However, it is a one-sided interpretation to understand this interest in self only as an advocate for the autonomy of literature separate from political reality and society. This is closely related to the artist's sincere concern for creating a literary work of the stories of the individual self who felt pain and sorrow through the March First Movement. In the 1920s, in-depth questioning and exploration of self, and literary act as a product, is a process of remembering the March First Movement and imposing its meaning on the individual.
  • 4.

    Lee Kwang-Soo Viewed by Imhwa

    KyungJae Lee | 2019, (16) | pp.111~145 | number of Cited : 1
    It is not easy to side by side with Im Hwa, who was one of the most prominent writers of left-wing literature during the colonial period, and Lee Kwang-Soo, who was a great source of nationalist literature. However, unlike Chunwon's rarely paid attention to Lim hwa, Im Hwa continued to pay great attention to Chunwon. Considering that a literary ideology or group sets its own literary identity by attacking the existing strong literary symbol, it may be natural that Im hwa paid attention to Chunwon, the founder of the literary establishment. Im hwa used to create his new literary identity by invoking Chun-won at every turn of the literary scene. In this article, I want to summarize the way the colonial-era Im hwa interpreted or inherited Lee Kwang-soo. Unlike Palbong's recognition of Chunwon as a means to refer to in relation to the popularization of literature, Im hwa recognized Chunwon only as an object to be overcome by struggle. Im hwa, who greeted KAPF dissolution from his post as chief secretary, fiercely attacks Lee Kwang-soo, who represents nationalist literature from the perspective of romanticism, language and world view, even after the KAPF's disbandment. But at the end of Japan's colonial rule, Im hwa not only begins to assess Chunwon's literary and historical status in a more earnest manner, but also introduces him as a specific object of negation that must be reviewed for his envisioned literary history. By this time, Chunwon was not subject to unconditional denial, but to negation that should be discussed in earnest, either in a positive or a negative sense. This can be judged to be related to the situation in which the survival of Korean literature itself has become important before class literature based on class-partisanship, at a time when the existence of Korean literature in general itself is at stake.
  • 5.

    Lee Kwang-soo and Mo Yoon-sook –Mo Yoon-sook's Wren’s Elegy as a way of 'overcoming' Lee Kwang-soo

    Chong, Ki In | 2019, (16) | pp.147~182 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper discussed how Mo Yun-sook's Wren’s Elegy’s speaker Wren reminds the author Mo Yun-sook, and Simon reminds Lee Kwang-soo. Based on this, this paper showed that this work can be read as Mo's attempt to ‘overcome’ Lee Kwang-soo, and at the same time it can be read as Mo's self-defense. The January 1937 edition describes a woman who was obedient to the teachings of an unsophisticated, unrealistic and idealized male. But soon she criticizes the male's male-centered enlightenment by realizing his teachings lack women. In the 1949 edition, which was immediately after Korea's liberation, communist-oriented character calls Simon a "national traitor" and Mo criticizes it to self-defense of her cooperation with Japan. In the 1954 edition after the Korean War, Wren saves Simon from North Korea, and escapes to the South. Through this, she distanced herself from Lee Kwang-soo, who was kidnapped to North Korea and was not known whether he was alive or not, and emphasizes her loyalty to South Korea. In conclusion, Wren has "overcame" Simon but she did not reflect on the violence of the enlightenment subject itself, acting as a more powerful enlightenment subject, and failing to overcome the title “Wren’s Elegy”.
  • 6.

    Heo Young-sook's Writings and Thoughts -a trial opinion for a study on Heo Young-sook

    Junghyun Hwang | 2019, (16) | pp.183~206 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper examines the ideological features shown in Heo Young-sook's writings and tries to grasp them in the context of the modern (Chosun) women's discourse. Heo Young-sook is known as the wife of Lee Kwang-soo, and her own activities have not been discussed. However, she wanted to take care of the health of women in her pioneering position as a "female doctor" and use her articles to change society's perception of women and urge women to awaken themselves. Heo Young-sook, as a "female doctor," released a number of articles aimed at improving the hygiene of Chosun families and women's health. She believed the importance of "protection of motherhood" for "national development," and wanted to spread the health general knowledge on women's pregnancy, childbirth and infant care through newspaper articles. She also offered notable opinions about the role of women. She stressed the role of "wise mother" saying that women, as a "civilian of national souls", take a heavy responsibility of child rearing and education for the future of the nation. Her opinion about female gender role is similar to women's roles in the existing society in that they are in charge of household affairs and raise their children. However she extended women's social position and role outside the home by presenting "mother" as the "main protagonist of modern ethnic state formation." Heo Young-sook sought to make the "construction of a modern nation state" ideal and modernize Chosun family by providing information to readers based on her knowledge and experience as a female doctor. She also defined the social position and role of women as the subjects of a modern nation state. She actively sought to communicate her ideas in writing to the readers. In this regard, it is necessary to study Heo Young-sook's writings and ideas in various ways, like comparing her gender role recognition with other contemporary gender awareness, analyzing the effect relationship with her husband Lee Kwang-soo, considering recognition and response in the context during Japanese occupation period.
  • 7.

    The Independence Activist, Lee Shi-Yeol (Venerable Unho) -A Life Dedicated to His Country and Education

    SHIN, YONG-CHUL | 2019, (16) | pp.207~231 | number of Cited : 3
    Venerable Unho (1892-1980), whose common name was Lee, Hak Soo, was a patriot, Buddhist, translator of Tripitaka and educator. After fighting for Korea’s independence over 10 years in Manchuria, he became a Buddhist and educator, who founded and managed a school. Moreover. This paper focuses on Venerable Unho’s fight against Japanese Occupation of Korea, among other achievements of his. Therefore, in the main body of this paper, he will be referred to as Lee Shi-Yeol, the name that he used during the independence movement. Lee Hak Soo was born 24 days after the birth of Lee Kwang Soo. Both men shared a hometown. They studied Chinese Characters together, lived in the same house at times and frequently interacted with each other. Venerable Unho and Lee Kwang Soo, therefore, were truly contemporaries. Lee Hak Soo studied Chinese Characters at home until 17 and got married. Although he went to Dae Sung Middle School in Pyoung Yang after Japan colonized Korea in 1910, the school ceased operation due to Japanese repression. At this time, Lee Kwang Soo returned from Japan and started working as a teacher at Osan School in his hometown. Lee Hak Soo changed his name into Lee Shi-Yeol while fighting for independence and worked as a teacher in Dong Chang School. When the 1919 Independence Movement broke out in Korea, he came back to the country to support the movement and ended up being chased by Japanese police. While taking refuge at a Buddhist temple in Gang Won Province, Lee became a monk and changed his name to Park Yong Ha. After Yoo Jum Temple in Mt Gumgang, he stayed in Bong Sun Temple in Gwang Neung, Gyounggi-do, under Zen Master Wolcho. Even after Lee became a monk, he never neglected his duty as an independent activist. In addition, while he was fleeing to Busan in 1956, just after Korean War, he co-wrote The History of Korean Independence Movement with Kim Sung Hak and others. Moreover, he published Korea’s first Buddhist dictionary. This is similar to how Choon Won Lee Kwang Soo changed his involvement in independence movement after leaving the Interim Korean Government in Shanghai. The life of Choon Won as an independence activist is in fact completed in 1947 when he wrote a biography of Do San, Dosan An Chang-ho. During the Korean War, Unho’s Son, Woo Geun, moved to North Korea, his wife passed away, and his daughter and son-in-law went missing. In the year after that, Bong Sun Temple and Kwang Dong Middle School, where he stayed, burned down due to bombings. He suddenly lost everything. Even in these extremely difficult times, he said “As I am still healthy, I will carry on.” From September 1946 till the end of the year, Choon Won and Lee Hak Soo stayed together in Bong Sun Temple as the Principal and a teacher. For four and a half years, including the period in Bong Sun Temple mentioned above, Unho and Choon Oon lived in Bong Sun Temple in Kwang Neung and Sa Reung, respectively, close to each other. The monument for Venerable Unho, who contributed to the popularization of Buddhism, and the literature monument for Choon Won, who was the leading figure in the history of Korean Modern Literature, are next to each other in front of Bong Sun Temple.
  • 8.

    Analysis of Implied Author in Yi Kwangsu’s Novels Affection and Love

    김명숙 | 2019, (16) | pp.235~271 | number of Cited : 0
    Different from other studies on Yi Kwangsu, this research paid attention to the image and performance of implied author in Yi Kwangsu’s works. With this regard, his novels Affection and Love have special research value. Affection is an epistolary novel, while Love uses a lot of dialogues. The novels present a feature of deconstructing the story by psychological method. The leading character opens his mind to readers and analyzes himself. Hence, the real author’s secret inner world was projected into the novels, and therefore it is easy to capture the shadow of Yi Kwangsu in charge of the novel, namely, the image of the implied author. In this research, the image of the implied author in the novels was analyzed by three types: the eloquent, the hesitant and the silent. The implied author reveals his identity by distancing himself from the narrator. In the novels, the implied author sometimes integrates the real author Yi Kwangsu with the characters and sometimes seeks for a substitute to express himself. However, through various narrators, readers can find the multiple but unified identity of Yi Kwangsu’s implied author.
  • 9.

    A Comparative Study of the Female Images in Heuk by Chunwon and the Love Trilogy by Ba Jin

    LIANG JINGYING | 2019, (16) | pp.273~302 | number of Cited : 0
    Heuk by Chunwon and the Love Trilogy by Ba Jin which were published in the 1930s are all novels with the theme of love and national movement as well as the spiritual reform movement.So far, no comparative studies have been made on the two novels both in Chinese and Korean academic circles. Therefore, based on the similarities between the two works, this paper focused on the female characters in the works.It was hoped that I can explore the female image of that period by comparing and analyzing their ideological changes in love and the national movement as well as their spiritual transformation. In both novels tragic female images were created in the love narration.Married women Zhengshan and Yuwen are both sexually oriented females.But Zhenshan finally chose to commit suicide with the guilt of betraying her husband and Yuwen also committed suicide by taking poison in despair. Yu Shun and Xiong Zhijun were both women who pursued the pure love and sacrificed themselves for it. But their love ended in failure. Both of the two novels depicted the tragic female images in the dark period at that time , whether they were the suicides of Zhenshan and Yuwen or the sacrifice of Yushun and Xiong Zhijun for love. Judging from the overall significance of these two works,the tragic scenes of women in the love narration can be said to be deliberately set up for the higher level of the national movement as well as the spiritual reform movement. Therefore, the image of the female national activists was created in the two novels .Zhenshan, after her rebirth , returned to the countryside together with her husband Xu Song.Although at this time,.Zhenshan was only passively involved in the rural enlightenment movement. However, after deeply confessing her fault and Xu song's imprisonment, zhenshan changed.She actively devoted herself to the rural enlightenment movement. In the end, she transformed herself into an nationalists in the spiritual reform movement.Inspired by foreign female revolutionaries, Li Peizhu gradually grew into a leader of a female revolutionary. As for the contradictory problem between love and Revolution,She also changed from the extreme idea that there was such a thing as love in the Revolution at the very beginning to the relative rational view that love could become the motive force for the revolution. Through the growth and the development of the female characters in the national movement and the spiritual reform movement, the two novels revealed the fact that only by actively participating in the national movement can we be really happy about ourselves. And the theme of the two novels that was to call on people to take an active part in the national movement stood out even more clearly .
  • 10.

    Revelation and avoidance of subject’s desire shown in Soil

    Gong, Jung-won | 2019, (16) | pp.303~326 | number of Cited : 0
    Huhsung in Soil serves as Lee Gwangsu’s alter ego. In Soil, Lee Gwangsu projects Huhsung’s inner world. This thesis intends to examine Huhsung’s inner world by studying human nature through analyzing Huhsung’s inner world and looking into Lee Gwangsu’s work in a more objective view. Soil depicts Huhsung’s two desires that cause a conflict colliding with other people’s desire and reveals a desire through it. This study classifies Huhsung’s desire into imagination world and symbol world and views a desire for human nature as imagination world and a desire for utopia as symbol world. A desire for human nature is symbolized as wealth and pleasure and Jungsun represents it. Huhsung recognizes Jungsun as the small other and forces the Jungsun to be identical with him. Huhsung’s behavior to satisfy his desire for a large other through small other’s sacrifice shows that ‘egoistic man satisfying his desire through other’s sacrifice’ is human nature. A desire for utopia is symbolized as ‘construction of ideal village’ which is the revelation of a desire to ‘live for Joseon’ . Huhsung’s selection is based on such desire. Mister Han who lives for Joseon reveals his desire through self sacrifice. Huhsung desires himself to be Mister Han but selects avoidance sacrificing the other as he is weak in mind and is unable to sacrifice himself. Nonetheless Huhsung tries to satisfy his desire through Mister Han. However, Mister Han is also no more than ‘independent desiring subject’ and does not become destination of his desire. Huhsung’s desire conflict is no more than means of his revelation of desire towards Mister Han. Huhsung reflects Lee Gwangsu, ‘incomplete desiring subject’ who is tormented by conflict between human nature and a way of fighter for national independence. Huhsung’s behavior who does not stop his desire despite evasive selection is the reflection of Lee Gwangsu’s will towards independence who desires to be ‘a complete desiring subject’.
  • 11.

    The Affect of a Child of Nature and the Communitarianism as an Old Future -Regarding the One Spoon on this Earth of Hyun Ki-young

    Hong Gi Don | 2019, (16) | pp.327~347 | number of Cited : 0
    Hyun Ki-young's One Spoon on this Earth is a coming of age novel that explores the identity as a child of nature. Through the concrete senses, the scenes of past recollections are often unfolded. The artist also described the passages in which the senior who is in a senseless state doesn't recognize himself, but only asks for the hizikia fusiforme extracting soup. This is a reflection of Hyun Ki-young's view that humans should be judged with sense rather than reason. Hyun Ki-young's understanding of humanity, which emphasizes the superiority of senses, can secure the legitimacy of logic as an affect theory. As the affect theory reveals the post-modern intention to newly define human beings, One Spoon on this Earth, which is written based on the sensory superiority, needs to be approached in such context. In addition, in One Spoon on this Earth, the artist suggests that he is the 'molecule of nature'. This is the recognition that nature, which is the basic system of world operation, was established first, and then everything including Hyun Ki-young, can be said to be defined as being separated from it. It corresponds to the <Whole―positioner world view>. In this work, the artist perceives himself as a homology with natural objects and measuring one's growth against the natural environment is based on this world view. The modern times set each individual as a basic unit and then identify their group as a society. It is called <Positioner-whole world view>. Thus, this world view of One Spoon on this Earth can also be understood as an anti-modern view. Earlier, Hyun Ki-young revealed the tradition of Jeju communitarianism that confronted the foreign world through Howling Bird in the Border, and Island Riding the Wind has reproduced the appearance of the Jeju community based on the natural order. In the perspective of the growth of autonomous individuals running a community (communitarianism), One Spoon on this Earth is an extension of this sort.
  • 12.

    Pungto of Sense, Pungto of Poetry -Focusing on the Pungto Imagery of Kim Chunsu

    Elia Rodriguez Lopez , JEON SEJIN | 2019, (16) | pp.349~387 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper examines Kim Chunsu's poetry from the perspective of pungto (natural characteristics of a territory or climate), a concept that unites time, space and community. From the time viewpoint, this paper deals with “tradition” as something opposed to history, and from the spatial dimension, it reveals how Kim Chunsu creates a unique poetic world of his own through his imagination. For Kim Chunsu, history was a symbol of violence and oppression, so he connected “traditional-time” and “community-place” through a kind of “sense of pungto”, which offers a different way to look into the flow of time than the one from history. The sense of pungto relates to a time and space that is forever resumed and, at the same time, is differentiated from the time of violent history because it forms part of a certain tradition. Thus, Kim Chunsu introduces in his poetry the traditional folk song taryeong and a Silla’s folktale called Choyeong but, instead of emphasizing its expected traditional elements, the poet transforms them successfully into a new form of modern poetry by the use of allegories. Also, he creates in his poems a certain feeling of tension between “inside” and “outside” by constantly juxtaposing exotic or unfamiliar elements symbolized by foreign place names and landscapes and images of familiar spaces represented through places related to Korea. The “inner” and “outer” spaces are embodied in his poetry in the form of poetic images that transform themselves into the elements of the pungto of a particular place. By reconsidering Kim's poems, specially his “non-sense poetry”, through the viewpoint of pungto, this paper aims to examine the possibility of new interpretations of his works and to find the meaning that hides under his unique poetic world.
  • 13.

    The Migration Theory in <Ice Bar> and <Bus Fare>

    SUN NAN | 2019, (16) | pp.389~418 | number of Cited : 0
    In the 1960s and 1970s, the industrialization and urbanization in both Korea and China resulted in the rapid Rural-Urban Migration. Parents in the rural area left their hometowns behind to help their children to live in comfortable circumstances, just like ordinary people try to move in search of the better life. As a result, the number of children growing up without parents has increased exponentially in rural areas, leading to problems with these children from broken families emerging as social issues. Just as revealing the true nature of society through actual daily lives, the films titled <Ice Bar> and <Bus fare> aims to not only describe the image of rural children growing up in the absence of their parents in loneliness, but also expose inside of social environment surrounding them and fundamental cause of their misfortunes, look forward to creating environment in which children who are left, neglected in the indifference of adults could be loved and raised in the loving home without blind spots of social welfare. This paper discusses the research result of the films <Ice Bar> and <Bus fare> by comparing and analyzing from the point of view of the migration discourse, especially what message they deliver and what social change they try to come up with through the films which illuminate the lives of rural children who had to grow up in solitude in the absence of their parents and also, describe children who tried to keep their hopes alive in adversity and hardship.
  • 14.

    The study of the migration theory of 「An Aimless Bullet」 and 「My Rice Noodle Shop」

    QU HANG | 2019, (16) | pp.419~442 | number of Cited : 0
    In the chaos of war, people migrate more frequently and the literature also reflected the phenomenon of migration in that time. Lee Beomeon and Pai Hsien-yung are the representative writers among them. They described the dark side of the society and reflected the life of the vulnerable groups who cannot adapt to the reality. In particular, they were the children of a bourgeoisie that had fallen because of the war. Therefore, they had to leave their hometown and went to an unfamiliar place to live on. 「An Aimless Bullet」 and 「My Rice Noodle Shop」 are too novels that describes the lives of migration. The novel 「An Aimless Bullet」 is based on people life during 1950s and 1960s, which tells the miserable life and social cruelty of the people who went to South Korea from the north. While the novel 「My Rice Noodle Shop」 tells the miserable life and homesickness of people who had to move to Taipei because of the civil war between the kuomintang party and the communist party. Based on this, this paper aims to study the author's intention of writing and the background and reason of migration of most characters in the novel and wants to analyse why they have to live a miserable life. Based on their own experiences, Lee Beomeon and Pai Hsien-yung described the tragic situation of the contemporaries who had to leave their villages in the war. Through the their stories of the characters in the novel, it shows the cruelty of the war and the pain of division. At the same time, the author hopes to reflect on human's war behavior and hope that such tragedy will not happen again.