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2020, Vol., No.17

  • 1.

    From ‘Buddhism and Lee Gwang-su’ to ‘Buddhism of Lee Gwang-su’ -Profanation and Buddhist Thinking Found in Works of Lee Gwang-su

    Seo Serin | 2020, (17) | pp.9~46 | number of Cited : 0
    Lee Gwang-su holds an important position in the history of modern Korean literature. Steady discussions have been had on the relationship between Buddhism and his literature. It is a difficult task to discuss the status of Buddhism within the modern academic framework and its relevance to the writer’s literature. A perspective that focused on Buddhism during the late period of the Japanese colonization and the notion of impossibility in Lee Gwang-su’s works gained a strong persuasive power in explaining literature that germinated from the political conditions of the time. However, a new approach is needed since the writer’s Buddhist philosophy during the late colonization period was formed before he accepted the new Japanese system. Accordingly, this study was conducted from an angle that is different from explaining an instrumental relationship between Buddhism and Lee Gwang-su, that is, explaining Buddhism as a foundation for pro-Japanese discourse―changed from an initial plan for enlightenment―or as a defense mechanism of colonial writers. Lee Gwang-su began to write works with Buddhist themes from the 1920s. Works from this period blended the spirit of Korean Buddhism amid the colonial reality, as well as ideology of modern literature. Specifically, this study examined Buddhism as was embraced by Lee Gwang-su, along with the concept of profanation. The purpose is to reestablish the meaning of Buddhist ideas as shown in the writer’s works. Three tasks were undertaken to this end. First, we regarded that Lee Gwang-su embraced modern and profane Buddhist philosophy of Park Han-young, and examined “Geumgangsanyugi”(1924) accordingly. Second, expanding the relationship between Buddhism and profanation, we analyzed ‘Gilnori’(1939) and ‘Nanjeo’(1940). Third, based on these, we investigated the meaning of renunciation of Buddhist priest Wonhyo as described in “Wonhyodaesa”(1942) as well as its philosophical and ethical nature. By doing so, we examined how the writer put Buddhism as he embraced on literary and Buddhist coordinates.
  • 2.

    The oxymoron of ‘Enlightenment Literature’ and the romantic fervor

    Yang Soon Mo | 2020, (17) | pp.47~82 | number of Cited : 2
    In relation to Lee Kwang-soo's literature, we would like to discuss 'freedom' that we have not been paying enough attention to. As the start of Korean modern literature, Lee Kwang-soo has raised the issue of emotional liberation from knowledge and morality more advanced than anyone else, but has been regarded as a crack writer who had been forced to suppress it in the name of "enlightment" and "ethnicity." While he ideologically formulated independent and autonomous literature with a focus on "jeong-情," that literature was hard to avoid being restored as a national tool under the urgent political and social fate of the time. Specifically, today's crack assessment of Lee Kwang-soo's literature is as follows. The study of Lee Kwang-soo's literature, which has centered on a rift called "Mujeong" has placed the ideology of liberalism and nationalism on each side of the crack, and the comprehensive interpretations of sealing the rift around either of the two ideologies have made the majority of Lee Kwang-soo's. Of course, that crack reveals points that cannot eventually be aggregated in terms of assessment, but these cracks function in a significant and productive direction by triggering several attempts to aggregate the cracks, such as to confront the fundamental dilemma of liberalism called 'individual/community'. In this interpretation, however, the freedom of pure denial, as Hegel said, is lost, and only the second (individual) and third (community) are left. In other words, as Lee's claim of "jeong" is reduced to "individual" (second freedom), and that "jeong-individual" is placed in a tense relationship with the "community," the use and value of literature is determined under a certain political philosophical point of view, with the radical and typographical dimension of "jeong" claimed by Lee not fully considered. In other words, modern Korean literature based on the above cracks called Lee Kwang-soo loses Lee Kwang-soo as a madness. By rereading the literary theory of "Jeong," which Lee claimed, we would like to confirm that the literature of "Jeong" is an independent one that cannot be entirely reverted to "individual" and at the same time is a key point in forming that community, rather than an element that always causes discord with "community." Based on this, the article wants to synthesize Lee Kwang-soo, which has been bisected by cracks, but insists that the synthesis can be possible by the perversive synthesis, passing through the door of "the autonomy of literature." In sum, by claiming that the Enlightenment-Literature is not a relationship between cracks and oppression, but a relationship of mutual need under a perversive structure, it does not introduce "ethnic" and "imagination" to remove and utilize the excessive type of "jeong," but instead, it argues that it was able to protect that "literature of jeong" and "romantic literature" full of religiousity.
  • 3.

    A study of Chunwon and Lu Xun's early religious views -Centered on the role of male intellectuals in ‘Mujeong’, ‘Jaesaeng’, ‘shouts’ and ‘Wandering’

    ZHANG WEI | 2020, (17) | pp.83~103 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper takes the role of male intellectuals in Chunwon and Lu Xun's early novels as the research object to investigate their religious views at that time. Park Jinsa in ‘Mujeong’is a feudal aristocrat we can see that Chunwon shows negative consciousness to the ‘patriarchal system’ of Confucianism. But he had a positive attitude to the ‘nationalism ’thought of Donghak and the ‘fraternity’ spirit of Christianity. KIM Jangro always the representative of the new nobility , Chunwon criticizes the hypocrisy of Korean Christian through this character. Sin Bonggu in‘Jaesaeng’began to pursue the Christian thought of ‘forgiveness’. It can be seen from this character that Chunwon 's religious thought in 1920s was a mixed religious view based on Christian spirit, Tolstoy's philanthropic spirit and nationalistic spirit. In‘shouts’, Lu Xun satirized the feudal Confucianism through "Kong Yiji". As a representative of the new intellectuals, Xia Yu has the characteristics of a savior like Jesus. It can be seen from Xia Yu that Lu Xun had a positive attitude towards ‘equality’and ‘self sacrifice’of Christianity. In ‘Wandering’, Wei Lianshu began to ‘revenge’ after being betrayed by the people around him., Through this character, we can see that Lu Xun has a negative view on Christian forgiveness and a positive attitude on Buddhist punishment. Both Chunwon and Lu Xun opposed the feudal ethics and patriarchal system, and both actively accepted the spirit of ‘fraternity’ in Christian thought, but Lu Xun held a negative attitude towards the thought of ‘forgiveness’ praised by Chunwon .
  • 4.

    The Autobiography of Kim Gu, ‘Baekbeom’s Diary’ and a meaning of Kwangsoo Lee’s embellishment

    Bang, Min Ho | 2020, (17) | pp.107~142 | number of Cited : 4
    This paper discusses the relationship between the original 『Baekbeom’s Diary』, which Kim Gu directly wrote, and 『Baekbeom’s Diary』, completed by Lee Kwang-Soo. Comparing the two versions, it appears that Lee Kwang-soo has changed much of the original manuscript of Kim Gu's original 『Baekbeom’s Diary』. Kim Gu and Lee Kwang-soo did not meet in Shanghai for the first time since the 3.1 Movement in 1919, but had a relationship with Kim Gu's Anak Education Movement in Hwanghae Province, both of which were under the ideological influence of Ahn Chang-ho. It appears that Kwang-Soo Lee complemented the novel composition by exerting his own abilities to create an autobiographical novel based on Kim Gu's original 『Baekbeom’s Diary』 manuscript. Particularly problematic is the ‘My Wish’, which was added as an appendix to the original version of the 『Baekbeom’s Diary』. This article appears to have originally added the content of Kwang-soo Lee referring to the preface of Kim Gu's 『Baekbeom’s Diary』.
  • 5.

    A Study on Sambongyi's House in Lee KwangSoo's novel

    ROH YEON SOOK | 2020, (17) | pp.143~174 | number of Cited : 0
    The 1930s was the age of revolution. Lee KwangSoo broadened his interests from enlightenment to revolution. The product of the process is "Sambongyi's House." "Sambongyi's House" has been regarded as a strong manifestation of nationalism through the limitations of the revolution. But the revolution in this work does not only point to the revolution of socialism. This work shows the birth of a national revolutionary. Ethnic revolutionaries create revolutionary parties, not communists. In short, Lee Kwangsoo did not deny the revolution. Lee Kwangsoo divided the revolution into radical and moderate revolutions, wary of the former and emphasized moderation as an ideal way of revolution from the latter's point of view. "Sambongyi's House" is a revolutionary family novel that shows how a family-based Family Community is reborn as a national community. In this revolution, the family is a very important medium that explains the sudden shift to nationalism. Contrary to the socialist's inability to accompany the family, the nationalist makes a revolution with the family. In short, "Sambongyi's House" can be reinterpreted as a work that shows a revolutionary Family Community.
  • 6.

    The Possibility and Implications of “Fake News” in Korea's Early Modern Age : Maninsan(萬人傘, 1909)

    PARK JUNG-HEE | 2020, (17) | pp.175~199 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper focused on the speciality of Maninsan(萬人傘) as part of a study of the newspaper media that appeared in the ‘new novel’(新小說) of the early modern Korean novel. Newspapers and newspaper articles appearing in the ‘new novel’ are recognized as mediums for enlightenment and education, and they also play an important role in the development of the narrative. However, Maninsan shows a special perception of newspaper media unlike other ‘new novel’ of the time. That is Maninsan shows the possibility of ‘doubt’ about the belief that ‘newspapers don't tell lies’ for the first time. Maninsan is a work that has accused and satirized the corruption of the feudal ruling class during the Late Chosun dynasty. Corruption powers take their own advantage, especially by carrying out ‘manipulation of public opinion’ while using all sorts of means for hawking and accumulating. In the work, ‘manipulation of public opinion’ is done through the traditional system ‘Manhinsan’ and the modern medium ‘Newspapers’. If the traditional system was done by ‘forced’, the modern ‘newspapers’ were caused by collusive political and media ties. In particular, the latter case shows the perception that newspaper articles can be manipulated. The early modern newspapers had a firm belief that they did not say ‘false’ and reported ‘fact’. Maninsan is the first work to show such ‘belief’ as a ‘fantasy’. Based on discussions on the feature of the newspaper Daehanminbo(大韓民報) and the influence of adaption novel Seoljoongmae(雪中梅, 1908), this study looked into the possibility of recognition of Maninsan’s ‘fabrication of opinion’ or ‘fake news.’ As a result, it confirmed the origin of the perception that newspapers could report ‘false’ through accusations and satire of collusion between corrupt officials and the media. When the perception of the boundaries between ‘fact’ and ‘fiction’ was established in the beginning of the Korean ‘new literature’(新文學), Maninsan is the first work to raise doubts about the ‘fact’ of newspaper articles in the realm of literature. However, this perception could not last because of the limitation on the external environment such as censorship, which became an important task for the inventors of journalism in the 1920s.
  • 7.

    Movement, Media, and the Standardization of the Joseon Language -A Study of Yi Geungno

    KIM DONG SHIK | 2020, (17) | pp.201~241 | number of Cited : 2
    This essay is a study of Yi Geugno(1893~1978). Yi Geungno was a scholar of the Korean language who took part in the Joseon language movement, primarily through his activity in the Joseon Language Society. He also travelled around the world from 1911 to 1929. He participated in the anti-Japanese independence movement in China, received a doctoral degree in economics in Germany, and participated in the Joseon language movement in colonial Korea. He played a central role in assessing and establishing an orthography and standard dialect for the Joseon language, systematizing its notation of foreign loanwords, and compiling a standard dictionary of the Joseon language. After 1948 he contributed to the formation of North Korean language policy while living in North Korea. He was essentially forgotten in South Korea until the 2019 publication of the The Complete Works of Yi Geungno. This essay focuses on Yi Geungno’s aim of standardizing the Joseon language through the Joseon language movement. His concept of standardization formed during his travels of what Eric Hobsbawm refers to as the ‘standardized world,’ during which he experienced various recording media. In the course of accruing this experience with recording media―such as transcription, mimeographs, typewriters, telegrams, movable type, printers, and audio recording―Yi Geungno formulated his ideas on the standardization of the Joseon language. The terms movement, media, and standardization can represent Yi Geungno’s life and thought and reveal the complex historical relationship of modernity and colonialism.
  • 8.

    The inner Landscape after Koren Liveration from some novels by Chae Man-sik

    Lee Duk Hwa | 2020, (17) | pp.243~267 | number of Cited : 0
    Chae Manshik was born in 1902 year who had lived the period that Japanese soliers had swaggere along the Chosun street to display of Japanese influence. At that time people called for self reflection on the people, even before they grew up, what something was wrong. Also Chae Manshik had introspected intensely the reality as the colonial nation, and the people was given birth to that reality. He, too, had his personal downfall linked to Japan’s imperialistic exploitation. As result, he accepted Marxism that was popular at the time and his work was reflection by Marxism. His writes conscious reveal itself that he had real’s expectation for socialist activist among the charcters in his work as like 「The uncle」 「Ready-made life」 「The peaceful and security of country」 「The murky water of a river」 「The glow of setting sun」 「The boy grows up」, etc . The prospect of 「The boy grows up」 is that the same generation of boys, who survivid the harth ethnic realities, should shoulder the future of nation with a healthy conciousness. Chae Manshik ‘s vision of the nation through self-reflection after the liberation of Japan’s imperial is emphasized through 「The glow of setting sun」 「The boy grows up」 the legal development of history, it should be created as a self-reliant state, not a satellite state of Soviet Union as a socialist country. In these two works, he predicts the unity of the people and the completely independence from the outside world, which he has consistently emphasized since the liberation.
  • 9.

    A double-edged view of imperialism -Focusing on Choi In-hoon's "Duman River" and "Christmas Carol"

    Park, Young Sin | 2020, (17) | pp.269~298 | number of Cited : 1
    In Choi In-hoon's literature, the coloniality of imperialism lies in the abyss of modern Korea. When analyzing Choi In-hoon's work, although it is particularly important to expand consciousness as a subject, it has been concluded that the existing studies have been extensively researched in terms of historical, discourse, and themes, but there is a lack of research on subjectivity. What we should note here is that he does not consistently criticize the issue of coloniality. Under the colonial rule of Japanese colonialism in the Tuman River, he is working on the duality of critical consciousness and unconscious acceptance of Japan. H-eup, which appears in the actual work, corresponds to the life of Choi In-hoon, who spent his childhood in Hoeryeong. Since it was 'childhood', empathy and sympathy with the Japanese would have led to animal intimacy. That doesn't mean they have a positive attitude. As mentioned earlier, in H-eup, which was established as a logistical base, Koreans have a conscious rejection but gradually become dull and assimilate through works. On the other hand, "Christmas Carol" shows a strong refusal to accept blind Western consciousness and satirical criticism of it. Unlike the subjective consciousness of the Tuman River, which we saw earlier, novels with a tendency to become aware of the problem of the society at that time and the problems of the individual living at the time and self-awareness appear. In other words, it is a work focused on what is the main subject of modernity and who is at the center of it. In fact, "Christmas Carol" is a conscious flow technique, and there are many experiments in which there is no logic between rich people and a mixture of fantasy and reality. In addition, there are few independent studies, and comparative studies centering on subject consciousness are also not extensive. What is remarkable is that in the Tuman River, you are already completely dominated and accept your life under the absorbed colonization, not antagonism, as your daily life. However, even in the situation where he has already accepted the Western consciousness and began to transform and refract as ours, Choi In-hoon shows a strong antipathy toward him. That is, through these two works, one can discover the subjective contradiction inherent in his literature. Through this, this paper accepts the consciousness of the problem of prior research to a certain extent, but analyzes the "Tuman River," which is expressed as an appreciation for Japan expressed by Choi In-hoon's unconsciousness, and the "Christmas Carol," which criticizes Western imperialism in the sense that it can become cultural coloniality. something to do. Through this, revealing Choi's contradictory subjectivity can expand the diversity of discussion. In addition, this will be a work to overcome the limitations of the existing discussion and closely examine the flow of establishing subjectivity by dividing his perception before and after realizing reality.
  • 10.

    A Study on Lee Dae-hwan's “Slow Bullets”

    KyungJae Lee | 2020, (17) | pp.299~323 | number of Cited : 2
    Lee Dae-Hwan's “Slow Blit” is the only Vietnam War novel that deals with the issue of Defoliant, and it can be said that this novel has opened a new chapter in the Vietnam War novel. In this paper, the issue of defoliation is a window that reveals the 'double identity', which is the 'victim and assailant' of the Korean army in the Vietnam War. The short story “Slow Bullets” (1996) is a work that emphasizes the tragedy of the Korean military as the victim of the Agent Orange. According to the characteristics of the genre of the short story, the focus is on the life of the suffering veterans and their families rather than collectively dealing with various aspects of Defoliant. Also, self-awareness as a victim works especially on the basis of excluding Vietnamese. 2001 version of “Slow Bullets” reflects various aspects of the complex memory struggle surrounding the Vietnam War. In the 2001 version, various aspects of discourse surrounding the Vietnam War are revealed through the expansion of Yeongho and various surrounding materials. Iksu emphasized the significance of being an economic warrior who contributed to the industrialization of Korea in the 2001 edition. On the other hand, Yeongho criticized the United States, the subject of the use of Defoliant and the responsibility as a perpetrator against Vietnamese people. In particular, this conflict was caused by the difference between the basic positions of Iksu and Yeongho facing the Vietnam War. Through the stimulation of Yeongho, Iksu is aware of his situation in the Vietnam War. However, the 2001 version does not simply end with a one-sided condemnation of veteran Iksu, but goes one step further. It is to look at the Vietnam War from a world perspective. The 2013 edition, “Slow Bullets,” is a version of the 2011 edition that complements the aesthetic problem that did not dissolve consciousness as a perpetrator or the perspective of world history in a specific narrative.
  • 11.

    Analysis on grammar example sentences of Korean particle combinations in Korean textbooks published in China

    WANG, DANDAN | 2020, (17) | pp.325~349 | number of Cited : 1
    This study aims to clarify the presentation pattern by analyzing the grammar example sentences of Korean particle combinations in Korean textbooks published in China. Through this, we intend to contribute to the development of educational contents for effective Korean particle combinations of Korean textbooks in China. Grammar example sentences play a very important role in describing grammar. This is because foreign learners can experience various meanings and usages of target grammar items through grammar example sentences. Korean particle combinations are more complicated and difficult than a single particle or general grammar items because two or more particles are integrated and formed according to certain rules. Since there have been no studies which focused on the grammar example sentences of Korean particle combinations, this study analyzed the grammar example sentences of Korean particle combinations in Korean textbooks published in China, and discussed the areas that need improvement. The results of the study show that the grammar example sentences of Korean particle combinations in Korean textbooks published in China are generally satisfactory, but there are many problems in terms of grammar description and requirements to be equipped with grammar example sentences, and improvement seems necessary.
  • 12.

    The Study of Theory of Migration in <Hong Gildong jeon> and <Water Margin>

    QU HANG | 2020, (17) | pp.351~370 | number of Cited : 0
    Human migrate in many different kind of ways. Most people choose to migrate to live a better life. However, many people are forced to leave their homes and move to other areas because of war or political oppression. Migration comes from a human instinct to seek peace, and migration allows human beings to realize their peace. Migration has attracted the attention of many researchers. And migration exits not only in modern fiction, but also in classic novels. During Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592 and the end of Yuan Dynasty were very turbulent in the history of the two countries. The people who lived in that period suffered a lot. <Hong Gildong jeon> and < Water Margin> are novels about righteous thieves and these novels showed us the lives of the people who lived in that period vividly. These two novels are seeking idealism against the institutions of royal power and the irrationality of that day, and they are well represented in the theory of migration. Although the country and the social background of the two novels are different, migration has shared a common desire to reform the social stigma of the time. Although many scholars from Korea and China have conducted many comparative studies between <Hong Gildong jeon> and <Water Margin>, there is still no research on the migration process contained in the novel. Therefore, this paper aims to make a comparative study between <Hong Gildong jeon> and < Water Margin> focus on the migration theory. This study intends to analyze the process of Hong Gildong and Song Jiang’s fighting against the irrational social system and pursuing an Utopia in the society of their time to shed light on the miserable lives of the people of their time who are exposed in their migrant lives. And to show the real reason about why they had to live in pain.