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UnitedStatesArmyReform intheearly20thCentury: StalemateandRegressionPeriod(1904-1909)

In Hyo Seol 1

1연세대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

United States had had unique tradition of supporting local volunteer militia and avoiding large scale standing army.‘The Anti-Military Tradition’had prevailed since colonial time till the early 20th century. After experiencing the record increase in economic power and population, United States had changed in large scale in all aspects, and it finally turned from ‘the isolation of the agricultural republic’ to become‘ an empire true to the name’ especially after the advent of Mckinley administration and Spanish American War. United States Army Reform became possible when the new political groups who recognized the new status of their country cooperated with the reform minded officer corps having been raised after the Civil War. Although the reform between 1899 and 1903 had accomplished a set of institutional changes which had been impossible before for almost 100years, it was the results of a series of heavy compromises with opposing groups, so it had many limits and problems influencing the following implementation period.The period from 1904 to 1909 was recorded as a period of‘stalemate and regression’. First of all the reform had itsown vulnerabilityandlimitation resulting from much compromises.Second,the reform group was not fully formed enough to support the implementation of the reform. Finally and most importantly, the opposition against the reform was consistently high because the long tradition still persisted. Under these circumstances, reform was stagnantand regressed in all areas including there gulararmy and general staffr eform, and the national guard reform. Consequently, the stalemate and regression period of US Army Reform in the early 20th century shows well the difficulties of implementation of reform especially when the strong tradition against reform exists in one society.

Citation status

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