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A contrastive study of Korean and Japanese dialect contact  -focusing on negative polarity items-

  • Journal of Japanese Culture
  • 2019, (82), pp.141-162
  • DOI : 10.21481/jbunka..82.201908.141
  • Publisher : The Japanese Culture Association Of Korea (Jcak)
  • Research Area : Humanities > Japanese Language and Literature
  • Received : June 30, 2019
  • Accepted : August 5, 2019
  • Published : August 31, 2019

Park Kanghun 1

1전주대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

This study clarifies the syntactic features of the negative polarity items (NPIs) pakk-ey/ppwun-i ‘only’ in Korean and sika/hoka ‘only’ in Japanese from the viewpoint of dialect contact. These expressions have been treated as similar expressions previously in that they have a semantically restrictive meaning and function as syntactically negative polarity items. In addition, these expressions are similar in that they have an opposing relationship such as ‘standard language (pakk-ey/sika) vs. dialect (ppwun-i/hoka)’. However, this study found that these Korean and Japanese expressions are not similar, on the basis of the following six syntactic environments: whether they can (i) occur in negative constructions only, (ii) occur in multiple negative polarity item constructions, (iii) occur in adversative constructions, (iv) be attached to various items such as postpositions or adverbs, (v) occur in a negative imperatives, and (vi) be attached to nouns without the requirement of the genitive case particle ‘uy/no’. Japanese sika and hoka have mutual distribution, unlike Korean pakk-ey/ppwun-i. In fact, in modern Japanese, sika is more grammaticalized as an NPI, whereas hoka is undergoing degrammaticalization unlike Korean pakk-ey/ppwun-i. In the search for the cause of these differences between the two languages, although further research is needed, this study posits a hypothesis focusing on the differences between the Korean and Japanese language policy.

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