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Utilization of Cotton Stalks-Biomass Waste in the Production of Carbon Adsorbents by KOH Activation for Removal of Dye-Contaminated Water

  • Carbon Letters
  • Abbr : Carbon Lett.
  • 2010, 11(3), pp.231-241
  • Publisher : Korean Carbon Society
  • Research Area : Natural Science > Natural Science General > Other Natural Sciences General

Nady A. Fathy 1 Badie S Girgis 1 Lila B. Khalil 1 Joseph Y. Farah 1

1National Research Centre

Candidate

ABSTRACT

Four activated carbons were produced by two-stage process as followings; semi-carbonization of indigenous biomass waste,i.e. cotton stalks, followed by chemical activation with KOH under various activation temperatures and chemical ratios of KOH to semi-carbonized cotton stalks (CCS). The surface area, total pore volume and average pore diameter were evaluated by N2-adsorption at 77 K. The surface morphology and oxygen functional groups were determined by SEM and FTIR, respectively. Batch equilibrium and kinetic studies were carried out by using a basic dye, methylene blue as a probe molecule to evaluate the adsorption capacity and mechanism over the produced carbons. The obtained activated carbon (CCS-1K800) exhibited highly microporous structure with high surface area of 950 ㎡/g, total pore volume of 0.423 ㎤/g and average pore diameter of 17.8 Å. The isotherm data fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm with monolayer adsorption capacity of 222 mg/g for CCS-1K800. The kinetic data obtained at different concentrations were analyzed using a pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion equations. The pseudo-second-order model fitted better for kinetic removal of MB dye. The results indicate that such laboratory carbons could be employed as low cost alternative to commercial carbons in wastewater treatment

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