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Effect of electron beam irradiation on durian-peel-based activated carbon for phenol removal

  • Carbon Letters
  • Abbr : Carbon Lett.
  • 2023, 33(4), pp.1161-1170
  • DOI : 10.1007/s42823-023-00484-5
  • Publisher : Korean Carbon Society
  • Research Area : Natural Science > Natural Science General > Other Natural Sciences General
  • Received : October 26, 2022
  • Accepted : February 19, 2023
  • Published : June 1, 2023

Igbmno Major Jane 1 Khalid Mohammad 1 Raju Gunasunderi 2 Mubarak Nabisab Mujawar 3 Walvekar Rashmi 4 Ratnam Chantara Thevy 5 Chaudhary Vishal 6 Rani Gokana Mohana 7

1Sunway University
2School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia
3Universiti Teknologi Brunei
4Xiamen University Malaysia
5Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia)
6Bhagini Nivedita College University of Delhi
7National Taiwan University of Science and Technology

Accredited

ABSTRACT

This study investigated durian (Durio zibethinus) peels to produce powdered activated carbon (DPAC). The influence of process variables such as carbonization temperature, activation time, contact time, CO2 flow rate, and adsorption dosage was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A six-factor and two levels Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the parameters. The independent variables were activation temperature (°C), duration (min), CO2 flow rate during the activation process (L/min), irradiation of adsorbent (kGy), irradiation duration (min), and adsorbent dosage (g) while phenol removal (mg/L) was the dependent variable (response). Following the observed correlation coefficient values, the design was fitted to a quadratic model (R2 = 0.9896). The optimal removal efficiency (97.25%) was observed at an activation temperature of 900 °C, activation time of 30 min, CO2 flow rate of 0.05 L/min, irradiation dose of 100 kGy, contact time of 35 min and adsorption dosage of 0.75 g. The optimal DPAC showed a BET surface of 281.33 m2/g. The removal efficiency was later compared with a commercially available activated carbon which shows a 98.56% phenol removal. The results show that the durian peel could be an effective precursor for making activated carbon for phenol removal, and irradiation can significantly enhance surface activation.

Citation status

Scopus Citation Counts (1) This is the result of checking the information with the same ISSN, publication year, volume, and start page between articles in KCI and the SCOPUS journals. (as of 2023-10-01)

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