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Zero-dimensional model for the prediction of carbon nanotube (CNT) growth region in heterogeneous methane-flame environment

  • Carbon Letters
  • Abbr : Carbon Lett.
  • 2023, 33(7), pp.2199-2210
  • DOI : 10.1007/s42823-023-00579-z
  • Publisher : Korean Carbon Society
  • Research Area : Natural Science > Natural Science General > Other Natural Sciences General
  • Received : January 29, 2023
  • Accepted : June 8, 2023
  • Published : December 1, 2023

Zainal Muhammad Thalhah 1 Hamzah Norikhwan 2 Abdul Wahid Mazlan 2 Kamaruzaman Natrah 2 Chong Cheng Tung 3 Ani Mohd Hanafi 4 Amzin Shokri 5 Das Tarit 2 Mohd Yasin Mohd Fairus 2

1High Speed Reacting Flow Laboratory (HiREF), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Malaysia
2Department of Thermo-Fluids, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Malaysia
3China-UK Low Carbon College, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Lingang, Shanghai, 201306, China
4Department of Manufacturing and Materials, Kuliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, P. O. Box 10, 50728, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
5Department of Mechanical and Marine Engineering, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences (HVL), N5020, Bergen, Norway

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The conventional multi-scale modelling approach that predicts carbon nanotube (CNT) growth region in heterogeneous flame environment is computationally exhaustive. Thus, the present study is the first attempt to develop a zero-dimensional model based on existing multi-scale model where mixture fraction z and the stoichiometric mixture fraction are employed to correlate burner operating conditions and CNT growth region for diffusion flames. Baseline flame models for inverse and normal diffusion flames are first established with satisfactory validation of the flame temperature and growth region prediction at various operating conditions. Prior to developing the correlation, investigation on the effects of on CNT growth region is carried out for 17 flame conditions with of 0.05 to 0.31. The developed correlation indicates linear ( =1.54 +0.11) and quadratic ( = (7-13 )) models for the and corresponding to the low and high boundaries of mixture fraction, respectively, where both parameters dictate the range of CNT growth rate (GR) in the mixture fraction space. Based on the developed correlations, the CNT growth in mixture fraction space is optimum in the flame with medium-range conditions between 0.15 and 0.25. The stronger relationship between growth-region mixture-fraction (GRMF) and at the near field region close to the flame sheet compared to that of the far field region away from the flame sheet is due to the higher temperature gradient at the former region compared to that of the latter region. The developed models also reveal three distinct regions that are early expansion, optimum, and reduction of GRMF at varying .

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