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A novel integrated microbial and laccase-anchored carbon catalyst system for the effective treatment of toxic organic and recalcitrant-rich municipal landfill leachate

  • Carbon Letters
  • Abbr : Carbon Lett.
  • 2024, 34(5), pp.1453-1470
  • DOI : 10.1007/s42823-024-00706-4
  • Publisher : Korean Carbon Society
  • Research Area : Natural Science > Natural Science General > Other Natural Sciences General
  • Received : July 12, 2023
  • Accepted : February 20, 2024
  • Published : June 14, 2024

Uddin Maseed 1 Sriram Sri Swarna 2 Krishna Kishore 2 Sekar Karthikeyan 3 Kandasamy Ramani 2

1ndustrial and Environmental Sustainability Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, School of Bioengineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur
2Industrial and Environmental Sustainability Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, School of Bioengineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur
3Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu

Accredited

ABSTRACT

Municipal landfill leachate (MLL) contamination in surface water is a critical global issue due to the high concentration of toxic organics and recalcitrants. The biological treatment of MLL is ineffective due to an elevated concentration of ammoniacal nitrogen, which restricts the production of the recalcitrant degrading laccase enzyme. In this context, integrating an external laccase-anchored carbon catalyst (LACC) matrix system with the microbial system could be an efficient strategy to overcome the drawbacks of conventional biological MLL treatment technologies. In the present study, the LACC matrix was synthesized by utilizing nanoporous activated carbon (NAC) functionalized ethylene diamine (EDA) and glutaraldehyde (GA) (GA/EDA/NAC) matrix for the anchoring of laccase. The maximum anchoring capacity of laccase onto GA/EDA/NAC was achieved to be 139.65 U/g GA/EDA/NAC at the optimized anchoring time, 60 min; pH, 5; temperature, 30 °C, and mass of GA/EDA/NAC, 300 mg and was confirmed by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses. Further, the mechanistic study revealed the involvement of covalent bonding in the anchoring of laccase onto the functionalized surface of the GA/EDA/NAC matrix. The adsorption isotherm and kinetics of laccase anchoring onto the GA/EDA/NAC matrix were performed to evaluate its field-level application. Subsequently, the sequential microbial system (I-stage bacterial treatment followed by II-stage fungal treatment) and III-stage LACC matrix system could effectively reduce the COD by 94.2% and phenol by 92.36%. Furthermore, the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry (GC–MS) and FT-IR analyses confirmed the effective degradation of organic compounds and recalcitrants by the integrated microbial and LACC matrix system. The study suggested that the application of the LACC matrix system has resulted in the complete treatment of real-time MLL by overcoming the negative interference of elevated ammoniacal nitrogen concentration. Thus, the integrated microbial and LACC matrix approach could be considered to effectively treat the MLL without any secondary pollution generation.

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