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The Discourse Topography of 1964 : Anti-Communism, Nationalism, Democracy, Liberalism, and Developmentism

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ABSTRACT

1964 was the year when the discourse struggle to monopolize the causes of nationalism and modernization broke out between the Republican Party based on Anti-Communism & Developmentism and dissident groups based on democracy & progressive nationalism. As a result, the discourse topograhpy was overally being changed. Sa-sang-gye was changing, and Cheong-Maek based on progressive nationalism was founded and began to have influence on intellectual society. Although, as lats as in 1964, counter-discourses based on liberalism/democracy appeared in Sa-sang-gye, dissident groups' main thesis was shifted from democracy to nationalism. Around 1964, Sa-sang-gye camp took part in discourse struggle surrouding nationalism. And it also was the case that counter-discourse groups' nationalism was thought as anti-imperialism/anti-colonialism linked with national liberation campaign. Cheong-Maek was the main medium of that kind of discourse. Meanwhile, the sprout of the debate between engagement literature and pure literature first appeared in literary field of 1964, which was the phenomenon pararrel to the differentiation of intellectuals. It was the year when Kim Seung-Ok seriously started his career as a writer writing Mujin-Gihaeng, and it can be argued that the advent of 4‧19 generation writers represented by Kim Seung-Ok proved that the role of liberalism in korea was changed from ideology of pro-modernization intelligentia to intellectual soil of ‘new intellectuals’. And it was also the year when progressive nationalist camp was formed in literary domain.

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