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The Strategy of King Uija and the Actuality of the Hwangsanbeol Battle

Seo Jeong Seog 1

1공주대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The Hwangsanbeol Battle was one of the decisive battles as well as the Gwansanseong(管山城) and Baekchongang River(白村江) Battles. However, it is unclear where the exact place was, why the Baekje chose it for the last battle field, how the Baekje could win the battle four times although they had only one tenths of soldiers against the Silla soldiers, and why the battle ended in the defeat of the Baekje, finally. Therefore, this study reenacted the Hwangsanbeol Battle from historic records and close considerations of the background. The best military strategy that King Uija(義慈王) of Baekje could establish was the prolonged war obstructing the Silla Dynasty and Tang(唐), China Combined Forces when the Baekje came under attack by the Combined Silla and Tang Forces in July, 660. The loyalists Seongchung(成忠) and Heungsu(興首) suggested that the enemy should not capture the Tanhyeon(炭峴) and Baekgang River(白江) to make this strategy a success. However, the Tang(唐) Forces already occupied the Baekgang River, and the Silla passed already the Tanhyeon while the Baekje was discussing and finding the best solution. This resulted that the Baekje should make a new strategy, so the Hwangsanbeol Battle was brought out. The Hwangsanbeol Field is estimated as the area around the Gaetaesa Temple(開泰寺) in Yeonsan(連山), Nonsan City(論山市), and this area was formed by tectonics valley including Hwangsan Mountain(黃山). The topographical feature of this area could make it possible for the Baekje to keep off the enemy although the Silla soldiers numbered ten times more than the Baekje's. This was the main reason why the General Gyebaek(階伯) of Baekje chose this area for the last battle field. Three units of the Silla Calvary Forces were supposed to attack the Three Military Camps(三營) of the Baekje infantry at one time, and then individual Camps, separately. Four times attacks of the Silla ended in failure. And the Silla infantry finally took the ultimate attack against the Baekje. The last battle resulted the final defeat of the Baekje despite the prior victories of four battles against the Silla.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.