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A Review of the occupation of Gyeongbokgung(景福宮) by Japanese military from the military historical view in the period of Sino-Japanese War

KyeoungLok Kim 1

1국방부군사편찬연구소

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The Sino-Japanese War(淸日戰爭 : 1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895) was broken out between the Qing Dynasty and Japan, in primarily order to control of Joseon. After more than six months of continuous successes by Japanese army and naval forces and the loss of the Qing's port of Weihaiwei(威海衛), the Qing leadership sued for peace with Japan in February 1895. The study of the existing academic materials on The Sino-Japanese War and Donhak Peasant War(東學農民戰爭) was political, diplomatic history centered on one side. There exists a limitation that military aspects of battle is overlooked. This study was on the analysis of the Sino-Japanese war from the military point of view, and on the research for Japanese army's process of deployment. Japan was stepping up its military power by the reorganization of a military system since Meiji restoration(明治維新). After Gapsin Coup(甲申政變) in Choseon, Japan started to think Qing in all as a potential enemies and to strengthen the military power, especially naval forces. When Donhak Peasant War was break out, the Japanese government decided that the Japanese army(混成 第9旅團 : a 9th mixed brigade) was dispatched to the territory of Choseon. On the 30th of May the Japanese government made it clear that it would deploy its troops to Choseon if the Qing dynasty decided to send its forces to the same area, Choseon. The deployment of force was expected to suppress the Donghak peasant forces and secure Japan's exclusive control over Choseon by carrying out the reform of its internal affairs. Choseon Dynasty immediately denounced Japan's dispatch and requested for withdrawal of troops out of the country. Japanese military forces occupied Gyeongbokgung(景福宮) and hold king Ko-jong(高宗) as a hostage, and Japanese government made the pro-Japanese party take power to reform of Choseon's domestic political systems. The Japanese government insisted that the occupation of Gyeongbokgung by its military forces would be only as a response to the Joseon army provocation of war. These historical events showed the policy of the Japanese government toward Choseon. On the crisis of the country, Donghak peasant army rose in arms against theJapanese army. To conclude, the deployment of Japan's military forces to Choseon is thoroughly prepared beforehand according to the elaborated plan and they started a war, and consequently had forcibly occupied the Choseon dynasty.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.