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Bergson and Deleuze -Two Different Logics beyond Correlationism by the Name of Empiricism-

  • Journal of Humanities
  • 2018, (69), pp.199-222
  • DOI : 10.31310/HUM.069.07
  • Publisher : Institute for Humanities
  • Research Area : Humanities > Other Humanities
  • Received : April 9, 2018
  • Accepted : May 16, 2018
  • Published : May 31, 2018

Arum LEE 1

1성균관대학교 철학과

Accredited

ABSTRACT

In the thoughts of Bergson and Deleuze, we can find a new ontological thesis in terms of duration and difference. To maintain the ontology of becoming, it needs to show that we still can think the things beyond the phenomenon which appear to us. Since Kant set limits on what we can know, it has been thought impossible to think the thing itself beyond the subjective transcendental condition for all constitutions of our experience. However, especially by criticizing the transcendental form of sensibility, Bergson suggests that there are parts which coincide with the external reality in our perception. Considering our proper duration as an internal form for experience, we can think the sources of experience which appears to us as quality — the sources which are durations different from that of our inner life. Bergson defines this kind of metaphysical method to grasps the external duration as the intuition, which makes possible “the integral experience”. The logic of Deleuze to go beyond the wall of what is defined as correlationism to seek for the possibility of ontological speculation is quite different from that of Bergson. He shows that the condition of experience constructed by the accord of different cognitive transcendental faculties – sensibility, imagination and understanding – is not the only condition for all possible experience. As we can see in the later philosophy of Kant, free accords are possible between transcendental faculties. For example, when we encounter something sublime, our sensibility matches directly with the reason which is the faculty to figure out the thing itself. It transcends its limit by forcing us to think something which makes our experience possible. By the transcendent exercise of faculty, superior empiricism or transcendental empiricism can be possible — empiricism which makes us think something to generate our experience. Deleuze uses a special term “schizophrenia” to express the free accords or discordances between faculties which are not determined by concordance by the concept of understanding. In conclusion, Bergson and Deleuze show us that we are able to think things beyond phenomenon by reconsidering the conditions of our experience. That’s the reason why these philosophers open a new realm of metaphysical thoughts by the name of empiricism.

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