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Science and Technology ODA: Concepts and International Landscape

  • Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies
  • Abbr : JAPS
  • 2020, 27(4), pp.195-227
  • DOI : 10.18107/japs.2020.27.4.007
  • Publisher : Institute of Global Affairs
  • Research Area : Social Science > Social Science in general
  • Received : November 10, 2020
  • Accepted : December 14, 2020
  • Published : December 30, 2020

Bowon Chang 1 Youngja Bae 1

1건국대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

This study explores the concept and international landscape of science and technology ODA. In order for theoretical research of science and technology ODA, the process of its conceptual establishment in historical context and global landscape based on quantitative date should be analyzed. The results of this study are summarized in the following two. First, Technical Assistance(TA), which emerged for political purposes since the 1950s, triggered international aid activities and expanded its appearance to the extent that it would be used as synonyms for ODA. Then as functional aspect of science and technology have been emphasized in development cooperation, it has changed to a new concept of science and technology ODA by adapting to international aid norms. Thus it is necessary to understand the flow and interrelationship of Technical Assistance, ODA, and science and technology ODA. The modern science and technology ODA emphasizes the expertise of science and technology as it was intended in the early stages of TA, but the political bias of TA is excluded. Second, the national science and technology ODA revealed the differences from the overall ODA. DAC countries show different patterns for the overall ODA and science and technology ODA, and it identified countries that were relatively focused on science and technology ODA. Australia, Canada, Korea, Iceland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Britain, and France were found to have relatively high levels of science and technology ODA support. Considering the international political meaning of aid, the top donor countries of science and technology ODA seem to be strategically carrying out science and technology ODA, which is increasing the explanatory power of countries’ aid actions in the existing aid discussions.

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