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Unraveling the Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Underemployment A Machine Learning Approach

  • Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies
  • Abbr : JAPS
  • 2023, 30(1), pp.179-203
  • DOI : 10.18107/japs.2023.30.1.006
  • Publisher : Institute of Global Affairs
  • Research Area : Social Science > Social Science in general
  • Received : November 9, 2022
  • Accepted : March 15, 2023
  • Published : March 30, 2023

Yun-Young Kyung 1 CIN BEOM CHEOL 2 Young-Seok Lee 3 Tae-Hyun Lee 4

1성균관대학교 경제학과
2경기대학교
3경기연구원
4고려대학교 심리학부

Accredited

ABSTRACT

This paper uses the job competition theory to explore causes and procedures of underemployment by adapting structural aspects of the labor market. The paper empirically investigates determinants of underemployment by employing random forests. It pays a special attention to self-esteem as a key variable to determine whether or not the labor force status is that of underemployment. For the empirical analyses, a dataset of Youth Panel 2007(YP2007) is utilized, ranging from the 5th to 12th dataset. Methods and results of the analyses are as follows. Random forests take 84 independent variables into account including individual characteristics, personal background, types of jobs, job-search experience, and self-esteem. As a result, a model 1 for underemployment based on education is created, with 94% accuracy, 92% sensitivity, and 96% specificity. A model 2 for underemployment based on technology levels is also created with 93% accuracy, 92% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. Both models find that there is high variable importance such as lists of industrial occupations, business locations, monthly average income, along with self-esteem variables. To conclude, the analysis of random forests finds that self-esteem is predictive in determining underemployment. This paper considers the main determinant of underemployment with particular interest as self-esteem, which is an integral, albeit overlooked explanatory variable. As the result found that high self-esteem plays a key role to appropriate job transitions, methods for education in improving self-esteem are needed. Timely education is incredibly important. Self-esteem is shaped in the teenage years and from young and preschool periods. Once formed, self-esteem tends to be resistant to change. Also, the process of molding and forming self-esteem is influenced by environments around the person. Therefore, targets for education should be broadened into - not to mention young children - surrounding people including parents and teachers. Further research is needed to explore the specific path of how levels of self-esteem affects preparation procedures for jobs and closely analyze how levels of self-esteem influence career outcomes.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.