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Characters and Meanings on the Painting for Cold Diminution, Gugusohwan-do -­Based on the Collection of the Woodblock Prints Museum in the Myungjusa Temple­-

JANG, JANG-SIK 1 정부용 2

1국립민속박물관
2가천대학교

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ABSTRACT

The painting for cold diminution, gugusohwan-do originated from the folk custom of the northern Asia that represents eighty one days which nine days as a unit repeat nine times from dongji(winter solstice). People believed that spring comes after passing eighty one days. The custom called 'sugu' starts from 19 end in 99, which reflects on 'song of eighty one days, gugu-ga' and 'painting for cold diminution, gugusohwan-do'. The song was already popular among peoples in various areas before Tang(唐) and Song(宋) dynasties. In some places, the lyric of the song was modified pursuant to the climate condition and ecological environment. It has been presumed that it was passed down from the northen Asian custom in that the song reflected on the hydraulic system and climate condition of the northern nomads in its forms and contents. The song, gugu-ga, based on the 'sugu' custom, had developed into the 'hwagu, drawing the number nine, and the 'sagu', copying the number nine' throughout Ming and Qing(明淸) dynasties and had produced the painting, 'gugusohwan-do' later on. It can be categorized into the painting with Japanese apricot flowers, the chart pattern of painting and the number nine character style of the painting. In the other way, different types of poetry have evolved on the concept of nine times nine. Also, the form of printing has been varied with an arbitrary transforming. The painting is a visual culture medium of folk knowledge converged with the psychiatric evaluation on solar term, calendar, geography and object. Even though it began from the extravagance, it is basically based on dongji(winter solstice) of lunar calendar. The painting is not only for the way of counting number but also for seasonal custom reflecting the perspective of calendar and climate culture implicating nature meterological phenomena. It has effect on both seasonal magical and extravagance, which is correspondent to climate prediction based on experience and interpretation as well as augural practice. In this sense, the painting was used and circulated widely by manufacturing painting blocks. What it was commercially circulated means that it characterized as annual painting on dongji(winter solstice) custom. It was popularized regardless of status to achieve human wishes. Therefore, it still, although partially, continues as one of seasonal customs in both royal court and commoners.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.