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The Creation and Literature World of Buddhist Sosangpalgyeong in the Chosun Dynasty

  • Korean Language & Literature
  • 2019, (111), pp.35-77
  • DOI : 10.21793/koreall.2019.111.35
  • Publisher : Korean Language & Literature
  • Research Area : Humanities > Korean Language and Literature
  • Received : October 26, 2019
  • Accepted : December 16, 2019
  • Published : December 31, 2019

Seong-woon, Ha 1

1고려대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

As far as Sosangpalgyeong of Korean Buddhism goes, not much is known beyond the work by Cheonbong Manwu from Sejong era. Thus, this article intends to discover new Sosangpalgyeong works of Korean Buddhism that has not been known so far, and organize and analyze them in overall context. The analysis of each individual work had to be postponed for another time. In overall context, Sosangpalgyeong of Korean Buddhism can be organized as follows. First, this article has discovered 18 works by Woljeo Doahn (月渚道安, 1638~1715), 9 works by Seolahm Chubung (雪巖秋鵬, 1651~1706), 8 works by Donggye Gyeongil (東溪敬一, 1636~1695), 8 works by Wolpa Taeyul (月波兌律, 1695~?), 8 works by Euiryong Chehun (義龍體訓, circa 1822~circa 1895), and 1 work by Geummyeong Bojeong (錦溟寶鼎, 1861~1930). As the result, the Sosangpalgyeong poetry has been known to be 456 works by 62 authors, but at this time, it was expanded to 505 works by 69 persons. Moreover, Sosangpalgyeong of Korea has been considered exclusive to Confucian scholars. At this time, however, this discovery was able to confirm that Sosangpalgyeong in Korea had deep roots in Buddhism as well. The overview of the authors and works of Sosangpalgyeong of Joseon-era Buddhism is as follows. First, as for Sosangpalgyeong of early Joseon era, there is only Cheonbong Manwu (千峯 卍雨, 1357~?) who was active in Sejong era. He left 8 works of Sosangpalgyeong in the exchanges with Anpyeongdaegun and other Jiphyeonjeon scholars. His Sosangpalgyeong was made according to the order of works by Yeongjong of Namsong era, with poetry like a painting. And his work appeared Confucian rather than Buddhist. Most of Buddhist Sosanpalgyeong was made in the late Joseon era. First, Sosangpalgyeong was connected by teacher-student relations of Woljeo Doahn (月渚道安, 1638~1715), Seolahm Chubung (雪巖秋鵬, 1651~1706), and Heojeong Beopjong (虛靜 法宗, 1670~1733). Seolahm learned from Woljeo, and Heojeong learned from Woljeo and Seolahm. They all left Sosangpalgyeong poetry. Woljeo and Seolahm made 7律詩 with the same rhyming character, and Heojeong made 7絶句 with a different rhyming character. Woljeo Doahn (月渚 道安, 1638~1715) used the same rhyming character for each tense, leaving 2 works each, total of 16 works. Sosangpalgyeong of Woljeo all came from Confucian-Buddhist exchanges, and the poetic style was descriptive and transcendental. Seolahm Chubung (雪巖 秋鵬, 1651~1706) left 9 works following Sosangpalgyeong by Woljeo. Seolahm had the unworldly poetic style like Woljeo. The expression technique was descriptive like Woljeo, but had the characteristics of raising poetic esprit by using a lot of images. Heojeong Beopjong (虛靜 法宗, 1670~1733) was the student inheriting Woljeo and Seolahm, leaving 8 works of Sosangpalgyeong. He, however, did not follow the poetic cues of his teacher's Sosangpalgyeong, but created using other poetic cues while exchanging with Confucian scholars. His Sosangpalgyeong implicitly expressed the poetic subject, unlike the detailed descriptions of his teachers. Next, Donggye Gyeongil (東溪 敬一, 1636~1695), Wolpa Taeyul (月波 兌律, 1695~?), Euiryong Chehun (義龍 體訓, circa 1822 ~ circa 1895), and Geummyeong Bojeong (錦溟 寶鼎, 1861~1930) are Buddhist Sosangpalgyeong authors that has not been known so far. They were all Zennists who appears to have had exchanges with COnfucian scholars and made Sosangpalgyeong. They all had unique poetic styles. The 8 works of Sosangpalgyeong by Donggye Gyeongil from the late 17th century had a plain poetic style, and showed the tendency to formalize the work by using 典故 and 用事. The 8 works of Sosangpalgyeong by Wolpa Taeyul from the early 18th century had the novelty of attaching <Juksayawu> to <Sosangyawu>, and <Sansimojong> to <Yeonsamojong>. He had the characteristics of reproducing the scenery of Sosangpalgyeong by utilizing the imagery of vision and sound. The 8 works of Sosangpalgyeong by Euiryong Chehun from the late 19th century showed the characteristics of subjectively internalizing the poetic subject and embodying the Zennist stage. Geummyeong Bojeong from the 20th century left 1 work of <Wonpogwibeom> in 8 works of <西庵八勝>. This poetry is 禪機詩 for the state of reckoning outside the discernment prepossessed in our human consciousness through <Wonpogwibeom>. It can be evaluated as poetry that achieved the genuine Zennist stage with Sosangpalgyeong.

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