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הꕇוּצꗱ and בꔿꙺꗬ as YHWH epithet and their vocative use

Park Younghee 1

1연세대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

This study will investigate how the singers of the Psalms understood YHWH as reflected in the use of הꕇוּצꗱ and בꔿꙺꗬ epithets. After this, the manner and intention in which the singers used these epithets will be dealt with. In order to carry out these tasks effectively, a lexicographical study and syntax analysis will be used. Lexicographical study helps us to look at how words and expressions occur in the Bible. This paper uses such study tools to check the frequency of the occurrence of YHWH epithets in the Psalms, providing a lexicographical meaning and dictionary definition. Through this process, this paper will show that how they reflect the understanding of YHWH. In terms of syntax analysis, this study will investigate that theses epithets can be translated as vocatives in the verse, not noun sentences. In the Old Testament, Psalms witness to a greater number and variety of epithets for YHWH than any other book, and this proves that there were a diversity of understanding YHWH. The number of epithets directly reflects the degree to which the psalmist understands YHWH. Among these, YHWH epithet acting as a refuge is unique because it is Israel's own created metaphor, not being found elsewhere among Ancient Near Eastern countries. It seems to be influenced by Israel's geographical features which were in the hill country. And it is noteworthy that Israelites defined YHWH as an impersonal object and formed a unilateral relation with Him, not bilateral. The singers of the Psalms used YHWH epithets in the vocative mood in order to express what they expected from YHWH. This is because the vocative functions to identify and describe the listener, and to activate the listener to do something. The singers of the Psalms ask YHWH to be a refuge as the foundation of salvation by using the impersonal metaphorical epithets, and also clarify their own faith and will to go forward actively to YHWH.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.