본문 바로가기
  • Home

A Study on Giving Verbs ‘kureru’ and ‘kudasaru’: by Analyzing Dialogues of Female Speakers in Novels of the Edo Period, Meiji Period and the Taisho Period-

YANG JUNGSOON 1

1경희대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

This study aims to know word forms and usages according to personal relationships of ‘Kureru・Kudasaru’ by analyzing dialogues of female speakers. Novels of the Meiji period when there were attempts of a language revolution were mainly used for this study as well as novels of the Edo Period and the Taisho Period. Firstly, the number of examples according to gender differences in the novels was as follows. In case of ‘Kureru’, female speakers showed a high usage rate in the novels of the Edo period. ‘Kureru’ was mostly connected with female languages such as ‘Naharu’, ‘Namasu’, ‘Nansu’. These expressions were not used in the novels of the Meiji Period and the Taisho Period. Although ‘Okureru’ and ‘Okurenasaru’ were used in the novels of the Meiji Period, the number of examples of 'Kureru’ by female speakers was decreased in the novels of the Meiji Period and the Taisho Period. ‘Kudasaru’ was predominantly used by female speakers. Especially, female speakers used clearly to show vertical relationships in the novels of the Edo Period and 『Doseishoseikatagi』of Meiji 10s. After『Ukigumo』, the usage rate of female speakers was decreased but the usage rate of male speakers was increased. Gender differences became gradually smaller. Female speakers in the novels were increased from geisha and relatives such as wife, sister, mother and children to young women, teacher and student. Aspects of benefactive verbs' usages could be summarized as follows. Female speakers at licensed quarters used clearer and more typical expressions according to vertical relationships and gender differences in the novels of The Edo Period than the novels of The Meiji Period and the Taisho Period. In the novels of the Meiji Period, female speakers in a sophisticated social group used benefactive verbs to show strong respect and concern for the other person. In the novels of the Taisho Period, female speakers used benefactive verbs to show respect and concern for the other person according to their areas of outside activities. In the novels of the Meiji Period, female speakers used ‘Okureru’ when the other person was younger than them and was socially and psychologically close to them. Also, ‘O~Nasaru’ which was one of respect expressions was used by female speakers. Female speakers used it to older people in the Edo period but they also used it to younger people in the Meiji Period. Examples were not shown in the novels of the Taisho Period. Usages of ‘Kureru’ ‘Kudasaru’ according to vertical relationships were as follows. If ‘a giver’ was an older person, ‘Kureru’ with respect expressions ‘Nasaru’ ‘Nansu’ ‘Namasu’ was used more than ‘Kudasaru’ in the novels of the Edo Period. However, many examples of 'Kudasaru' were shown on the novels of the Meiji Period and the Taisho period. In the novels of the Meiji Period, ‘Okureru’ and ‘Okurenasaru’ which were expressions included in ‘Kureru’ were shown. Female speakers used them to older people who were socially and psychologically close to them like family. There were not many examples of ‘a giver’ and ‘a receiver’ around the same age. However, ‘Kureru’ and ‘Okureru’ were used in a younger group and 'Kudasaru’ was used in an older group in the novels of the Meiji Period. If ‘a giver’ was an younger person, ‘Kureru’ was mainly used in the novels of the Edo period and 『Doseishoseikatagi』in Meiji 10s. However, ‘Kudasaru’ was used many times in the novels of the latter Meiji Period and the Taisho Period.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.

This paper was written with support from the National Research Foundation of Korea.